CHAPTER 2
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
1775-1783 REVIEW
The Seven Years’ War was fought from
1756 to 1763.
France
Spain
England
The British Navy
declined in the
years after the
Seven Years War .
France began to
rebuild its navy
immediately
after the ...
The American
colonies grew
and prospered
during the Seven
Years’ War.
13 Colonies 1763
This decree, passed
in 1763 to pay off
war debts built up
during the French
and Indian War,
taxed England’s
exports to the...
The Stamp Act of 1765
It required that every
paper document,
from legal documents,
newspapers, ships
papers, publications,...
The Townshend Act
This act, passed in 1767, taxed paper,
lead, and tea.
British soldiers shot and killed several
people including Crispus Attucks. They
were the first casualties of the American
...
Samuel Adams and
Bostonians, disguised
as Indians, dumped
British tea into the
harbor rather than
pay taxes on it.
Boston ...
The Coercive Acts
• Passed in retribution for the Boston
Tea Party
• Closed the port of Boston
• Abolished the right of th...
WAR!
Lexington and Concord
April 1775
Massachusetts
Concord
19 April 1775
Lexington
19 April 1775
The colonies had been supplying most
of England’s ship-building materials:
• Timber for masts and hulls
• Turpentine
• Pit...
Privateers
(licensed pirates)
Armed American merchant ships that
had helped the British win the French
and Indian War or S...
American privateers that once helped
the British now captured British ships
and goods with the blessing of the
Continental...
These ships carried coastal commerce,
attacked British supply boats, and kept
open the coastal lines of communication
on w...
The Coastal Cavalry
Congress was initially reluctant to
establish a Continental navy because
of the “coastal cavalry” force.
Congress bought, fitted out, and armed
the Andrew Doria and the Cabot to
intercept British supply ships.
Congress soon added
two larger ships, the
Alfred and the Columbus.
Alfred
Columbus
Privateers captured some 2,200
British vessels by war’s end, and many
privateer captains would become
famous in the new U....
George Washington commissioned
seven ships to capture British supplies,
and in 1775, his “navy” took muskets,
shot, and a ...
Birth of the Marine Corps
10 November 1775
Personnel Problems
In the early days of
war, men were eager
to serve.
As war continued,
it became difficult
to recruit bec...
Forcing men to serve in the Navy by taking
them on board ship against their will
Impressment
Finding men to serve in the Navy would
be a problem throughout the war, and
ships were often unable to go to sea
because t...
First Continental naval squadron was
composed of six small schooners, brigs,
and sloops assembled at Philadelphia.
ESEK
HO...
February 1776
Congress directs Hopkins
to neutralize loyalist craft
in the Virginia Capes.
ESEK
HOPKINS
Hopkins sailed to New Providence in the
Bahamas and overcame two British forts
and took more than eighty artillery pieces,...
The Nassau expedition turned out to be
the last time American ships would put
to sea as a squadron during the war.
In a single month, August 1776, Jones
captured sixteen enemy vessels and
destroyed many others.
John Paul
Jones
John Paul Jones would become
legendary among early American
naval leaders.
American
invasion
of Canada
in 1775 by
Generals
Montgomery
and Arnold
General
Richard Montgomery
General
Benedict Arnold
M...
When British reinforcements arrived,
the American patriots retreated toward
the colonies.
General Sir
Guy Carleton
General...
By not following
the British plan,
Howe contributed
to the eventual defeat
of the British in the
Colonies. He was
relieved...
By the summer of
1777, Burgoyne’s
forces were in
trouble.
General
Burgoyne
Battle
of
Saratoga
New York
Saratoga
On 19 September,
Burgoyne marched
his men, European
style, through an
open field to break
through the
American lines near
...
The British made easy targets for
American sharpshooters, who were
firing from behind trees.
On 7 October,
Burgoyne led his
trapped Redcoats
in a final attempt
to break through
American lines.
Daniel Morgan’s riflemen mowed down the
British, and Benedict Arnold led a charge.
Daniel Morgan Benedict Arnold
The Turning Point
General Burgoyne surrendered
at Saratoga, 1777.
Significance of the
Battle of Saratoga
• The British government was less
willing to carry on the war.
