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DEEPTI K K
 Strokes
 Games
 Life positions
 Rituals
 Advantages of TA
 Conclusion
The objective of TransactionAnalysisis toprovide
better understandingof how people relateto one
another, so thatthey may develop improved
communicationand human relationship.
• Berne defined a stroke as the “fundamental unit
of social action.”
• Berne introduced the idea of strokes into
Transactional Analysis based upon the work of
Rene Spitz, a researcher who did pioneering work
in the area of child development
• Berne postulated that adults need physical
contact just like infants, but have learned to
substitute other types of recognition instead of
physical stimulation
• Any transaction is an exchange of strokes.
• Most transactions involve both verbal and
non verbal exchanges.
• They may be wholly non verbal.
• It is difficult to imagine a transaction which
is purely verbal.
 INTERNAL - fantasies, self praise, and other
forms of self stimulation.
 EXTERNAL- strokes from others are
important for healthy living.
• A positive stroke is one which the receiver
experiences as pleasant.
• A negative stroke is one experienced as
painful.
• Any kind of stroke is better than no stroke
at all.
• A conditional stroke relates to what you do.
• An unconditional stroke relates to what you are.
• Positive conditional.
• Positive unconditional.
• Negative conditional.
• Negative Unconditional
 “What ever fits the Formula G is a game and
whatever does not fit is not a game.”
-Eric Berne
 A game is a familiar pattern of behavior with
a predictable outcome.
 Games are learned patterns of behavior, and
most people play a small number of favorite
games with a range of different people and in
varying intensities.
Berne discovered that every game goes
through a sequence of six stages.
Con + Gimmick = Response Switch Cross
up Payoff
He called this sequence Formula G or Game
formula.
 Con – it is delivered non-verbally.
 Gimmick – It is a script weak spot that leads
someone to buy into someone else’s con.
 Response – This stage of a game consists of a
series of transactions. At social level, these
transactions seem like straight forward
exchange of information. But at psychological
level, they repeat the Con-Gimmick exchange
that opened the game.
 Switch – It happens when one player changes
his role.
 Cross up – The confusion happening during
the change of role is cross up.
 Payoff – Both players collect their payoff of
racket feeling.
 Games are repetitive.
 Games always end up with the players experience
racket feeling.
 Games entail an exchange of ulterior transactions
between the players.
 Games always include moment of surprise and
confusion
Games can be played at different degrees of
intensity.
First level game – it has an outcome which
the player is willing to share with her social
circle. These make a big proportion of the
time structuring at parties and social
gatherings.
Second degree game bring heavier outcomes,
of a kind which the player would rather not
make public in her social circle.
Third degree game, in Berne’s words is one
which is played for keeps and which ends in
surgery, the courtroom or the morgue
 All games have an important and probably
decisive influence on the destinies of the
players under ordinary social conditions.
 This group may be conveniently called Life
Games.
1. Alcoholic
2. Marital games
3. Look how hard I have tried
4. Uproar
5. I was only trying to help you..etc
 I am OK, You are OK (we both have value)
 I am OK, You are not OK (I have value but you
don't have)
 I am not OK, You are OK (you have value but I do
not have)
 I am not OK, You are not OK (neither person have
value)
I am O.K
You are O.K
You are O.K
I am not O.K
I am O.K
You are not O.K
I am not O.K
You are not O.K
You are O.K
You are not O.K
I
am
O.
K
I
am
not
O.
K
 People with these feelings express confidence
in themselves as well as trust and confidence
in other people in their environment.
 Their behavior tends to come from their
Nurturing Parent, Adult and Happy Child ego
States.
 This type of people often come their Critical Parent
ego state.
 Tend to be down on people for two reasons
 they often regard other people as source of criticism.
 They become more independent
 People with this life position often come from their
child ego state.
 They feel that others are more capable and generally
have fewer problems than they themselves do.
 most common for people who have high expectations
for authority.
 People tend to feel bad about themselves and see that
the whole world as miserable.
 People with this life position usually give up.
 They do not trust other people
 Have no confidence in themselves.
 Ritual transactions are simple and
stereotyped, complementary transactions,
like everyday hellos and good byes.
 All children learn the ritual appropriate tin
their family culture.
 Rituals vary from a simple “Hi” to complicated
religious rituals
 For some people, rituals becomes a way of
life.
 After the ceremony is long past, the marriage
may be only a series of ritualistic transactions
consisting mainly of role playing, of actions
devoid of real meaning and intimacy, yet
keep the people alive with minimum strokes.
