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An algorithm for piano pedagogy through MIDI protocol and computer software
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An algorithm for piano pedagogy through MIDI protocol and computer software

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6 March 2010 (Saturday) | 11:50 - 12:10 | http://citers2010.cite.hku.hk/abstract/53 | CHENG, Lee; HKU

6 March 2010 (Saturday) | 11:50 - 12:10 | http://citers2010.cite.hku.hk/abstract/53 | CHENG, Lee; HKU

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An algorithm for piano pedagogy through MIDI protocol and computer software Presentation Transcript

  • 1. An Algorithm for Piano Pedagogy through MIDI Protocol and Computer Software Lee Cheng The University of Hong Kong leecheng@hku.hk CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 2. Introduction What IT have we been using in Music Education? CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 3. Introduction What IT have we been using in other subjects? CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 4. Introduction How about Piano Pedagogy? It tells you when to play the notes. Students cannot learn rhythms! What about Dynamics? Phrasing? Tempo? CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 5. How the Computer Interpret Music? Note - Number (C4 = 60, C#4 = 61, etc) Time - Timestamp (1st beat = 0s, 2nd beat = 3s, 3rd beat = 6s, etc) Dynamics - Velocity (f/forte = 90, mf/mezzo forte = 60) Duration - Timestamp from NoteOn to NoteOff (NoteOn at 3s, NoteOff at 7.5s, Duration = 4.5s) CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 6. The Problem Pianist have different tempo (speed) with the score. How can the computer know where the pianist is playing? CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 7. The Algorithm for Piano Pedagogy An integrated algorithm including: Longest Common Music Subsequence (LCMS) Algorithm (for music-to-score alignment) Note Correctness Tempo Change Phrasing Dynamic Change CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 8. LCMS Algorithm Derived from Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) algorithm. function LCS (X[1..m], Y[1..n]) func%on  LCMS  (X[1..m],  Y[1..n]) C = array[0..m,0..n] C = array[0..m,0..n] for i := 0..m for i := 0..m C[i,0] = 0 C[i,0] = 0 for j := 0..n for j := 0..n C[0,j] = 0 C[0,j] = 0 for i := 1..m for i := 1..m for j := 1..n for j := 1..n if X[i] = Y[j] for k := 0..9 C[i,j] := C[i-1,j-1] + 1 if X[i].note[0] = Y[j]note[k] else C[i,j] := C[i-1,j-1] + 1 C[i,j] := max(C[i,j-1], C[i-1,j]) break return C[m,n] C[i,j] := max(C[i,j-1], C[i-1,j]) return C[m,n] CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 9. LCMS Algorithm The function of LCS algorithm: Seq. 1: ABCFEGFDE Seq.2: ABCEAFDE LCS(Seq.1, Seq2): ABCEFDE What is more for LCMS algorithm: Handle chords i.e. more than one elements at the same time A D G FEDBCBGABE D G C CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 10. Note Correctness Playing the right note? Playing at the right time? Playing for the right duration? CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 11. Tempo Change Global Tempo Change Pianist’s self-assigned tempo vs. Tempo listed on score Tempo Consistence Is the pianist playing at the same tempo throughout the piece? Check the timestamp of music against the score CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 12. Phrasing Is a note played within the acceptable time range? Is a note played harder/softer than the previous note? Dynamic Change Is the piece played at the acceptable dynamic range? Is a phrase played harder/softer than the previous phrase? CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 13. Trial Implementation CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 14. Conclusion It is possible to learn elementary piano playing through computer means. For advanced level of piano learning, more to consider: Style, interpretation of score, etc Implementation in school music lesson? Venue change from music room to computer room Every computer to have MIDI keyboard equipped CITE Research Symposium 2010
  • 15. End CITE Research Symposium 2010