• France, and later ...
Treaty of Friendship with France
1778
Benjamin Franklin
American naval efforts in the war were
mostly just a nuisance to Britain and
did not affect the outcome of the war.
• Hurt British trade in the West
• Delayed troop reinforcements
• Captured needed arms and supplies
Role of the Privateers
Washington was right. Naval power would
decide the outcome of the war, but in the end,
it was French, not American, naval ...
Most Famous Officer
of the Continental Navy
John Paul
Jones
The Ranger
John Paul Jones renamed the East
Indiaman the Bonhomme Richard
in honor of Benjamin Franklin, who
had written Poor Richard...
Bonhomme
Richard
vs.
HMS Serapis
As the Bonhomme Richard slowly
began to sink, John Paul Jones was
asked if he was ready t...
• Maintain the defensive in the
northern colonies.
• Mount an offensive in the
southern colonies.
• Take the war to the We...
Sir Henry Clinton now commanded British
forces in the colonies. He abandoned
Philadelphia to reinforce New York City.
Confident that Washington's troops were
not a threat to New York City, Clinton set
sail for Charleston, South Carolina, an...
The last Continental
squadron was
captured during the
Battle of Charleston
in 1780.
The Continental
Navy was never
again a...
Southern Campaigns under
General Cornwallis
Cornwallis defeated
Gates at Camden,
S.C., and then
moved into North
Carolina where
Washington could
do nothing to stop
hi...
Cornwallis followed Morgan and Greene
through North Carolina and won a battle
at Guilford Courthouse, but lost so many
men...
General
Marquis de Lafayette
General Marquis
de Lafayette
sent word to
Washington
of Cornwallis’
entrenchment at
Yorktown,...
They commanded 5,000 militia in the area
and kept Cornwallis under observation.
General
Lafayette
General “Mad”
Anthony Wa...
Generals Rochambeau
and Washington
agreed to battle
General Clinton’s
superior troops in
New York even
though French
reinf...
General Washington
wrote the French
minister asking that
Admiral de Grasse
come north from
the West Indies to
help in the ...
Admiral de Grasse
drove the British fleet
from Chesapeake Bay
In September, 1781.
This action
significantly
contributed to...
General Washington’s 4,500 Americans,
with 5,500 French troops, marched from New
York to Yorktown to battle British troops.
American forces
converging on
Yorktown
Battle Plans
for Yorktown
On 9 October 1781, 20,000 American
and French troops attacked the British
at Yorktown.
General Cornwallis surrendered his
army of 7,600 men on 19 October 1781.
England, tired of
war, now faced
the powerful
combined forces
of France, Spain,
and Holland in
Europe.
Holland
England
Fra...
The American Peace Delegation
• Benjamin Franklin
• John Jay
• John Adams
Delegation
A group of people
chosen to represent
a political entity such
as a country or state
Treaty of Paris
3 September 1783
North
America
in 1783 as
a result of
the Treaty
of Paris
BRITISH
POSSESSIONS
Gulf of Mexico
Atlantic
Ocean
The small Continental Navy was
generally ineffective against the
powerful Navy of England.
Sea power played an important role in
America’s independence.
• The artillery and supplies used by
the Continental Army ca...
It was obvious to many Americans that
to keep its freedom America needed a
navy of its own.
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American revolution 76

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1775-1783 REVIEW
  2. 2. The Seven Years’ War was fought from 1756 to 1763. France Spain England
  3. 3. The British Navy declined in the years after the Seven Years War . France began to rebuild its navy immediately after the war.
  4. 4. The American colonies grew and prospered during the Seven Years’ War. 13 Colonies 1763
  5. 5. This decree, passed in 1763 to pay off war debts built up during the French and Indian War, taxed England’s exports to the colonies. The Revenue Act King George III
  6. 6. The Stamp Act of 1765 It required that every paper document, from legal documents, newspapers, ships papers, publications, and even playing cards, carry a stamp on it to raise money for the defense of the colonies.
  7. 7. The Townshend Act This act, passed in 1767, taxed paper, lead, and tea.
