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  • 1. CHAPTER 2 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1775-1783 REVIEW
  • 2. The Seven Years’ War was fought from 1756 to 1763. France Spain England
  • 3. The British Navy declined in the years after the Seven Years War . France began to rebuild its navy immediately after the war.
  • 4. The American colonies grew and prospered during the Seven Years’ War. 13 Colonies 1763
  • 5. This decree, passed in 1763 to pay off war debts built up during the French and Indian War, taxed England’s exports to the colonies. The Revenue Act King George III
  • 6. The Stamp Act of 1765 It required that every paper document, from legal documents, newspapers, ships papers, publications, and even playing cards, carry a stamp on it to raise money for the defense of the colonies.
  • 7. The Townshend Act This act, passed in 1767, taxed paper, lead, and tea.
  • 8. British soldiers shot and killed several people including Crispus Attucks. They were the first casualties of the American Revolution. Boston Massacre 5 March 1770
  • 9. Samuel Adams and Bostonians, disguised as Indians, dumped British tea into the harbor rather than pay taxes on it. Boston Tea Party - 1773 Samuel Adams
  • 10. The Coercive Acts • Passed in retribution for the Boston Tea Party • Closed the port of Boston • Abolished the right of the people of Massachusetts to select their own council • Restricted other civil liberties
  • 11. WAR! Lexington and Concord April 1775
  • 12. Massachusetts Concord 19 April 1775 Lexington 19 April 1775
  • 13. The colonies had been supplying most of England’s ship-building materials: • Timber for masts and hulls • Turpentine • Pitch • Tar
  • 14. Privateers (licensed pirates) Armed American merchant ships that had helped the British win the French and Indian War or Seven Years’ War
  • 15. American privateers that once helped the British now captured British ships and goods with the blessing of the Continental Congress.
  • 16. These ships carried coastal commerce, attacked British supply boats, and kept open the coastal lines of communication on which so much of life in the colonies depended.
  • 17. The Coastal Cavalry
  • 18. Congress was initially reluctant to establish a Continental navy because of the “coastal cavalry” force.
  • 19. Congress bought, fitted out, and armed the Andrew Doria and the Cabot to intercept British supply ships.
  • 20. Congress soon added two larger ships, the Alfred and the Columbus. Alfred Columbus
  • 21. Privateers captured some 2,200 British vessels by war’s end, and many privateer captains would become famous in the new U.S. Navy.
  • 22. George Washington commissioned seven ships to capture British supplies, and in 1775, his “navy” took muskets, shot, and a huge mortar.
  • 23. Birth of the Marine Corps 10 November 1775
  • 24. Personnel Problems In the early days of war, men were eager to serve. As war continued, it became difficult to recruit because of stricter discipline, low pay, and rewards obtained by privateering.
  • 25. Forcing men to serve in the Navy by taking them on board ship against their will Impressment
  • 26. Finding men to serve in the Navy would be a problem throughout the war, and ships were often unable to go to sea because they lacked crews.
  • 27. First Continental naval squadron was composed of six small schooners, brigs, and sloops assembled at Philadelphia. ESEK HOPKINS
  • 28. February 1776 Congress directs Hopkins to neutralize loyalist craft in the Virginia Capes. ESEK HOPKINS
  • 29. Hopkins sailed to New Providence in the Bahamas and overcame two British forts and took more than eighty artillery pieces, powder, and naval stores. ESEK HOPKINS
  • 30. The Nassau expedition turned out to be the last time American ships would put to sea as a squadron during the war.
  • 31. In a single month, August 1776, Jones captured sixteen enemy vessels and destroyed many others. John Paul Jones
  • 32. John Paul Jones would become legendary among early American naval leaders.
  • 33. American invasion of Canada in 1775 by Generals Montgomery and Arnold General Richard Montgomery General Benedict Arnold Montgomery/Arnold Arnold (1,100) (1,200) Montgomery (1,500) Carleton Quebec Maine Fort Ticonderoga Boston The Bat t l e of Lake Champl ai n st opped t he Bri t i sh advance i n 1775The
  • 34. When British reinforcements arrived, the American patriots retreated toward the colonies. General Sir Guy Carleton General John Burgoyne
  • 35. By not following the British plan, Howe contributed to the eventual defeat of the British in the Colonies. He was relieved and sent back to England.
  • 36. By the summer of 1777, Burgoyne’s forces were in trouble. General Burgoyne
  • 37. Battle of Saratoga New York Saratoga
  • 38. On 19 September, Burgoyne marched his men, European style, through an open field to break through the American lines near Saratoga, NY.
