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Marine Corps History


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HIstory of the US MArine Corp

Marine Corps History

  1. 3. <ul><li>The marines were first used by ancient Greece, Rome, and the Vikings during the dark ages. </li></ul>
  2. 4. The Greeks used marines on ships to fight off Persian attacks. Themistocles issued a decree that every ship have 20 marines.
  3. 5. Romans also used Marines but not only on sea but on land. They lasted through out the remainder of the empire.
  4. 6. <ul><li>Vikings were also considered to be marines because of their “ship to land” raids. </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>The royal Marines were formed October 28, 1664 during the early stages of the second Dutch war. </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>As early as 1740, the Royal Marines were formed about 3000 strong against Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>They were know as “Gooch’s Marines” after Colonel William Gooch. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1741 these Marines Secured Guantanamo Bay, Cuba as a British fleet base. </li></ul>
  7. 11. <ul><li>The Continental Marines were formed November 10, 1775 which later to be known as the U.S Marine Corps. </li></ul><ul><li>They were formed up after an attempt to make a peaceful solution between Britain and the American colonies failed. </li></ul>
  8. 12. <ul><li>This resolution was drafted in a Philadelphia inn called Tun tavern and was approved by the entire legislative body. </li></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>The American Marines made a quick impact with the first Continental Navy in 1776. </li></ul><ul><li>They made their very first amphibious landing in New Providence in the Bahamas. </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>After Samuel Nicholas’s battalion of marines fought with George Washington's army in the Christmas time of 1776, they set a new precedent for themselves, they would not be limited to service in the Navy but on land operations as well. </li></ul>
  11. 16. <ul><li>The United States Marines have served in several other battle through out the years </li></ul>Most being small battles. But all helped to make them become their own professional branch of the military. One of these battle is the Derna Campaign.
  12. 18. <ul><li>In 1805, William Eaton, former consul to Tunis, sailed to Egypt with Marine Lieutenant Presley O’Bannon and 7 enlisted marines. He was to find Hamet, previous Bashaw of Tripoli, who was deposed by his brother. He was enlisted in the scheme to over throw the current Bashaw and end the war in Tripoli. </li></ul>The Lieutenant recruited a force of mercenaries from several western countries to help reinforce the 100 Arab soldiers fighting under Hamet. The small army started along the North African desert when they were met by another couple hundred Arabs willing to fight for a price.
  13. 19. <ul><li>The small army completed its 600 mile march when they arrived at the hills above Derna. The 800 defender inside the fort had nine artillery cannons. Eaton and his force were outnumbered, outgunned, and would have to attack across an open plain. Two days later three US Navy ships arrived off the coast and brought two heavy guns ashore. But Eaton could only get one ready in time for the attack. </li></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>Hamet took most of his men around to the southern flank of the fort. O'Bannon led about 60 men to the eastern flank of the fort while the ships bombarded the fort. O'Bannon's force took heavy casualties so Eaton ordered a charge with the rest of the men while having the Marines leading the way. The enemies inside the fort were frightened at eh sight of bayonet tipped rifles charging at them. </li></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>O’Bannon and his remaining men kept charging through the enemies defenses right into the fort. Where he put up the American flag for the first time over foreign soil. While Hemet's forces captured the governors palace on the other side of town. A larger Tripoliton army tried retaking the fort but failed. On June 3 rd 1805 the Bashaw held his throne by signing a peace treaty with the United States and freeing the Philadelphia's crew and the Barbary wars ended. </li></ul>
  16. 23. The Civil War Marines In 1861, the civil war started. At the beginning, the Marine Corp’s total strength was 1,892 men. As the Army and the Navy had, a number of Marines felt obligated to defect to the South and their home states.
  17. 24. The Civil War Marines The Confederates The Confederate congress authorized a Marine Corps of 10 companies. The confederate Corps strength was at 539 men, 2 captains, 3 lieutenants, and 62 enlisted men who were prisoners of war.
  18. 25. The Civil War Marines The Union After the defection of the confederates, the remaining Marines, 13 officers and 336 enlisted, left at the barrack were quickly formed into a battalion. At the first battle of Bull Run, the Union Marines made a valiant stand before having to retreat when their flanks gave in. That was the first, and last instance of Marines turning their backs to an enemy.
