CHAPTER 4 PART THREE
THE CIVIL WAR
1861-1865
Battle of Antietam Creek
• Bloodiest one day action of entire
war,
over 25,000 casualties
• Lee forced to withdraw from Ma...
Battle of Antietam Creek,
Sharpsburg Viginia 17 Sept, 1862
• General Lee was intent on invading
the North.
• General McCle...
President Lincoln announced his
preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
on September 22, 1862.
Promised freedom to all slaves within
the territories still in rebellion on
1 January 1863
Emancipation Proclamation
Many liberated slaves joined Union
forces.
The Thirteenth Amendment
Section 1. Neither slavery nor
involuntary
servitude, except as a punishment for
crime whereof th...
The Thirteenth Amendment
• Passed by Congress in 1865
• Ended slavery in the United States
New Orleans
Vicksburg
Water depth and lack of Army/Navy
coordination contributed to the failure
of the Union to take Vicksburg in 1862.
Rear
Admiral
David Porter
General
Ulysses
Grant
General
William
Sherman
Porter worked out a scheme with
Generals Grant and Sherman to
put a pincers movement against
Vicksburg.
Porter Grant Sherm...
After three failed attempts by the Union
to take Vicksburg, Grant settled in for a
siege of the city.
• For 40 days and nights, Porter’s
mortar boats rained destruction on
Vicksburg.
• On 4 July 1863, 31,000
Confederate
troo...
A cannon very short in proportion
to its bore, for firing shells at high
angles
Mortar
Four days later Port Hudson
surrendered,
and the Mississippi River was under
Union control.
Battles Leading to Gettysburg
Chancellorsville,
VA
Fredricksburg,
VA
PotomacRiver
General
Robert E.
Lee
General
Joseph
Hooker
General
Stonewall
Jackson
Lee took on the Army
of the Potomac at
Chancellorsville, VA,
and won.
But he lost his most
talented general
officer, “Ston...
Lee’sArmy
Advances
• The battle at
Gettysburg was
the bloodiest
and
most decisive
battle of the war.
General
George Meade
Confederate and Union forces were probing
for weaknesses in each other’s lines.
Cemetery Ridge
CONFEDERATE LINE
N
After a 2-hour artillery
barrage:
• Pickett led a 15,000-strong Confederate
charge at Cemetery Ridge.
• Some managed to re...
A heavy barrier of artillery (cannon)
fire to protect one’s own advancing
or retreating troops or to stop the
advance of e...
• After Pickett’s failed charge, General
Lee was forced to begin his retreat
back to Virginia, leaving over 20,000
casualt...
Lee’s task was to keep his army
intact until a settlement could
be reached with the Union.
Major Southern Ports
New Orleans
The main ship channel to
Charleston
Fort Sumter
Confederate engineers who
designed
Fort Sumter’s defenses
General
Beauregard
General
Ripley
42 Pounder 100 Pounder Parrott
200 Pounder Parrott 10-inch Seacoast Mortar
Fort Sumter
used many
gabions to
fortify its
integrity
against the
enemy.
Gabio
n
Cylinder of wickerwork filled with
earth, used as a military defense
Gabion
Many of the surrounding waters of
Fort Sumter were mined.
Many cannons and artillery shells
were in the interior of Fort
Sumter.
Artillery Shells
100 Pounder Parrott
Picket fences helped protect the
walls.
Picket fences helped protect the
walls of Fort Sumter from the
enemy scaling the walls.
The high, thick walls of Fort Sumter
were hard to climb or penetrate.
• Both sides had
ironclad building
programs.
• Admiral Dupont led
a 9-ironclad Union
attack.
Admiral
Samuel Dupont
The USS Keokok was sunk after being
struck over 90 times by Confederate
shells.
Dupont’s attack on Fort Sumter was
ineffective, and he was relieved of
command.
Admiral
John Dahlgren
“Dupont’s Relief”
General
Gillmore
“Corps of Engineers”
Charleston Falls
Together, Dahlgren and Gillmore
placed Charleston under siege
and forced its surrender.
Then they turned ...
H.L. Hunley
CSS David
Davids were designed to ram
Union vessels with a spar armed
with a charge of gunpowder. The
explosive was then detonated b...
The powerful Union ironclad New
Ironsides was badly damaged by
a David.
H.L. Hunley
• The world’s first submarine
warship
• Designed to pull a torpedo into the
side of a ship
H.L. Hunley
Conning Tower Leather Bellows
Ballast Tanks
H.L. Hunley
• Powered by 8 or
9 men turning a
crankshaft
H.L. Hunley
• Four crews drowned in sea
trials.
• General Beauregard prohibited her
from being submerged again.
H.L. Hunley
The Hunley attacks the
Housatonic.
USS
• The charge exploded
before the Hunley
could get away.