  • 39. The British made easy targets for American sharpshooters, who were firing from behind trees.
  • 40. On 7 October, Burgoyne led his trapped Redcoats in a final attempt to break through American lines.
  • 41. Daniel Morgan’s riflemen mowed down the British, and Benedict Arnold led a charge. Daniel Morgan Benedict Arnold
  • 42. The Turning Point General Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga, 1777.
  • 43. Significance of the Battle of Saratoga • The British government was less willing to carry on the war. • France, and later Spain and the Netherlands, came into the war as colonial allies.
  • 44. Treaty of Friendship with France 1778 Benjamin Franklin
  • 45. American naval efforts in the war were mostly just a nuisance to Britain and did not affect the outcome of the war.
  • 46. • Hurt British trade in the West • Delayed troop reinforcements • Captured needed arms and supplies Role of the Privateers
  • 47. Washington was right. Naval power would decide the outcome of the war, but in the end, it was French, not American, naval power that made the difference.
  • 48. Most Famous Officer of the Continental Navy John Paul Jones
  • 49. The Ranger
  • 50. John Paul Jones renamed the East Indiaman the Bonhomme Richard in honor of Benjamin Franklin, who had written Poor Richard’s Almanac. John Paul Jones Bonhomme Richard
  • 51. Bonhomme Richard vs. HMS Serapis As the Bonhomme Richard slowly began to sink, John Paul Jones was asked if he was ready to strike. He replied with the immortal words, “I have not yet begun to fight!”
  • 52. • Maintain the defensive in the northern colonies. • Mount an offensive in the southern colonies. • Take the war to the West Indies. British Strategy in 1778
  • 53. Sir Henry Clinton now commanded British forces in the colonies. He abandoned Philadelphia to reinforce New York City.
  • 54. Confident that Washington's troops were not a threat to New York City, Clinton set sail for Charleston, South Carolina, and surrounded the American forces.
  • 55. The last Continental squadron was captured during the Battle of Charleston in 1780. The Continental Navy was never again an effective fighting force.
  • 56. Southern Campaigns under General Cornwallis
  • 57. Cornwallis defeated Gates at Camden, S.C., and then moved into North Carolina where Washington could do nothing to stop him. General Cornwallis
  • 58. Cornwallis followed Morgan and Greene through North Carolina and won a battle at Guilford Courthouse, but lost so many men that he had to retreat.
  • 59. General Marquis de Lafayette General Marquis de Lafayette sent word to Washington of Cornwallis’ entrenchment at Yorktown, on the Chesapeake Bay.
  • 60. They commanded 5,000 militia in the area and kept Cornwallis under observation. General Lafayette General “Mad” Anthony Wayne
  • 61. Generals Rochambeau and Washington agreed to battle General Clinton’s superior troops in New York even though French reinforcements did not arrive in May, 1781. General Comte de Rochambeau
  • 62. General Washington wrote the French minister asking that Admiral de Grasse come north from the West Indies to help in the New York operation. Admiral de Grasse
  • 63. Admiral de Grasse drove the British fleet from Chesapeake Bay In September, 1781. This action significantly contributed to Cornwallis’ defeat at Yorktown.Admiral de Grasse August 14, 1781
  • 64. General Washington’s 4,500 Americans, with 5,500 French troops, marched from New York to Yorktown to battle British troops.
  • 65. American forces converging on Yorktown
  • 66. Battle Plans for Yorktown
  • 67. On 9 October 1781, 20,000 American and French troops attacked the British at Yorktown.
  • 68. General Cornwallis surrendered his army of 7,600 men on 19 October 1781.
  • 69. England, tired of war, now faced the powerful combined forces of France, Spain, and Holland in Europe. Holland England France Spain
  • 70. The American Peace Delegation • Benjamin Franklin • John Jay • John Adams
  • 71. Delegation A group of people chosen to represent a political entity such as a country or state
  • 72. Treaty of Paris 3 September 1783
  • 73. North America in 1783 as a result of the Treaty of Paris BRITISH POSSESSIONS Gulf of Mexico Atlantic Ocean
  • 74. The small Continental Navy was generally ineffective against the powerful Navy of England.
  • 75. Sea power played an important role in America’s independence. • The artillery and supplies used by the Continental Army came from prizes captured at sea. • The French fleet, off the Virginia Capes in 1781, prevented the British from helping Cornwallis, leading directly to his surrender.
  • 76. It was obvious to many Americans that to keep its freedom America needed a navy of its own.