  19. 27. <ul><li>The Spanish-American War, that took place between May and August of 1898, was a short but crucial war in American History. The four month conflict marked the transition of America being a growing nation, into a global super power. </li></ul>
  20. 28. <ul><li>The battle-cruiser, the USS Maine, was anchored in Havana’s harbor, Cuba, to quell a troublesome situation. In 1898, she blew up mysteriously and took her entire crew of 232 sailors and 28 marines with her. </li></ul>
  21. 29. <ul><li>The reaction of the U.S. was fierce. The public wanted retaliation. In April, the congress voted for an intervention. And President McKinley declared a state of war. </li></ul>
  22. 30. <ul><li>CMC Heywood immediately ordered the formation of a battalion of marines. Five days later it was en route to Key West by Sea. </li></ul>
  23. 31. <ul><li>In Manila Bay, Philippines, Commo George Dewey, commander of the American Asiatic squadron, received his orders. On May 1 st , he was to open fire on the Spanish Squadron that was anchored. Seven enemy ships were heavily damaged along with shore batteries. 381 Spanish sailors were killed, and many wounded. Dewey's squadron had only several minor injuries. </li></ul>
  24. 32. <ul><li>Marines manned the Ships secondary gun batteries. Following the battle, a Marines detachment force was sent to shore to Raise the Stars and Stripes over the Cavite naval station. Which remained a U.S. naval facility for almost a century. </li></ul>
  25. 33. <ul><li>In Cuba, LtCol Robert Huntington’s marine battalion, the same Marine battalion that had been ordered to be raised, was sent to seize and secure Guantanamo Bay as an advanced base to help support the major assault on the nearby city of Santiago, where the Spanish fleet was held up in the harbor. Huntington’s Marines landed to receive only sporadic resistance, took Guantanamo. </li></ul>
  26. 34. <ul><li>On July 14, Marines mixed with Cuban guerillas fought to secure the well, which was a vital supply of the enemies water. Naval gunfire support was ineffective, and enemy shells began hitting Marines. Sgt John quickly jumped on top of a ridge, that put him in the wide open to enemy fire, to signal to the navy to redirect fire. He was quickly awarded the Medal of Honor. </li></ul>
  27. 35. <ul><li>Admiral Hyman Rickover speculated in the 1970’s, that the spontaneous ignition of coal and dust in the air caused the explosion. Years after the event, a seaman admitted that the unauthorized smoking of cigarettes war customary next to the powder magazine. </li></ul>
  28. 36. <ul><li>Since its creation, the Marine Corp never numbered much over 3,000 on average, during the nineteenth century it managed to fly their banner high and everywhere they went. </li></ul>
  29. 37. <ul><li>Following the Spanish-American war, America became the new world power after acquiring the Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii. </li></ul>
  30. 39. <ul><li>In 1900 an uprising in China was started by the “Righteous Fists of Harmony” (or Boxers by the British) set out to expel all “foreign Devils” from their country. Which threatened American and other legations in Peking (Beijing). In May, 56 Marines landed at Tientsin (Tianjin) and traveled sixty miles inland to where the American legation was under siege. Other countries, such as France, Russia, Germany, Australia, Italy, and Japan also sent troops there to protect their own legation. </li></ul>The Boxer Rebellion
  31. 40. <ul><li>The status of the city was so tense, that the Marines had to clear the streets around the legation at bayonet-point. The boxers and Chinese imperial forces cut off the supply routes. And forced the international forces navies to bring in reinforcements. </li></ul>
  32. 41. <ul><li>LtCol Waller landed a battalion of marines along with some White Russian Soldiers (Russians separated from the red army from the civil war) had hi-jacked a train to transport the reinforcements to Peking. While en route they were attacked and engaged in a tense firefight. The Russians pulled back to leave the rest up to the US Marines who had to take the casualties also. </li></ul>
  33. 42. <ul><li>The American legation was built against a high thick “Tartar wall” in the southwest section of the legation quarter, the others were in the other quadrants. In the beginning, international forces was up to six thousand. And kept building up to about eighteen thousand. On top of the Tartar wall was Pvt Daniel Daly who single handedly warded off constant enemy attacks until reinforcements arrived. For that act he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor </li></ul>
  34. 43. <ul><li>This major encounter lasted on and off until the start of WW II. Five hundred marines were station to protect the US legation in the Chinese capitol. This encounter is where the Marines earned the additional title of Embassy Guards. </li></ul>
