By Crystal True

CROSSROADS OF FREEDOM
Chapter One
In May of 1861, the eleven
states of the Confederacy had
established a functioning
government at Richmond, and...
Chapter One
 Fort Henry was captured on
February 6, Nashville on
February 25, and General
Burnsides captured Roanoke
Islan...
Chapter Two
The first instance of the Union
not doing so well was in the
Shenandoah Valley in 1862. The
new Confederate Ge...
Chapter Two
On July 1, Lincoln issued a call
for 300,000 new three year
volunteers. Congress also
authorize Lincoln to cal...
Chapter Three
The Union continued to fail.
In late June of 1862, the
Union gunboat flotilla, and
part of Farragut’s fleet ...
Chapter Three
Although Lincoln, and
many others in his
administration despised
McClellan, they once
again asked him to tak...
Chapter Four
Lee had launched his invasion of
Maryland with 55,000 men , but
within a week to ten days, 10,000
of these ha...
Chapter Four
On Sept. 15, McClellan
arrived on the east side of
Antietam Creek. Eventually,
Lee had fewer than 4,000
men t...
Chapter Five
The Army of Northern
Virginia had been badly
hurt and would not
resume the offensive for
another eight months...
Chapter Five
On Sept. 24, Lincoln
also issued a second
edict suspending the
writ of Habeas Corpus,
and authorized military...
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Crossroads Of Freedom

