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  1. 1.  Glucagonoma is a very rare tumor of the islet cells, exclusively localized in the Pancreas, which leads to an excess of the hormone glucagon in the blood. Glucagonoma originates from the Alpha 2 cells of the Pancreas.
  2. 2. (1) Viklund, A. (Photographer). (2009). Mouse islet of langerhans immunostained for glucagon. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from glucagon secreting pancreatic tumor(glucagonoma).
  3. 3.  There is no particular race specifications. The frequency in males and females is equal, although greater incidences are reported in females. The average age it effects people is 55 years old but has been seen between the ages of 19-84. Very rare- There has only been 2705 recorded cases of endocrine pancreatic tumors in the U.S. over a 28 year period ending on January 1, 2003. Glucagonoma with islet cell neoplasms accounting for only 1.3% of pancreatic cancer.
  4. 4.  Occurs exclusively in the Pancreas, but cancer cells can spread to the Liver. Rash on the Head Shoulders Knees And Toes Typically targets feet, abdomen, buttocks, face, and legs. But not until we say so.
  5. 5. (2, 3, 4) Jackson, L. (Photographer). (2009). Glucagonoma. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from crusty or scaly rash that occurs all over the body. It mayalso be raised sores or lesions filled with clear fluid or pus.
  6. 6.  The cause is unknown But, a family history of the syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type one, which is a tumor syndrome, is a risk factor
  7. 7.  Glucagon overproduction Diarrhea Excessive thirst Frequent urination Increase in appetite Inflamed mouth and tongue Night time urination Skin rash that comes and goes Unintentional weight loss High blood pressure Glucose intolerance Some cases lead to depression
  8. 8.  The cancer can spread to the liver High blood sugar levels can cause metabolic problems Tissue damage High rate of Thromboembolitic complications (blood clot) Pulmonary embolisms
  9. 9.  Surgery to remove the tumor Usually doesn’t respond to chemotherapy Currently, there are no drugs used to treat Glucagonoma Providing a supplemental protein supply in order to furnish amino acids is useful Administration of fatty acids and minerals is also useful
  10. 10.  Approximately 60% of tumors are malignant If it is contained in the pancreas, the person has approximately a 5 year survival rate of 85% Some patients live over 20 years without therapy if benign
  11. 11. (5,6) Martinez, I. (Photographer). (2005). Glucagonoma and necrolytic migratory erythema. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from 01082005000600008&script=sci_arttextSevere skin rash in a 54 year old male who also suffered from severe weight loss. The skin rash cleared within aweek after the operation and the patient remains free of disease at 38 months following surgery.
  12. 12. (7) McGevna, L. (Photographer). (2010). Glucagonoma. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from rash develops in about 70% of patients, often before other symptoms arise. The skin conditioncommonly begins as red lumps and plaques in the perineum (the area between the genitals and anus), groins, or abdomen, and it may migrate to the extremities.
  13. 13.  Image (1) Viklund, A. (Photographer). (2009). Mouse islet of langerhans immunostained for glucagon. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from Image (2, 3, 4) Jackson, L. (Photographer). (2009). Glucagonoma. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from Image (5,6) Martinez, I. (Photographer). (2005). Glucagonoma and necrolytic migratory erythema. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from 01082005000600008&script=sci_arttext Image (7) McGevna, L. (Photographer). (2010). Glucagonoma. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from Dugdale, D. (2010, December 28). Glucagonoma. Retrieved from WebMD. (2011, May 23). Glucagonoma. Retrieved from A.D.A.M. (2012, February 7). Glucagonoma. Retrieved from Kahn, D. (2011, June 3). Glucagonoma. Retrieved from syndrome