The Bureaucracy

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PowerPoint for Bureaucracy lectures for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Spring 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

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The Bureaucracy

  1. 1. The Bureaucracy Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. What is a bureaucracy? <ul><li>Bureaucracy and bureaucrat are neutral terms, describe a type of organization and the people who work in it . </li></ul><ul><li>Connotations – unlearn what you have learned… </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overall, what is your opinion about the performance of the federal bureaucracy? <ul><li>Bureaucrats are generally incompetent </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucrats are generally well-trained and capable </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know </li></ul>
  4. 6. Bureaucracy A large organization in which people with specialized knowledge are organized into a clearly defined hierarchy of bureaus and offices, each of which has a specified mission .
  5. 7. The Weberian Model of Bureaucracy
  6. 8. The five characteristics of bureaucracy: <ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Formal rules </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of files and records </li></ul><ul><li>Professionalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merit vs. cronyism </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. The five characteristics of bureaucracy: <ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Formal rules </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of files and records </li></ul><ul><li>Professionalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merit vs. cronyism </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. The five characteristics of bureaucracy: <ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Formal rules </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of files and records </li></ul><ul><li>Professionalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merit vs. cronyism </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. The five characteristics of bureaucracy: <ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Formal rules </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of files and records </li></ul><ul><li>Professionalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merit vs. cronyism </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. The five characteristics of bureaucracy: <ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Formal rules </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of files and records </li></ul><ul><li>Professionalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merit vs. cronyism </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. The Merit System <ul><li>Spoils System dominated the 19 th and (most of the) 20 th century bureaucracy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It’s not what you know, but who you know…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Merit System: people hired & promoted on basis of qualifications & job performance, not political connections. </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Merit System <ul><li>Spoils System dominated the 19 th and (most of the) 20 th century bureaucracy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It’s not what you know, but who you know…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Merit System: people hired & promoted on basis of qualifications & job performance, not political connections. </li></ul>
  13. 15. The Merit System <ul><li>Spoils System dominated the 19 th and (most of the) 20 th century bureaucracy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It’s not what you know, but who you know…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Merit System: people hired & promoted on basis of qualifications & job performance, not political connections. </li></ul>
  14. 16. During Spring Break I… <ul><li>Consumed too much of my substance of choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Hooked Up with a hottie. </li></ul><ul><li>Got a tattoo. </li></ul><ul><li>Choices 1, 2 & 3 – the Spring Break Trifecta! </li></ul><ul><li>Went on a mission trip. </li></ul><ul><li>Stayed home and watched bad T.V. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Remember (probably a good thing). </li></ul>
  15. 17. Bureaucracy Public agencies that translate the intent of democratic institutions into action.
  16. 18. Advantages?
  17. 19. 2
  18. 20. Ability to organize large tasks
  19. 21. Concentration of specialized talent
  20. 22. Disadvantages?
  21. 23. Efficiency vs. Responsiveness
  22. 24. The process of deciding what the laws passed by Congress actually mean is known as: <ul><li>rulemaking. </li></ul><ul><li>legislative interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>bureaucratic interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>bureaucratic discretion. </li></ul>
  23. 25. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Execution of laws </li></ul><ul><li>Rule-Making (Regulation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulemaking – the process of deciding exactly what the laws passed by Congress mean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule – statement by a federal agency that interprets a law and prescribes the specific action an agency will take to implement that law. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Execution of laws </li></ul><ul><li>Rule-Making (Regulation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulemaking – the process of deciding exactly what the laws passed by Congress mean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule – statement by a federal agency that interprets a law and prescribes the specific action an agency will take to implement that law. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Execution of laws </li></ul><ul><li>Rule-Making (Regulation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulemaking – the process of deciding exactly what the laws passed by Congress mean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule – statement by a federal agency that interprets a law and prescribes the specific action an agency will take to implement that law. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Rule-Making (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Administrative Procedures Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain minimum standards must be met when making rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest group participation </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Rule-Making (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Administrative Procedures Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain minimum standards must be met when making rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest group participation </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Rule-Making (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Administrative Procedures Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain minimum standards must be met when making rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest group participation </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers… </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers… </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers… </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers… </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Bureaucratic Lobbying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As the primary managers of policy, bureaucrats are in ideal positions to identify problems, limitations of existing laws, programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can recommend changes to the president and congressional committees. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. So what do bureaucrats do , exactly? <ul><li>Bureaucratic Lobbying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As the primary managers of policy, bureaucrats are in ideal positions to identify problems, limitations of existing laws, programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can recommend changes to the president and congressional committees. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. Structure of the Executive Branch
  36. 39. Executive Office of the White House
  37. 41. Cabinet Departments
  38. 44. Bureaus and Agencies
  39. 45. Government Corporations
  40. 46. Agencies which are created to be outside the Cabinet and tend to have more narrowly defined missions are known as: <ul><li>self-regulating agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>government corporations. </li></ul><ul><li>bureaus. </li></ul><ul><li>independent agencies. </li></ul>
  41. 47. Independent Executive Agencies
  42. 48. Independent Regulatory Commissions
  43. 50. The government should privatize more of the government’s activities. <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat </li></ul><ul><li>No opinion </li></ul>
  44. 51. Bureaucracy and the Benchmarks of Representative Democracy <ul><li>Popular Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Political Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Political Liberty </li></ul>

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