• The Housatonic sank
in less than 5 minutes
• The Hunley and her
...
Declaration of Paris of 1856
Major European countries, except
Spain, declared privateering illegal.
• Nearly 1,500 blockade runners
saw service during the Civil War.
• It was a very profitable business,
worth the risks inv...
Effects of Blockade Running
Besides, the odds of a blockade runner
being captured were only 1 in 4.
Befor
e
After
Salt
Cof...
Confederate commerce raiding by
cruisers such as the CSS Alabama:
• Mostly foreign built with foreign crews
and Southern o...
CSS Chickamauga
Cruiser’s purpose was to:
• Weaken the blockade
• Keep over 100 Union ships busy
The most famous
and successful of
the Confederate
cruiser skippers
Captain
Raphael Semmes
CSS Sumter
• Captured 17 Union ships before being
cornered in Gibraltar
• Sold Sumter and made his way to
England
CAPT
Rap...
CSS Alabama
• Sailed to Portugal to pick up armament
• Crewed by English and Irish
volunteers
CSS
Alabama
• Sank 20 ships in the North
Atlantic
• Cruised the world’s oceans for 18
CSS Alabama’s Last Battle
Cherbour
g
Englan
d
Franc
e
Holland
USS Kearsarge
• French refused Semmes docking
rights when the Kearsarge arrived
off Cherbourg, France.
• Semmes challenged...
Deerhound
• Deerhound observed the action.
• Kearsarge was a faster vessel
with
better ammunition.
• Semmes tried to beach his ship.
• Deerhound picked up survivors
and took them to England.
CSS Alabama USS Kearsarge
• Alabama had captured 71 Union
ships.
• British government later had to pay
CSS Alabama
CSS Shenandoah
• Wreaked havoc on Union whaling ships in the
Aleutians
• All but destroyed the American whaling industry
ALASKA
Aleutian
Islands
END OF PART
THREE
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Civil War part three

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 PART THREE THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
  2. 2. Battle of Antietam Creek • Bloodiest one day action of entire war, over 25,000 casualties • Lee forced to withdraw from Maryland to Virginia
  3. 3. Battle of Antietam Creek, Sharpsburg Viginia 17 Sept, 1862 • General Lee was intent on invading the North. • General McClellan was given a copy of Lee’s plans and moved to intercept him.
  4. 4. President Lincoln announced his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862.
  5. 5. Promised freedom to all slaves within the territories still in rebellion on 1 January 1863 Emancipation Proclamation
  6. 6. Many liberated slaves joined Union forces.
  7. 7. The Thirteenth Amendment Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
  8. 8. The Thirteenth Amendment • Passed by Congress in 1865 • Ended slavery in the United States
  9. 9. New Orleans Vicksburg
  10. 10. Water depth and lack of Army/Navy coordination contributed to the failure of the Union to take Vicksburg in 1862.
  11. 11. Rear Admiral David Porter General Ulysses Grant General William Sherman
  12. 12. Porter worked out a scheme with Generals Grant and Sherman to put a pincers movement against Vicksburg. Porter Grant Sherman
  13. 13. After three failed attempts by the Union to take Vicksburg, Grant settled in for a siege of the city.
  14. 14. • For 40 days and nights, Porter’s mortar boats rained destruction on Vicksburg. • On 4 July 1863, 31,000 Confederate troops surrendered.
  15. 15. A cannon very short in proportion to its bore, for firing shells at high angles Mortar
  16. 16. Four days later Port Hudson surrendered, and the Mississippi River was under Union control.
  17. 17. Battles Leading to Gettysburg Chancellorsville, VA Fredricksburg, VA PotomacRiver
  18. 18. General Robert E. Lee General Joseph Hooker General Stonewall Jackson
  19. 19. Lee took on the Army of the Potomac at Chancellorsville, VA, and won. But he lost his most talented general officer, “Stonewall Jackson,” who was killed by his own men as he returned from a reconnaissance mission.Robert E. Lee
  20. 20. Lee’sArmy Advances
  21. 21. • The battle at Gettysburg was the bloodiest and most decisive battle of the war. General George Meade
  22. 22. Confederate and Union forces were probing for weaknesses in each other’s lines. Cemetery Ridge CONFEDERATE LINE N
  23. 23. After a 2-hour artillery barrage: • Pickett led a 15,000-strong Confederate charge at Cemetery Ridge. • Some managed to reach the Union lines but were killed or thrown back. General George Pickett
  24. 24. A heavy barrier of artillery (cannon) fire to protect one’s own advancing or retreating troops or to stop the advance of enemy troops Artillery Barrage
  25. 25. • After Pickett’s failed charge, General Lee was forced to begin his retreat back to Virginia, leaving over 20,000 casualties on the fields of Gettysburg. General Robert E. Lee
  26. 26. Lee’s task was to keep his army intact until a settlement could be reached with the Union.