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Crossroads Of Freedom

  1. 1. By Crystal True CROSSROADS OF FREEDOM
  2. 2. Chapter One In May of 1861, the eleven states of the Confederacy had established a functioning government at Richmond, and had armies to control all 750,000 miles of it. In order to be the victor, all the South needed to do was to protect what it already possessed. Accordingly, in order for the Union to win, it had to invade the Confederacy, defeat it’s armies, conquer and occupy it’s territories, and destroy it’s government. Although the Union met with many defeats in the first year of war, along with the Union blockade being ineffective. Additionally, General George B. McClellan was defective, and also disdained abolitionists and President Lincoln. He also came down with typhoid fever and had to be replaced. As a result , an unknown Brigadier General named Ulysses S. Grant took control of the Union troops, and overnight, the Union began to triumph Grant formed a join navy-army effort in order to capture the South’s forts and open the river to Union gunboats.
  3. 3. Chapter One Fort Henry was captured on February 6, Nashville on February 25, and General Burnsides captured Roanoke Island, New Bern, Fort Macon, Beaufort, as well as other ports on the North Carolina Sounds. Despite theses losses, the Confederate’s elected Jefferson Davis as president on February 22. On April 6, the battle of Shiloh was fought to capture Corinth. It was the most intense battle yet, and casualties on both sides equaled 15, ooo. Eventually, Corinth surrendered, as well as Natchez, Baton Rouge, and on June 6, Memphis. After McClellan recovered from typhoid in January 1862, Lincoln pressured him to move against the Confederate army in the Manassas, Centreville area. McClellan always overestimated the size of the Confederate army, so prepared to lay seige, with heavy artillery. This frightened the Confederates and they retreated. The Confederates began to lose hope, and their only hope was Europe who relied heavily their cotton industry. England said that they would only give diplomatic recognition when they witnessed the South’s ability to survive.
  4. 4. Chapter Two The first instance of the Union not doing so well was in the Shenandoah Valley in 1862. The new Confederate General “Stonewall “ Jackson was so successful that he was feared in the North. The Confederate’s main victory was at Winchester on May 25 when they drove Bank’s routed division in precipitate flight all the way across the Potomac into Maryland. Confederate General Johnston attacked a portion of McClellan’s army but was wounded and replaced by Robert E. Lee. Lee became Davis’s military adviser. The Seven days battle was even more good news for the South, and caused a panic in the North, and in Wall Street, and sent stocks and the value of the new greenback dollar into a freefall. Although McClellan failed in this battle, the Democratic press blamed the administration and Secretary of War Stanton for failing to send him the reinforcements he needed. On June 17, Lincoln summoned General John Pope to take command of the Army of Virginia. Pope and McClellan disdained each other. He also appointed Henry W. Halleck general in chief on July 11.
  5. 5. Chapter Two On July 1, Lincoln issued a call for 300,000 new three year volunteers. Congress also authorize Lincoln to call state militia into federal service for 9 months, and also to draft. England and France began to call for an intervention once they heard of the South’s recent success. However, British Prime Minister Palmerston would not take any action until he saw more Southern victories. Also, slavery was a huge stumbling block for Europeans, and some said that the south must first abolish slavery. If Lincoln abolished slavery this could cripple the South, but he had no constitutional power to do so. On August 6, 1861, Congress passed a confiscation act that authorized the seizure of all property including slaves, that had been used in aiding the rebellion. The North also made the resolution to become more severe in it’s dealings with the South because of Jackson and Lee’s bold counteroffensives.
  6. 6. Chapter Three The Union continued to fail. In late June of 1862, the Union gunboat flotilla, and part of Farragut’s fleet met at Vicksburg and tried to win control of this “Gibraltar of the West.” However, the Confederates had built their own gunboat, the CSS Arkansas, and won the battle. Additionally, a battle to capture Chattanooga failed, supply depots destroyed, Union prisoners taken, a much depended on railroad destroyed, and three bridges burned. Illness also struck many of McClellan’s men, prompting him to ask for reinforcements. The second battle of Bull Run began on August 28, and ended on September 1, and was another humiliating defeat for the Union when it ended only fifteen miles from Washington.
  7. 7. Chapter Three Although Lincoln, and many others in his administration despised McClellan, they once again asked him to take command of all Union troops. His arrival revived the spirits of the soldiers. After this, Lee proposed to invade Maryland, and his troops began crossing the Potomac forty miles upriver from Washington on September 4. He believed he would be well received in Maryland, assuming that the people had southern sympathies and wished to be free from the Union, however he was met with a lukewarm welcome.
  8. 8. Chapter Four Lee had launched his invasion of Maryland with 55,000 men , but within a week to ten days, 10,000 of these had dropped out for physical rather than ideological reasons. As the Army of the Potomac marched northward through Maryland, the friendly welcome they received in Maryland revived their spirits. Before the battle of Sharpsburg began, a union corporal discovered orders and battle plans made by General Lee. Ultimately however, this find did not help the North, because McClellan like always waited to act, and did so for 18 hours giving Lee all the time he needed to avert disaster. On Sept. 14, the Union fort Harpers Ferry surrendered to the Confederates. However, on the night of Sept. 14-15 the southern casualties amounted to almost a quarter of all the troops that were not besieging Harpers Ferry. In order to save his army, Lee retreated to Virginia and abandoned his campaign. When Lee received the news that he had captured Harper’s Ferry, he had made it as far as Sharpsburg and decided to stay there.
  9. 9. Chapter Four On Sept. 15, McClellan arrived on the east side of Antietam Creek. Eventually, Lee had fewer than 4,000 men to defend against Burnside’s 13,000, although the Confederate’s continued to hold high ground. Burnside at last got his whole line moving forward across the hills and fields south of Sharpsburg. Although the Confederates put up a stiff resistance, the weight of the Union numbers pushed them back to the edge of Sharpsburg. However, the Confederate A.P. Hill arrived just in time and created a domino effect on other Union regiments. McClellan then received more reinforcements and the battle halted. During the night of September 18, the Army of Northern Virginia got away, much to the delight of McClellan.
  10. 10. Chapter Five The Army of Northern Virginia had been badly hurt and would not resume the offensive for another eight months. On Sept. 13th Lincoln met with a delegation of Chicago clergy who urged him to make a proclamation of emancipation. Five days later, Lincoln called a special meeting of the cabinet and declared that it was the right time to issue the proclamation. Though many disagreed, in the end, it would be sustained by the great mass of the loyal people. In England, the news of Confederate defeats cause Palmerston to back away from the idea of intervention, and the emancipation proclamation furthered
  11. 11. Chapter Five On Sept. 24, Lincoln also issued a second edict suspending the writ of Habeas Corpus, and authorized military trials. Northern Democrats declared the emancipation proclamation as unconstitutional and tried to appeal to the racial prejudices of many Northern voters. After even more delays and blunders made by McClellan, Lincoln finally removed him from command and ordered Burnside to take control of the army on November 7.

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