The Nature and State of Local Government


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Philippine Nature and State of Local Government

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The Nature and State of Local Government

  1. 1. The Nature and State of Local Government Discussant: RHOMIR S. YANQUILING Professor: Dr. Jo B. Bitonio DPA 102 Philippine Administrative System
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ It is better for a city to be governed by a good man than by good laws.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Discussion Overview <ul><li>Meaning and Nature of Local Governments </li></ul><ul><li>Layers of Local Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale for Local Government </li></ul><ul><li>Classification Systems of LGUs </li></ul><ul><li>Structures and Functions of Local Governments in the Philippines </li></ul>
  4. 4. Local Government as Territorial and Political Subdivisions <ul><li>By nature, local governments are subordinate entities, having no inherent powers and must look up to the higher governmental level for delegation of authority </li></ul><ul><li>Local governments are political subdivisions of a nation or state (United Nations Division for Public Administration) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Local governments are “parts” of the government of a nation or state of ‘a country” </li></ul><ul><li>Local governments are “geographic subdivisions”; or restricted geographic areas, dealing with those matters which concern the people living in a particular locality. ( International Union of Local Authorities) </li></ul><ul><li>Two important elements are found in any definition of local government: the presence of a higher authority and territorial boundary </li></ul>
  6. 6. Local Government as Legal Authorities Providing Services <ul><li>While local governments do not have inherent powers, they do have legal authority to exercise their powers </li></ul><ul><li>Constituted by law, they possess rights and the necessary organization to regulate their own affairs. (United Nations) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Layers of Local Authority <ul><li>Within subordinate local governments exists hierarchy of authority. Except in Switzerland and very few countries, there are at least two layers of local government (Humes and Martin, 1969): </li></ul><ul><li>* intermediate units of local government which coordinate services in a larger area and supervise lower levels of local authorities (e.g., provinces, counties, prefectures or special structures such as regional or metropolitan governments) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Layers of Local Authority <ul><li>* basic units of local government, those performing services for people who live together in a community (cities, municipalities, districts) </li></ul>* The existence of several layers of local governments in the Philippines may be attributed to its geographic peculiarities, centralist experience and the historical basis of its barangays
  9. 9. <ul><li>In a few countries, a lower and smaller form of local government constitutes the sub-municipal level, typified by the barangays in the Philippines, the parishes in the UK, and the mahalle in Turkey. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The International Union of Local Authorities (IULA) noted that the number of layers of local government depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>* geography </li></ul><ul><li>* number of basic units </li></ul><ul><li>* degree of centralization </li></ul><ul><li>* population </li></ul>
  11. 11. Local Governments as Municipal Corporations <ul><li>“ A municipal corporation is the body politic and corporate constituted by the incorporation of the inhabitants of a city or town for the purpose of local government thereof. Municipal corporations assist in the civil government of the country, chiefly to regulate and administer the local internal affairs of the city, town or district incorporated.” </li></ul><ul><li>---Judge Dillon as quoted by Sinco and Cortes </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>As municipal corporations, local governments have governmental and private functions. </li></ul><ul><li>The power to create municipal corporations “is inherent in sovereignty.” In the Philippines, the power is vested in the legislature. Thus Congress by law creates LGUs, although plebiscite among the affected residents is a pre-requisite before actual operation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rationale for Local Governments <ul><li>The local governments continue to exist because of the necessary functions they perform </li></ul><ul><li>According to Maas (1959), editor of Area and Power , local government is presented as a manner of dividing power by area or authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Ylvisaker stated that the existence of local government promotes liberty, equality and welfare </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Maddicks pointed out that the creation of local government units is “advantageous for the promotion of rural development” </li></ul><ul><li>Local governments are a means of providing self-identity, especially in ethnically homogenous communities </li></ul>
  15. 15. Classification of Local Government Systems <ul><li>Alderfer (1964) classifies local government systems into four basic types: the French , the English , the Soviet and the traditional </li></ul><ul><li>* French system- hierarchical and centralized </li></ul><ul><li>* English system- decentralized </li></ul><ul><li>* Soviet system- hierarchical but </li></ul><ul><li>decentralized and is led by one party </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The IULA classified seven (7) local government systems in terms of geography and culture: </li></ul><ul><li>* Anglo-Saxon Group- UK, Australia, Union of South Africa, Canada and US </li></ul><ul><li>* Central and Northwest Group- Germany, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg </li></ul><ul><li>* East Europe Group- Soviet Union, Poland, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li> South Europe Group- France, Italy, Greece, Spain and Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>* West Asia and North Africa Group- all Islamic countries, mostly Arab or Arab-influenced) </li></ul><ul><li>* South Asia and East Africa Group- India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Burma, Sudan and Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>* East Asia Group- Thailand, Philippines and Japan </li></ul>