  8. 8. British soldiers shot and killed several people including Crispus Attucks. They were the first casualties of the American Revolution. Boston Massacre 5 March 1770
  9. 9. Samuel Adams and Bostonians, disguised as Indians, dumped British tea into the harbor rather than pay taxes on it. Boston Tea Party - 1773 Samuel Adams
  10. 10. The Coercive Acts • Passed in retribution for the Boston Tea Party • Closed the port of Boston • Abolished the right of the people of Massachusetts to select their own council • Restricted other civil liberties
  11. 11. WAR! Lexington and Concord April 1775
  12. 12. Massachusetts Concord 19 April 1775 Lexington 19 April 1775
  13. 13. The colonies had been supplying most of England’s ship-building materials: • Timber for masts and hulls • Turpentine • Pitch • Tar
  14. 14. Privateers (licensed pirates) Armed American merchant ships that had helped the British win the French and Indian War or Seven Years’ War
  15. 15. American privateers that once helped the British now captured British ships and goods with the blessing of the Continental Congress.
  16. 16. These ships carried coastal commerce, attacked British supply boats, and kept open the coastal lines of communication on which so much of life in the colonies depended.
  17. 17. The Coastal Cavalry
  18. 18. Congress was initially reluctant to establish a Continental navy because of the “coastal cavalry” force.
  19. 19. Congress bought, fitted out, and armed the Andrew Doria and the Cabot to intercept British supply ships.
  20. 20. Congress soon added two larger ships, the Alfred and the Columbus. Alfred Columbus
  21. 21. Privateers captured some 2,200 British vessels by war’s end, and many privateer captains would become famous in the new U.S. Navy.
  22. 22. George Washington commissioned seven ships to capture British supplies, and in 1775, his “navy” took muskets, shot, and a huge mortar.
  23. 23. Birth of the Marine Corps 10 November 1775
  24. 24. Personnel Problems In the early days of war, men were eager to serve. As war continued, it became difficult to recruit because of stricter discipline, low pay, and rewards obtained by privateering.
  25. 25. Forcing men to serve in the Navy by taking them on board ship against their will Impressment
  26. 26. Finding men to serve in the Navy would be a problem throughout the war, and ships were often unable to go to sea because they lacked crews.
  27. 27. First Continental naval squadron was composed of six small schooners, brigs, and sloops assembled at Philadelphia. ESEK HOPKINS
  28. 28. February 1776 Congress directs Hopkins to neutralize loyalist craft in the Virginia Capes. ESEK HOPKINS
  29. 29. Hopkins sailed to New Providence in the Bahamas and overcame two British forts and took more than eighty artillery pieces, powder, and naval stores. ESEK HOPKINS
  30. 30. The Nassau expedition turned out to be the last time American ships would put to sea as a squadron during the war.
  31. 31. In a single month, August 1776, Jones captured sixteen enemy vessels and destroyed many others. John Paul Jones
  32. 32. John Paul Jones would become legendary among early American naval leaders.
  33. 33. American invasion of Canada in 1775 by Generals Montgomery and Arnold General Richard Montgomery General Benedict Arnold Montgomery/Arnold Arnold (1,100) (1,200) Montgomery (1,500) Carleton Quebec Maine Fort Ticonderoga Boston The Bat t l e of Lake Champl ai n st opped t he Bri t i sh advance i n 1775The
  34. 34. When British reinforcements arrived, the American patriots retreated toward the colonies. General Sir Guy Carleton General John Burgoyne
  35. 35. By not following the British plan, Howe contributed to the eventual defeat of the British in the Colonies. He was relieved and sent back to England.
  36. 36. By the summer of 1777, Burgoyne’s forces were in trouble. General Burgoyne
  37. 37. Battle of Saratoga New York Saratoga
  38. 38. On 19 September, Burgoyne marched his men, European style, through an open field to break through the American lines near Saratoga, NY.
  39. 39. The British made easy targets for American sharpshooters, who were firing from behind trees.
  40. 40. On 7 October, Burgoyne led his trapped Redcoats in a final attempt to break through American lines.
  41. 41. Daniel Morgan’s riflemen mowed down the British, and Benedict Arnold led a charge. Daniel Morgan Benedict Arnold
  42. 42. The Turning Point General Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga, 1777.
