Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Health 10 Ppt[1]. Stomach Cancer


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Health 10 Ppt[1]. Stomach Cancer

  1. 1. Stomach Cancer By: Carolina Focella Health 10 Per 3
  2. 2. What is Stomach Cancer? Stomach Cancer, also known as gastric cancer is a malignant tumor arising from the lining of the stomach. Stomach cancers are classified according to the type of tissue where they originate. The most common type of stomach cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular tissue of the stomach and accounts for 90% to 95% of all stomach cancers. Other Other forms of stomach cancer include lymphomas, which involve the lymphatic system, and sarcomas, which involve the connective tissue (such as muscle, fat, or blood vessels).
  3. 3. Who Does it Effect? Males over the age of 55 A diet low in fruits and vegetables. A diet high in salted, smoked, or preserved foods. Chronic gastritis. Pernicious anemia. Family history of gastric cancer. Smokers People who use tobacco or drink alcoholic beverages regularly. Workers in certain industries, including those in the coal mining, nickel refining, and rubber and timber processing industries.
  4. 4. Causes The cause of stomach cancer is unknown. Age and gender are risk factors and the disease is more common in men over the age of 55. A diet high in salt and nitrates and low in vitamins A and C increases the risk for stomach cancer. Food preparation (e.g., preserving food by smoking, salt-curing, pickling, or drying) and environment (e.g., lack of refrigeration, poor drinking water). A diet high in raw fruits and vegetables, citrus fruits, and fiber may lower the risk for stomach cancer. Medical conditions that increase the risk for the disease include pernicious anemia (vitamin B-12 deficiency), chronic inflammation of the stomach (atrophic gastritis), and intestinal polyps (noncancerous growths). Genetic risk factors include hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (conditions that result in a predisposition to cancer), and a family history of gastrointestinal cancer. People with type A blood also have an increased risk for stomach cancer. Cigarette smoking, Infection with Heliobacter pylori bacteria (a bacteria related to stomach ulcers) or Epstein-Barr virus, Obesity, Personal history of gastrointestinal cancer, previous abdominal radiation, or stomach surge
  5. 5. Prevention Stomach cancer cannot be prevented in all cases. With most cancers, prevention involves moderating the lifestyle and environmental exposure factors that seem to be associated with it. In the case of gastric cancer, this may be difficult, since all the causes are not well understood. Dietary risk factors can be managed. Individuals, especially those in risk groups, should eat an adequate amount of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. In addition, high-fat foods and animal proteins should only be consumed moderately. Most importantly, individuals should minimize their intake of dried, salty foods. Stop Smoking.
  6. 6. Signs and Symptoms Abdominal Pain Difficulty swallowing, particularly difficulty that increases over time Excessive belching/gas loss_of_appetite.jpg Doctors will check for anemia- anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. General decline in health Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting
  7. 7. Signs and Symptoms (cont.) Breath odor Unintentional weight loss Vague abdominal fullness Vomiting blood Weakness or fatigue Premature abdominal fullness after meals Ascites ( collection of fluid in the abdomen)
  8. 8. Prognosis/ Survival Rate Prognosis depends on the stage of the disease. Stomach cancer metastasizes in as many as 80% of cases, resulting in a very poor prognosis. In Japan, where stomach cancer often is diagnosed early, the 5-year survival rate is about 50%. In the United States and most of the Western world, the 5-year survival rate ranges from 5–15%. cr_common/@nre/@sta/documents/image/ crukmig_1000img-13046.jpg
  9. 9. Statistics The American Cancer Society's most recent estimates for stomach cancer in the United States are for 2009: about 21,130 cases of stomach cancer will be diagnosed (12,820 in men and 8,310 in women) about 10,620 people will die from this type of cancer (6,320 men and 4,300 women) This is a disease that mostly affects older people. The average age at the time of diagnosis is 71. Almost two thirds of people with stomach cancer are older than 65. The risk of a person developing stomach cancer in their lifetime is about 1 in 112, but it is slightly higher in men than in women.
  10. 10. How is it Identified? Diagnosis of stomach cancer involves taking a medical history and performing a physical examination and laboratory tests. A palpable (i.e., able to be felt with the fingers) tumor or mass may indicate advanced disease. Tests may include fecal occult blood test, complete blood count (CBC), upper GI series (also called barium swallow), gastroscopy, and imaging tests. In gastroscopy, the physician inserts a thin tube that contains a light and camera (called a gastroscope) through the mouth and esophagus and into the stomach. The gastroscope allows the physician to see the inside of the stomach. Small instruments can be passed through the gastroscope and used to remove a sample of tissue for examination (biopsy) in a laboratory. A local anesthetic is used to reduce sensation in the esophagus during this procedure. Fecal occult blood test is used to detect microscopic blood in the stool, which may indicate stomach or other gastrointestinal (GI) cancers (e.g., colorectal cancer). Complete blood count (CBC) is a simple blood test used to measure the concentration of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. In an upper GI series, or barium swallow, the patient drinks a thick, chalky liquid (barium) that coats the esophagus and stomach and makes it easier to detect abnormal areas on x-ray. In double-contrast barium swallow, air is blown into the esophagus and stomach to help the liquid coat the wall of the organs more thoroughly.
  11. 11. Treatments Surgery: Endoscopic mucosal resection: In this procedure, the cancer is removed through an endoscope (a long, flexible tube passed down the throat and into the stomach). This procedure is only done for some very early stage cancers, where the chance of spread to the lymph nodes is very low. Subtotal gastrectomy: This operation is often recommended if the cancer is only in the lower part of the stomach. It is also sometimes used for cancers that are only in the upper part of the stomach. Only part of the stomach is removed, sometimes along with part of the esophagus or the first part of the small intestine (the duodenum). Nearby lymph nodes are also removed. The remaining section of stomach is then reattached. Eating is much easier if only part of the stomach is removed instead of the entire stomach. 2. Radiation Therapy- uses high-energy rays or particles to kill cancer cells in a specific area of the body. An external beam radiation therapy is the type of radiation therapy often used to treat stomach cancer. This treatment focuses the radiation on the cancer from a machine outside the body. Having this type of radiation therapy is like having an x-ray, except that each treatment lasts longer, and the patient usually receives 5 treatments per week over a period of weeks or months. 3.Chemotherapy - Drugs are used to kill the Cancer.
  12. 12. Management Follow-up care is necessary for stomach cancer patients. Regular physical examination and tests (e.g., CT scan, MRI scan) are used to detect recurrent or advanced disease. In addition, patient’s dietary intake must be monitored regularly to promote health. NjAwLTAxMTk1MDY4bi4wMDAwMDAwMA=AMnVAW/ 600-01195068n.jpg
  13. 13. Current research Many Universities NYU Cancer Institute for example are motivated to find the causes and more treatments for stomach cancer. National Cancer Institute ( is also currently finding new works and improvement in finding new information fro stomach cancer.
  14. 14. Video vodid=10133
  15. 15. Work Cited CRI_2_4_1X_What_are_the_key_statistics_for_stomach_cancer_40.asp