The War Rages On


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The War Rages On

  1. 1. THE WAR RAGES ON Essential Questions: 1. What new types of weapons were used in the Civil War? 2. Who was Robert E. Lee? 3. How did Robert E. Lee and George McClellan lead and fight on the battlefield? 4. What was the Battle of Antietam and why was it important? 5. What was the Emancipation Proclamation? 6. Why was the Emancipation Proclamation important?
  2. 2. Ironclads  It was a steam-propelled warship  Protected by iron or steel armor plates  Grant used the Ironclad ship when he captured Fort Henry and Donelson  On March 9, 1862 the North’s ironclad Monitor traded fire with the South’s ironclad Merrimack  It was a draw  With this battle the era of wooden fighting ships was over
  3. 3. New Weapons  Even more deadly than the invention of the ironclad was new weapons  The Rifle  The minie ball  Rifles  Were more accurate than old- fashioned muskets  Soldiers could load rifles more quickly  Minie Ball  A soft lead bullet that was more destructive that earlier bullets  Troops also used primitive hand grenades and land mines in battle
  4. 4. George McClellan and Robert E. Lee  McClellan was a cautious leader  Trained 120,000 man army for five months  Then he said he could not attack the Confederate capital of Richmond until he had an army of 270,000 troops  Finally, McClellan marched towards Richmond in the spring of 1862  McClellan was engaged by an army led by Robert E. Lee  Lee had opposed secession  He refused to fight against his beloved state of Virginia  Turned down an offer to lead the Union army
  5. 5. McClellan vs. Lee  Lee engaged McClellan in battle from June 25 to July 1, 1862  Seven Days Battle  Lee’s unorthodox fighting and determination led the Confederates to victory  Lee then moved on the Union’s capital… Washington D.C.  Lee won an overwhelming victory at the Second Battle of Bull Run  A few days later Lee crossed the Potomac
  6. 6. McClellan's Luck  A Union corporal exploring where the Confederates had camped found Lee’s army orders  They were wrapped around a bunch of cigars  The orders showed Lee and Stonewall Jackson would be separated  McClellan acted aggressively and moved towards Lee
  7. 7. A Creek Called Antietam  On September 17, 1862 the two armies fought beside a creek called Antietam  Bloodiest single day in American history  26,000 soldiers died in the battle  As many as the War of 1812 and the War with Mexico combined  The battle turned into a stalemate, but the Confederates retreated across the Potomac  As they were retreating McClellan…did nothing  He could have ended the Civil War  November 7, 1862 Lincoln fired McClellan
  8. 8. Lincoln’s View on Slavery  In the north abolitionist feelings grew  Began to feel winning the war was not enough  Issue of slavery had to be settled  Lincoln disliked slavery but he did not believe the government had the power to abolish it where it existed  But as the war progressed he used his presidential powers to end slavery  He decided that just as he could order the Union army to seize confederate supplies he could authorize the army to emancipate slaves  Means freeing someone from the control of another
  9. 9. Emancipation Proclamation (1863)  It was actually two orders issued by Lincoln:  Second, issued January 1, 1863, named ten specific states where it would apply.  What did it do?  Applied only to areas behind Confederate lines, and outside of Union control  Was a military action aimed at the states in rebellion  Did not apply to Southern territory already occupied by the Union  Did not apply to the slave states that had not seceded
  10. 10. Reactions to the Proclamation  Proclamation had little practical effect  But it had immense symbolic importance  It gave the war a high moral purpose  It turned the war into a struggle to fight to free slaves  Free Blacks welcomed the Proclamation since it allowed them to fight in the Union army  After the Emancipation was issued there was no chance for compromise  It was now a fight to the death