  35. 45. <ul><li>Newly appointed commandant, MajGen George Barnett sent officers to France to observe the fighting going on there in 1914-1915. Their reports focused mainly on the use of machine guns, aviation fighting, artillery cannons, trucks, and trench warfare techniques. </li></ul>
  36. 46. <ul><li>British and French forces were requesting the assistance of U.S Marines to help boost allied morale. The French were growing weary of the stalemate trench warfare. And the British's economy sank after losing supplies to submarine sinkings. U.S.A. declared war on Germany in 1917 </li></ul>
  37. 47. <ul><li>President Woodrow Wilson's reasons for declaring war on Germany was because of Germany’s violation of it’s pledge of suspending unrestricted submarine warfare in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean seas. And their attempts to entice Mexico into an alliance against the United States. </li></ul>
  38. 48. <ul><li>The news of the US going to war with Germany caused tons of volunteers to enlist. The Marines had to open up a new recruit depot. Thousands of volunteers were turned away, allowing the Marine Corp to pick and choose the best. </li></ul>
  39. 49. <ul><li>The Marines Aviation was created in 1918 and landed at Cailais France. In one month the Marine Corp Aviators flew 57 bombing missions, shot down 12 enemy aircraft, and had two people receive medals of honor. But, they never used their abilities to aid ground units as intended. </li></ul>
  40. 50. <ul><li>Probably the most harsh and fierce battle of the war was the battle of Belleau wood. Marines lost over 1,000 men in that battle to enemy rifle, machine gun, and artillery fire. Which is the most losses they’ve ever sustained in the history of the Marines (at that time). Even though taking heavy losses they still managed to push the Germans out of the forest of Belleau wood. </li></ul>
  41. 51. <ul><li>Company Commander, Clifton Cates captured the surrounding town of Bouresches. And even though his increasing casualties, still managed to take, and hold it. The Germans finally retreated after the weeklong battle, however the battalion had been so badly decimated that it was no longer considered battle worthy and was relieved </li></ul>
  42. 52. The 2 nd army division and the French 4 th army division captured the town of Soissons before moving on to Saint-Mihiel. The command of the army division was then turned over to the Marines. By this time the Germans were identifying the Marines as the elite. The Germans called them “Teufel Hunden” or “devil dogs” which is how they adopted the nickname.
  43. 53. <ul><li>The Marines attacked Saint-Mihiel and then attacked Sedan, then were relived. The French 4 th army and the two Marine regiments leading the way in the Meuse-Argonne offensive, which turned out to be the last of the war. On the 11 th hour, of the 11 th day, of the 11 th month, the Germans surrenderd. </li></ul>
  44. 55. <ul><li>The USA got involved in WW2 when Japan attacked our navy at pearl harbor. America’s reaction was intense and ferocious. The small Marine aviation installation gave the Japanese a battle they weren’t expecting. </li></ul>
  45. 56. <ul><li>At pearl harbor, the Japanese attacked with over 200 aircraft, and bombed ever American military installation in the area. American military units fired at them with what ever they could gather up. </li></ul>
  46. 57. <ul><li>The next day, Japanese launched assaults on Burma, Malaya, Singapore, Hong Kong, and the Philippines. 204 marines were immediately brought back for Peking, Tientsin, Chinwangao to help defend from an attack on the major attack on Midway, a US island. And the Japanese attacked and captured the head islands of the Aleutian chain off of Alaska </li></ul>
  47. 58. <ul><li>The Battle of wake island was a heroic effort by the marines, navy and even civilians. Shortly after the attack on pearl harbor, the Japanese attacked wake island. Thirty-six bombers attacked wake island and destroyed most of the American planes on the ground. </li></ul>
  48. 59. <ul><li>Following the aerial attack on wake, the Japanese tried a follow-up landing with 1,000 assault troops using four assault transports. The marine commander, Maj Devereux, waited for the Japanese invaders to enter a close enough range for the shore batteries while taking heavy fire from the destroyer ships covering the invaders. </li></ul>
  49. 60. <ul><li>The defenders at wake destroyed 2 Japanese destroyers, and damaged other ships. He stunned attackers quickly pulled back to patch their wounds. In their retreat Marine aviators sank another destroyer and submarine. Many Japanese aircraft were shot down by pilots and antiaircraft guns on the ground. </li></ul>