  18. 18. Structures of LGUs in the Philippines <ul><li>The national government by law creates, merges or abolishes LGUs, endows them with powers within their jurisdictions and determines national-local government units. </li></ul><ul><li>While these local units may be created by law, the Local Government Code mandates that the residents of the areas affected by the creation should approve the measure in a plebiscite. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Criteria in the Creation of LGUs <ul><li>For the province: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land area: 2,000 sq. km. (to be certified by the LMB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population: at least 250,000 (to be certified by the NSO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income: at least 20 M (to be certified by the DOF) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>For the component city: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land area: at least100 sq. km. (to be certified by the LMB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population: at least 150,000 (to be certified by the NSO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income: at least 20 M (to be certified by the DOF) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>For the highly urbanized city: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land area: at least 50 sq. km. (to be certified by the LMB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population: at least 200,000 (to be certified by the NSO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income: at least 50 M (to be certified by the DOF) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>For the municipality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land area: at least 50 sq. km. (to be certified by the LMB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population: at least 25,000 (to be certified by the NSO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income: at least 2.5 M (to be certified by the DOF) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>For the barangay: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The only criterion is population of at least 2,000; provided that barangays in Metropolitan Manila should have a minimum population of 5,000. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Officials of LGUs <ul><li>Each local government unit has a set of executive and legislative officials </li></ul><ul><li>At the provincial level: Governor, Vice-Governor and the members of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan </li></ul><ul><li>At the municipal/city level: Mayor, Vice-Mayor and members of the Council (the Sangguniang Bayan and Sangguniang Panlungsod) </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>In addition to the elected officials, there are ex-officio members (local presidents of the league of barangays, presidents of the local federation of Sangguniang Kabataan, presidents of the federation of Sangguniang Members and three sectoral representatives (from women, workers and special sectors) </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Appointive officials in the LGUs are the Secretary to the Sanggunian, Treasurer, Assessor, Budget Officer, Civil Registrar, Administrator, Legal Officer, Agriculturist, Social Welfare and Development Officer, etc. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Services Rendered by the LGUs <ul><li>The following five (5) basic services are devolved to the LGU’s by the Local Government Code: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of public works and highways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Welfare </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Funds of LGU <ul><li>Main source of revenue is the internal revenue tax (IRA) </li></ul><ul><li>Local governments can impose real property tax and much depends on their assessments and collection efficiency. They also tax business </li></ul><ul><li>Cities and municipalities impose the amusement tax; even now barangay clearance are required for business permits </li></ul>
  29. 29. Special Local Government Units <ul><li>Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) (RA 6734) which would respond to the special needs in the predominantly Muslim areas. The region has its Governor, Assembly as well as a cabinet. Provinces covered include Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur, Basilan Province and Marawi City </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) (RA7924). It has a governing board that represents the 17 cities and municipalities. Included in the board are the Presidents of the Metro Manila Vice-Mayor’s League and Councilor’s League. The Chairman of the Board is a presidential appointee. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions performed by the MMDA include development planning, transportation and traffic management, solid waste disposal, flood control and sewerage management, urban renewal, health and sanitation, pollution control and public safety. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>Maas, Arthur, ed. Area and Power: A Theory of Local Government . Glencoe, III.: Free Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Tapales, Proserpina D. The Nature and State of Local Government . Public Administration in the Philippines: A Reader. ed by Bautista, et al. NCPAG-UP Diliman. 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization for National and Local Development : New York: United Nations Division for Public Administration. 1962 </li></ul>