  43. 43. Significance of the Battle of Saratoga • The British government was less willing to carry on the war. • France, and later Spain and the Netherlands, came into the war as colonial allies.
  44. 44. Treaty of Friendship with France 1778 Benjamin Franklin
  45. 45. American naval efforts in the war were mostly just a nuisance to Britain and did not affect the outcome of the war.
  46. 46. • Hurt British trade in the West • Delayed troop reinforcements • Captured needed arms and supplies Role of the Privateers
  47. 47. Washington was right. Naval power would decide the outcome of the war, but in the end, it was French, not American, naval power that made the difference.
  48. 48. Most Famous Officer of the Continental Navy John Paul Jones
  49. 49. The Ranger
  50. 50. John Paul Jones renamed the East Indiaman the Bonhomme Richard in honor of Benjamin Franklin, who had written Poor Richard’s Almanac. John Paul Jones Bonhomme Richard
  51. 51. Bonhomme Richard vs. HMS Serapis As the Bonhomme Richard slowly began to sink, John Paul Jones was asked if he was ready to strike. He replied with the immortal words, “I have not yet begun to fight!”
  52. 52. • Maintain the defensive in the northern colonies. • Mount an offensive in the southern colonies. • Take the war to the West Indies. British Strategy in 1778
  53. 53. Sir Henry Clinton now commanded British forces in the colonies. He abandoned Philadelphia to reinforce New York City.
  54. 54. Confident that Washington's troops were not a threat to New York City, Clinton set sail for Charleston, South Carolina, and surrounded the American forces.
  55. 55. The last Continental squadron was captured during the Battle of Charleston in 1780. The Continental Navy was never again an effective fighting force.
  56. 56. Southern Campaigns under General Cornwallis
  57. 57. Cornwallis defeated Gates at Camden, S.C., and then moved into North Carolina where Washington could do nothing to stop him. General Cornwallis
  58. 58. Cornwallis followed Morgan and Greene through North Carolina and won a battle at Guilford Courthouse, but lost so many men that he had to retreat.
  59. 59. General Marquis de Lafayette General Marquis de Lafayette sent word to Washington of Cornwallis’ entrenchment at Yorktown, on the Chesapeake Bay.
  60. 60. They commanded 5,000 militia in the area and kept Cornwallis under observation. General Lafayette General “Mad” Anthony Wayne
  61. 61. Generals Rochambeau and Washington agreed to battle General Clinton’s superior troops in New York even though French reinforcements did not arrive in May, 1781. General Comte de Rochambeau
  62. 62. General Washington wrote the French minister asking that Admiral de Grasse come north from the West Indies to help in the New York operation. Admiral de Grasse
  63. 63. Admiral de Grasse drove the British fleet from Chesapeake Bay In September, 1781. This action significantly contributed to Cornwallis’ defeat at Yorktown.Admiral de Grasse August 14, 1781
  64. 64. General Washington’s 4,500 Americans, with 5,500 French troops, marched from New York to Yorktown to battle British troops.
  65. 65. American forces converging on Yorktown
  66. 66. Battle Plans for Yorktown
  67. 67. On 9 October 1781, 20,000 American and French troops attacked the British at Yorktown.
  68. 68. General Cornwallis surrendered his army of 7,600 men on 19 October 1781.
  69. 69. England, tired of war, now faced the powerful combined forces of France, Spain, and Holland in Europe. Holland England France Spain
  70. 70. The American Peace Delegation • Benjamin Franklin • John Jay • John Adams
  71. 71. Delegation A group of people chosen to represent a political entity such as a country or state
  72. 72. Treaty of Paris 3 September 1783
  73. 73. North America in 1783 as a result of the Treaty of Paris BRITISH POSSESSIONS Gulf of Mexico Atlantic Ocean
  74. 74. The small Continental Navy was generally ineffective against the powerful Navy of England.
  75. 75. Sea power played an important role in America’s independence. • The artillery and supplies used by the Continental Army came from prizes captured at sea. • The French fleet, off the Virginia Capes in 1781, prevented the British from helping Cornwallis, leading directly to his surrender.
  76. 76. It was obvious to many Americans that to keep its freedom America needed a navy of its own.
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