What is T.A? When two people interact with eachother,they engage in social transactions, inwhichone person responds to the other. Study of such ”Social Transactions” iscalled ’Transactional Analysis’.
What is a Transaction? A Transaction is an exchange of twostrokes between two people. The firststroke is called ’Stimulus’, the second iscalled the ’Response’.
Transactional Analysis Transactions arepsychological in nature andrelate to how people behaveand how other peoplebehave with them inresponse to theirbehaviour.
Transactional Analysis(cont) To understand Transactional Analysis we must firstunderstand EGO STATES: EGO STATES: Within each human being, severalhuman beings are existing at the sametime, depending upon howthe person is behaving at any given time.
Eric Berne’s Transactional AnalysisIt deals with the theory ofdevelopment and isunderpinned by the philosophy: 1. People can change 2. We all have a right to beinthis world and beacceptedEric Berne
EGO STATESEach human being has threeego states:1. Parent ego state2.Adult ego state3.Child ego stateACP
Parent Ego state – This pertains to behaviors,thoughts and feelings copied during the earlyyears ( roughly , the first 5 years )
Parent Ego State: This pertains to behaviors,thoughts and feelings copied from parents
The Parent is a huge collection ofrecordings in the brain of imposed externalevents perceived in the earlyyears(roughly the first 5 years.)
Every thing the Child saw the parents do andevery thing he heard them say, are recordedstraight without editing in his PARENT
There are thousands of “No”s and “Don’t”s thatbombarded him.Parent data appear in “how to category”. “Howto hit a nail.” “how to eat”.On the basis of these feelings the child concludes- Iam not O.K-you are O.KBut, sometimes parent says one thing but doesanother thing like parent says “don’t lie”, but tells lieshimself.It is not safe for the child to question thisinconsistency. He defends himself by turning offthe recording.
CHILD EGO STATE :* It is a set of behaviors, thoughts and feelingsreplayed from our childhood* These are permanent recordings and can’t beerased
CHILD EGO STATE*The happy and pleasurable events are recorded inchild.* In our Child reside creativity, curiosity and the desireto know and the urge to touch and feel.* These are O.K. recordings
As in the case of Parent, the Child is a state whichbrings the feelings which we felt at that time Creativity is born from curiosity in the Child, as itprovides “want to” and Adult provides “how to” In our child is a vast store of positivedata. In our Child are recordedcountless experience of the firsts of life
Adult Ego StateAt about 8-10 months of age, the child startscreeping, crawling and walking. He starts playingwith a cup and pretends to drink.At the age of 10 months, comes his ownawareness and original thoughts. This is thebeginning of Adult.He starts gathering and processing data. Thisis thought process and is different from the earlierfelt concept in the child.
Adult during this period is very fragile. It iseasily knocked down by commands from parents.The Adult is a data processing computer. Theadult starts testing the Parent data and updates it.It also updates Child data.The ongoing work consists of checking out olddata, validating or invalidating and refilling itfor future use.Cont Adult Ego State…..
LIFE POSITIONST.A has four possible life positions:I am O.KYou are O.KYou are O.KI am not O.KI am O.KYou are not O.KI am not O.KYou are not O.KYou areO.KYou are not O.KIamO.KIamnotO.K
Life PositionsT . A. has four possible life positions
‘I am not O.K – You are O.K’:This is a feeling of inferiority.‘I am not O.K – You are not O.K’:By the end of first year the child starts walking. Heis no longer picked up. Mother’s stroking stopsentirely. The life which was comfortable in thefirst year becomes difficult. Punishment comesharder.The child concludes ‘I am not O.K – You are notO.K’.Cont…..
I am O.K – You are not O.K:The child who is brutalized long enough byparents will switch over to this position of I am O.K –You are not O.K• I am O.K – You are O.K:The earlier three positions have been based onchildhood feelings, but this fourth position is basedon “Thought and Faith”. It is a decision we make.The Adult can comprehend. We have thepresence of old recordings, but we can choose toturn them off.Cont…..
C) CHILD-CHILD TRANSACTIONS1. Girl child(1): I will be the mamma and you thelittlegirls.Girl child(2): I always have to be the little girl.Girl child(1): Well, let us take turns, you be themammafirst and next time I will be the mama.2. Little boy(child): My daddy has two buildings.Little girl(child): That is nothing. My daddy has fivebuildings.
CROSSED TRANSACTIONSThe crossed transactions cause trouble,1. Husband (Adult stimulus, seeking information) :Where is my scooter key?Wife(parent) : Where you left it.The stimulus was Adult but the wife replied from theparent. When stimulus and response cross onP.A.C Transaction diagram, communicationstops.
Three Rules of Communication1. Complementary Transactions:- communication remains open.2. Crossed Transactions:- communication stops. 3. Complex Transactions:- outcome is predicted only at thepsychological level
”I’m O.K.- You’re O.K” This is the best known expression of thepurpose of Transactional Analysis, whichis: 1. To reinforce the position thatrecognizes the value and worth ofevery person. 2. Transactional Analysits regard peopleas basically ”O.K”and thus capable ofchange, growth,and healthy interactions.
Stroking & Life Positions Physically one strokes others by shakinghands, clapping, hugging, smiling.Countless physical strokes are exchangedbetweenpeople everyday and each stroke stimulates itsown physical response. Psychological strokes deal with recognizingothers with words, gestures and behaviour.
Stroking & Life Positions Psychological strokes are A RECOGNITION OFOTHERS and can be positive or negative innature. Respecting, praising and thanking people arepositive strokes, while criticizing andignoring them are some negative strokes.
Advantages of T.A Improves Interpersonal Communication Simple to learn Applicable to Motivation. Helps in Organizational Development. Can be used at home as well as in office.
AdvantagesTransactional Analysis can be effectivelyused to understand the secrets of humanbehavior and often works better in improvingrelationships.
CONCLUSIONTransactional Analysis is a rational andeasy to understand method ofclarifyingand managing human relationshipsand behaviours.
For More Information Books to be read:1. Games People Play 2. I am OK, You are OK