Teacher Student Interaction-TA Approach Eric Berne By Bhaskar j naidu Lecturer in Mining
Transactional analysis is a theory of personality and a systematic psychotherapy for personal growth and personal change. Among psychological approaches, it is outstanding in the depth of its theory and the wide variety of its applications.
Key Ideas in Transactional Analysis 1. Ego State Model (PAC Model): An ego state is a set of related behaviors, thoughts, and feelings, a way in which we manifest a part of our personality at a given time. Transactional analysis portrays three ego states: Adult (behaving, thinking, feeling in response to what is going on around me in the here and now), Parent (behaving, thinking, feeling in ways that are a copy of one of my parents or other parent figures), and Child (behaving, thinking, feeling that I used when I was a child). When we use the ego-state model to understand personality, we are employing structural analysis.
2. Transactions, Strokes, Time Structuring: One can address you from any of ego states, and you can reply in turn. This exchange is a transaction. The use of the ego-state model to analyze sequences of transactions is transactional analysis proper. When you and I transact, I signal recognition of you and you return that recognition; any act of recognition is a stroke. People need strokes to maintain their psychical and psychological well-being. When people transact in groups or pairs, they use time in various specific ways which can be listed and analyzed; this is the analysis of time structuring
From Attitudes to Transaction <ul><li>“ Can you have a look at this document?” </li></ul><ul><li> Can you guess whether this person has a positive </li></ul><ul><li> or negative feeling towards the one with whom he is </li></ul><ul><li> conversing? </li></ul>
WE ALL HAVE 3 EGO STATES INSIDE OF US WHETHER WE ARE BIG OR SMALL
PEOPLE HAVE CHARACTERISTIC WAYS OF TALKING AND LISTENING, OR NOT !
WHAT WE SEE ON THE OUTSIDE MAY BE DIFFERENT THAN THE INSIDE
<ul><li>Parent ("exteropsyche"): </li></ul><ul><li>a state in which people behave, feel, and think in response to an unconscious mimicking of how their parents (or other parental figures) acted, or how they interpreted their parent's actions. For example, a person may shout at someone out of frustration because they learned from an influential figure in childhood the lesson that this seemed to be a way of relating that worked. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Adult ("neopsyche"): a state of the ego which is most like a computer processing information and making predictions absent of major emotions that cloud its operation. Learning to strengthen the Adult is a goal of TA. While a person is in the Adult ego state, he/she is directed towards an objective appraisal of reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Child ("archaeopsyche"): a state in which people behave, feel and think similarly to how they did in childhood. For example, a person who receives a poor evaluation at work may respond by looking at the floor, and crying or pouting, as they used to when scolded as a child. Conversely, a person who receives a good evaluation may respond with a broad smile and a joyful gesture of thanks. The Child is the source of emotions, creation, recreation, spontaneity and intimcacy. </li></ul>
Complementary <ul><li>Sir, when do I submit the project proposal? On 28 th September </li></ul>P A C P A C
Complementary <ul><li>How was my presentation , sir? I think it was good </li></ul>P A C P A C
Cross Transaction Cross Transaction Sir, when do I submit the project proposal? Why don’t you refer to the letter? P A C P A C
Cross Transaction Sir, I am unable to solve the problem That is your regular dialogue P A C P A C
Duplex Transaction Why don’t you see Shyam’s project I discussed with the Dean ….. Before preparing yours? Any way you are not I have higher contacts.Be ware! capable of writing . P A C P A C
Are we passive & Doomed? <ul><li>Attitudes get transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions are detected </li></ul><ul><li>Communications are interpreted </li></ul><ul><li>Transactions happen </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships are established </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships decide further communications </li></ul>
How to Better the transactions through communication? <ul><li>Use STROKES </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Non-verbal Verbal Non-verbal </li></ul>
<ul><li>Transactions and Strokes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactions are the flow of communication, and more specifically the unspoken psychological flow of communication that runs in parallel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactions occur simultaneously at both explicit and psychological levels. Example: sweet caring voice with sarcastic intent. To read the real communication requires both surface and non-verbal reading. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strokes are the recognition, attention or responsiveness that one person gives another. Strokes can be positive or negative A key idea is that people hunger for recognition, and that lacking positive strokes, will seek whatever kind they can, even if it is recognition of a negative kind. We test out as children what strategies and behaviors seem to get us strokes, of whatever kind we can get </li></ul></ul>
Life Position I am not OK You are OK (Get Away from) I am OK You are OK (Get on with) I am not OK You are not OK ( Get nowhere ) I am Ok You are not OK ( Get rid of )
The Golden Rules <ul><li>Analyse the units of transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Use positive strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Be crisp in negative strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Design Communication to have complementary transaction </li></ul><ul><li>Operate from I am ok You are Ok position </li></ul>
<ul><li>To have a good day…. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange more Golden stamps </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>
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