  50. 61. <ul><li>More than 850 Japanese were killed at the first attempt. Marine morale raised as news of reinforcements buzzed around. Eventually two aircraft carriers arrived but pulled back as not to lose anymore naval ships due to pearl harbor. The island took bombardment after bombardment and patched and re-patched its fighter squadron until the last Wildcat Fighter plane was destroyed. The remaining five fighters managed to fight for most of the next two weeks </li></ul>
  51. 62. <ul><li>When all the planes were gone, the five remaining pilots joined the fight as infantry. When the final invasion came, One of the pilots led a charge against the landing Japanese and got a medal of honor. The fighting became intense and was fought with bayonets and hand-to-hand. Eventually The marine commander ordered the surrender of all units. The marines who didn’t take kindly to the idea fought alone for a while then eventually surrendered. </li></ul>
  52. 63. <ul><li>Japanese loses exceeded 2,000 killed to the hands of so few (roughly 400) Marines. It was the most embarrassing loss for the Japanese who thought themselves to be invincible. The Japanese didn’t treat their POW’s well. They killed hundreds and beheaded several marines. The Japanese commander in charge was executed for war crimes and inhumane treatment. </li></ul>
  53. 64. <ul><li>The island of Corregidor had hundreds of thousands of Marines and Philippine rebels on it. All were taken prisoner by the Japanese. They were all taken to Bataan in the Philippines. Thousands died on the way. Many were killed. But were eventually rescued by a small Marine force. </li></ul>
  54. 65. <ul><li>The first ground counter-offensive the US made in WW2 was on the Japanese airstrip under construction in the Guadalcanal. At first they had opposition only from the construction crew. But Japan didn’t hesitate to send reinforcements nightly. </li></ul>
  55. 66. <ul><li>The fighting became fierce as more and more reinforcements on both sides kept coming in. Soon the navy and army were defending with the Marines to hold the captured airfield. Despite all the received reinforcements, casualties, disease, and fatigue put the 1 st Marine Division below 50% effectiveness, and were relieved. </li></ul>
  56. 67. <ul><li>The 1 st Marines Division fought extraordinary and turned the tide of the battle between the US and the Japanese. And became respected by them. victory after victory forced the Japanese to take defensive actions in battles later to come. Such as Guam, Tinian, and Saipan. </li></ul>
  57. 68. <ul><li>The bloodiest battle of WW2 was the battle for Iwo Jima. The enemy was heavily dug into the volcanic island. With over 600 bunkers, pillboxes (gun turret boxes in the shape of a pill) caves and gun emplacements. They had a big gun in the highest part of the island that overlooked not only the Marines landing point, but the entire island. </li></ul>
  58. 69. <ul><li>The Japanese also had all the tunnels to interlock so virtually every square-meter of the island was covered by weapon sites witch made every step a risky movement. The terrain of the island was ash-like dirt because of the volcano, so vehicle movement and even foot progress was a challenge. </li></ul>
  59. 70. <ul><li>Bombing and fighter strafing runs went on for months and did hardly any damage to the enemy. It was followed by the invasion of ground units. By nightfall, 4 th and 5 th Marine Divisions landed 30,000 men onshore taking 2,300 casualties. </li></ul>
  60. 71. <ul><li>Led by the tanks that landed ashore, 5 th Marines Division cut across the island at the base of he volcano. They took heavy casualties on the way but the tanks managed to make their way to the top and secure it. </li></ul>
  61. 72. <ul><li>One Marine from the first patrol to make it to the top was given a small boat flag on a pole. But it was too short for everyone to see on the island. Later on, a much larger flag was brought but it was still too short. So they found a long pole inside a cave and 6 men helped put it up as two photographers took pictures. </li></ul>
  62. 73. <ul><li>Below the volcano, Marines fought on fighting an invisible enemy. They secured the nearest airfield and were joined by two new regiments of Marines. A new tactic of using handheld flame thrower and flame thrower tanks was working well with demolition teams to clear out bunkers, tunnels, and obstacles. </li></ul>
  63. 74. <ul><li>After five weeks of fighting we finally took the island from the Japanese who started killing them selves, as it was dishonorable to be take prisoner by the enemy. Marine casualties were extremely high. Officers and senior NCO’s became casualties and the leadership responsibilities were up to sergeants. 21,000 Japanese defenders were killed, and Marines lost 5,931 men and 17,372 were wounded. </li></ul>
  64. 75. <ul><li>Not long after, an Atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. The Japanese didn’t surrender as expected right away. The USA demonstrated that we had more bombs by dropping a second one on Nagasaki. After that the Japanese accepted defeat and surrendered unconditionally, and ended the war. </li></ul>