  27. 27. Major Southern Ports New Orleans
  28. 28. The main ship channel to Charleston Fort Sumter
  29. 29. Confederate engineers who designed Fort Sumter’s defenses General Beauregard General Ripley
  30. 30. 42 Pounder 100 Pounder Parrott 200 Pounder Parrott 10-inch Seacoast Mortar
  31. 31. Fort Sumter used many gabions to fortify its integrity against the enemy. Gabio n
  32. 32. Cylinder of wickerwork filled with earth, used as a military defense Gabion
  33. 33. Many of the surrounding waters of Fort Sumter were mined.
  34. 34. Many cannons and artillery shells were in the interior of Fort Sumter. Artillery Shells 100 Pounder Parrott
  35. 35. Picket fences helped protect the walls.
  36. 36. Picket fences helped protect the walls of Fort Sumter from the enemy scaling the walls.
  37. 37. The high, thick walls of Fort Sumter were hard to climb or penetrate.
  38. 38. • Both sides had ironclad building programs. • Admiral Dupont led a 9-ironclad Union attack. Admiral Samuel Dupont
  39. 39. The USS Keokok was sunk after being struck over 90 times by Confederate shells.
  40. 40. Dupont’s attack on Fort Sumter was ineffective, and he was relieved of command.
  41. 41. Admiral John Dahlgren “Dupont’s Relief” General Gillmore “Corps of Engineers”
  42. 42. Charleston Falls Together, Dahlgren and Gillmore placed Charleston under siege and forced its surrender. Then they turned their guns on Ft. Sumter and reduced it to rubble. But the Confederates refused to surrender. Subsequent naval and amphibious assaults also failed.
  43. 43. H.L. Hunley CSS David
  44. 44. Davids were designed to ram Union vessels with a spar armed with a charge of gunpowder. The explosive was then detonated by yanking a long cord.
  45. 45. The powerful Union ironclad New Ironsides was badly damaged by a David.
  46. 46. H.L. Hunley • The world’s first submarine warship • Designed to pull a torpedo into the side of a ship
  47. 47. H.L. Hunley Conning Tower Leather Bellows Ballast Tanks
  48. 48. H.L. Hunley • Powered by 8 or 9 men turning a crankshaft
  49. 49. H.L. Hunley • Four crews drowned in sea trials. • General Beauregard prohibited her from being submerged again.
  50. 50. H.L. Hunley The Hunley attacks the Housatonic. USS
  51. 51. • The charge exploded before the Hunley could get away. • The Housatonic sank in less than 5 minutes • The Hunley and her fifth crew were also lost. Lt. George Dixon
  52. 52. Declaration of Paris of 1856 Major European countries, except Spain, declared privateering illegal.
  53. 53. • Nearly 1,500 blockade runners saw service during the Civil War. • It was a very profitable business, worth the risks involved.
  54. 54. Effects of Blockade Running Besides, the odds of a blockade runner being captured were only 1 in 4. Befor e After Salt Coffee $6.50/ton $249/ton $1,700/ton $5,500/ton
  55. 55. Confederate commerce raiding by cruisers such as the CSS Alabama: • Mostly foreign built with foreign crews and Southern officers • Caused the decline of the Northern merchant marine
  56. 56. CSS Chickamauga Cruiser’s purpose was to: • Weaken the blockade • Keep over 100 Union ships busy
  57. 57. The most famous and successful of the Confederate cruiser skippers Captain Raphael Semmes
  58. 58. CSS Sumter • Captured 17 Union ships before being cornered in Gibraltar • Sold Sumter and made his way to England CAPT Raphael Semmes
  59. 59. CSS Alabama • Sailed to Portugal to pick up armament • Crewed by English and Irish volunteers
  60. 60. CSS Alabama • Sank 20 ships in the North Atlantic • Cruised the world’s oceans for 18
  61. 61. CSS Alabama’s Last Battle Cherbour g Englan d Franc e Holland
  62. 62. USS Kearsarge • French refused Semmes docking rights when the Kearsarge arrived off Cherbourg, France. • Semmes challenged Winslow to a single-ship duel. CAPT John Winslow
  63. 63. Deerhound • Deerhound observed the action. • Kearsarge was a faster vessel with better ammunition.
  64. 64. • Semmes tried to beach his ship. • Deerhound picked up survivors and took them to England. CSS Alabama USS Kearsarge
  65. 65. • Alabama had captured 71 Union ships. • British government later had to pay CSS Alabama
  66. 66. CSS Shenandoah • Wreaked havoc on Union whaling ships in the Aleutians • All but destroyed the American whaling industry
  67. 67. ALASKA Aleutian Islands
  68. 68. END OF PART THREE

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