  65. 77. <ul><li>In 1960 JFK sent US Army and Marine advisors to south Vietnam to help the people there. Soon after JFK’s assassination, president Johnson took over the Vietnam affair and the American presence in Vietnam Swelled. After an attack on US navy ships by NVA (North Vietnam Army) gun boats, Johnson urged congress to pass the Tonkin Gulf resolution, which would give him the power needed to increase Americas involvement in Vietnam. </li></ul>
  66. 78. <ul><li>The ten-year-long war in southeast Asia was a disastrous event. It was poorly planned by President Johnson and Robert McNamara and a team of corporate “whiz kids” from Ford Motor Company, who all had no combat experience at all. Reporters and journalists were allowed to walk freely throughout war zones which fed the American public negative information on the war constantly. The ultimate end of the war which America pulled out of, was the NVA’s conquest of south Vietnam 3 years later. </li></ul>
  67. 79. <ul><li>Despite the American publics opposition to the and all the negative feedback back home, the Marines fought on brave and fiercely. The type of war was different, however, from other wars. The missions the Army and Marines were given to do were all repetitive search and destroy (or clear and sweep” missions. No main objective but to put more body tallies on the enemies casualty list. </li></ul>
  68. 80. <ul><li>There was no Front line (or line of resistance) in this war. Just strong points or points that needed to be defended. Troops move to target on foot or were dropped nearby by a new tactic put into use, helicopter troops. Personnel were dropped nearby targets to fight the invisible Vietcong (VC) guerilla troops. </li></ul>
  69. 81. <ul><li>The enemy in Vietnam was mostly farmers and peasants who resorted to barbaric and primitive traps and weapons. Including Punji (bamboo sharpened to needle point) in covered pits placed by helicopter drop zones. And Malayan whips ( Punji on heavy rope sprung trees that would smash down when a wire was tripped and “bounding betty” mines (Russian mines that would bounce up and explode). </li></ul>Bouncing Betty’s Punji pit
  70. 82. <ul><li>Occasionally US troops would encounter NVA. Unlike WWII or the Korean war, there was no large enemy unit to attack. Just small firefights with the peasants and farmers. </li></ul>
  71. 83. <ul><li>The Tet offensive was the NVA’s offensive on all the American bases in Vietnam. They failed however to capture or hold a village. American embassy’s all over Vietnam were attacked from all sides by thousand of infantry units. </li></ul>
  72. 84. <ul><li>The longest and most fierce battle of the Vietnam war was the battle for Hue (pronounced hu-ey) city. It was a neutral city, give or take, but had some ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam) units inside. Nevertheless, NVA dressed in civilian uniforms, infiltrated, and took over the city. After heavy fighting, Marines and ARVN took back the city. But were stopped for a while by NVA taking shelter in a building they made a fortress. More marines were called in to reinforce the push throughout the city. </li></ul>
  73. 85. <ul><li>The battle went on house by house street by street. The fighting was intense and tiring, but before the month long battle was over the NVA attacked with 3 Russian amphibious tanks. The Tet offensive took the Marines by surprise but initially failed and the VC were wiped out. In the end of the battle for Hue NVA lost 10,000 soldiers. The Marines lost 142. Militarily it was disastrous for the NVA </li></ul>
  74. 86. <ul><li>At the end of the war, the Paris Peace Accords were signed. In 1973 by North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Vietcong, and the USA which signed for the release of 649 prisoners, 26 of which were Marines. 47 Marines are still Missing in action. </li></ul>
  75. 88. <ul><li>Marines of today have change a great deal since the revolutionary war, and even WWII. The style of combat has also changed since WWII and the revolutionary war. Instead of charging into a field with thousands of guys, now its mostly urban combat. Now small groups of men are needed to clear buildings and streets. From time to time, large groups of men are needed to storm and area like in D-Day at Omaha beach. </li></ul>
  76. 89. <ul><li>The weapons have changed a lot from the single shot muskets of the revolutionary war till now. The rifle in the revolutionary war, you had to put gun powder in the gun, then the bullet in through the barrel and then push it down with the ram-rod and light the fuse. </li></ul>
  77. 90. <ul><li>Then they changed to bolt action rifles which you had a bout 7 or 8 rounds in the rifle, but after each shot you had to cock it by pulling back the bolt and pushing it back to get the round out of the chamber and load the new one. </li></ul>
  78. 91. <ul><li>Then they changed to the M1 Garand semi-automatic rifle. Which you could load with 8 rounds fire all eight without having to re-cock it. Which has since changed to the first fully automatic rifle, the M-16. Which is loaded with a magazine full of rounds that u can hold the trigger and shoot non-stop until empty. </li></ul>
  79. 92. <ul><li>The use of Marines has also since changed since the early days of their creation. They were originally used as troops on ships to invade the shore. Now they don’t need to be kept on ships as much. Because of the helicopter, they don’t need to get into enemy territory by invading the coast and working our way there, they can get dropped right in the middle to complete their objective. </li></ul>
  80. 93. <ul><li>In addition to those changes, because of the use of Airplanes in WW1, the marines adopted their own air corps in 1918. Combat on the ground has changed for the marines with the invention of the tank in 1915 and the invention of the car in 1885. </li></ul>
  81. 94. <ul><li>Boot camp for Marines still is as tough as it ever was. They teach you discipline, self respect and respect to others, and how to be your own individual. </li></ul><ul><li>They have added what is called the crucible. </li></ul>
  82. 95. <ul><li>The crucible is a series of events and challenges at the end of boot camp. The completion of the is your initiation into the Marine Corps. You are given enough food for two days. 5 hours of sleep for a coarse of 3 days. It was removed from the program for a while because it was failing too many people. But they recreated it and its part of their program once more, just a little easier to pass but still a physical, and mental test of a lifetime. </li></ul>
  83. 96. <ul><li>Marines have always been quick to respond to a crisis and will continue to do so as long as this Country is still standing. </li></ul>
  84. 98. <ul><li>My reason for joining the Marines is for a couple reasons. I didn’t want a job that would have me working behind a desk. I wanted something physical, like firefighting, which is my goal for when I retire the Marines. I also wanted to join because it offers an opportunity to improve yourself. You get self discipline and self respect. It will help me become a better person. I chose Marines over the others because I didn’t want to join the navy because I don’t like the ocean much. I didn’t join the Air Force because it seems boring to me, the only thing interesting to me in there is to be a pilot, which only 4%-3% become pilots. I didn’t want to join the army because they aren't as well trained as the Marines. I wanted a combat related job if I was to join the military, so the choice was pretty much between Army and Marines. Right now I’m going to be combat support (artillery, tanks, and amphibious assault vehicles) then later on I’m going to switch to crash fir rescue or something related to help me with my firefighting career. </li></ul>
  85. 99. <ul><li>My personal opinion about WWII is that we provoked Japan into attacking us at Pearl Harbor. I Believe we wanted to get involved but didn’t want to just jump in. So we sent supplies to China to help them fight Japan. When the Japanese asked us for some we denied them. We broke the neutrality law, so Japan attacked us. We wanted an excuse to join. I'm slightly a conspiratist, so I think our government does a lot of funky stuff. Like the Spanish American war. I don’t believe we blew up our own boat on purpose, but, I think we used it as an excuse to get involved. </li></ul>
  86. 100. <ul><li>Web site </li></ul><ul><li>USMC A complete History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonel Jon T. Hoffman USMCR (Ret.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beth L. Crumley, Illustration Editor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauux Arts Editions, Published by Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc Copyright 2002 Marine Corps Association </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semper Fi: the definitive illustrated history of the U.S. Marines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonel H. Avery Chenoweth USMCR (Ret.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonel Brooke Nihart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreword by James Brady, author of the Marines of Autumn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Published 2005 by Sterling Publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photos from </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training Ground from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scotland the brave from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Castle tank boss from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine wars from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam from </li></ul></ul>