 Transactional analysis is the study of social
transaction between people.
 One useful approach is the classification of Parent,
Adult and child ego states.
 TA is essentially a learning experience through which
an individual discovers how to sort out the data that
goes into his decisions.
 This approach is useful to improve the interpersonal
communication in organization and in social life
 I am OK, You're OK life position shows acceptance
of self and others
 Transactional Analysis is a rational and
easy to understand method of clarifying
and managing human relationships
and behaviours.
…Thank you

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Transactional analysis

  • 2.  Strokes  Games  Life positions  Rituals  Advantages of TA  Conclusion
  • 3. The objective of TransactionAnalysisis toprovide better understandingof how people relateto one another, so thatthey may develop improved communicationand human relationship.
  • 4. • Berne defined a stroke as the “fundamental unit of social action.” • Berne introduced the idea of strokes into Transactional Analysis based upon the work of Rene Spitz, a researcher who did pioneering work in the area of child development • Berne postulated that adults need physical contact just like infants, but have learned to substitute other types of recognition instead of physical stimulation
  • 5. • Any transaction is an exchange of strokes. • Most transactions involve both verbal and non verbal exchanges. • They may be wholly non verbal. • It is difficult to imagine a transaction which is purely verbal.
  • 6.  INTERNAL - fantasies, self praise, and other forms of self stimulation.  EXTERNAL- strokes from others are important for healthy living.
  • 7. • A positive stroke is one which the receiver experiences as pleasant. • A negative stroke is one experienced as painful. • Any kind of stroke is better than no stroke at all.
  • 8. • A conditional stroke relates to what you do. • An unconditional stroke relates to what you are. • Positive conditional. • Positive unconditional. • Negative conditional. • Negative Unconditional
  • 9.
  • 10.  “What ever fits the Formula G is a game and whatever does not fit is not a game.” -Eric Berne  A game is a familiar pattern of behavior with a predictable outcome.  Games are learned patterns of behavior, and most people play a small number of favorite games with a range of different people and in varying intensities.
  • 11. Berne discovered that every game goes through a sequence of six stages. Con + Gimmick = Response Switch Cross up Payoff He called this sequence Formula G or Game formula.
  • 12.  Con – it is delivered non-verbally.  Gimmick – It is a script weak spot that leads someone to buy into someone else’s con.  Response – This stage of a game consists of a series of transactions. At social level, these transactions seem like straight forward exchange of information. But at psychological level, they repeat the Con-Gimmick exchange that opened the game.
  • 13.  Switch – It happens when one player changes his role.  Cross up – The confusion happening during the change of role is cross up.  Payoff – Both players collect their payoff of racket feeling.
  • 14.  Games are repetitive.  Games always end up with the players experience racket feeling.  Games entail an exchange of ulterior transactions between the players.  Games always include moment of surprise and confusion
  • 15. Games can be played at different degrees of intensity. First level game – it has an outcome which the player is willing to share with her social circle. These make a big proportion of the time structuring at parties and social gatherings.
  • 16. Second degree game bring heavier outcomes, of a kind which the player would rather not make public in her social circle. Third degree game, in Berne’s words is one which is played for keeps and which ends in surgery, the courtroom or the morgue
  • 17.  All games have an important and probably decisive influence on the destinies of the players under ordinary social conditions.  This group may be conveniently called Life Games.
  • 18. 1. Alcoholic 2. Marital games 3. Look how hard I have tried 4. Uproar 5. I was only trying to help you..etc
  • 19.  I am OK, You are OK (we both have value)  I am OK, You are not OK (I have value but you don't have)  I am not OK, You are OK (you have value but I do not have)  I am not OK, You are not OK (neither person have value)
  • 20. I am O.K You are O.K You are O.K I am not O.K I am O.K You are not O.K I am not O.K You are not O.K You are O.K You are not O.K I am O. K I am not O. K
  • 21.  People with these feelings express confidence in themselves as well as trust and confidence in other people in their environment.  Their behavior tends to come from their Nurturing Parent, Adult and Happy Child ego States.
  • 22.  This type of people often come their Critical Parent ego state.  Tend to be down on people for two reasons  they often regard other people as source of criticism.  They become more independent
  • 23.  People with this life position often come from their child ego state.  They feel that others are more capable and generally have fewer problems than they themselves do.  most common for people who have high expectations for authority.
  • 24.  People tend to feel bad about themselves and see that the whole world as miserable.  People with this life position usually give up.  They do not trust other people  Have no confidence in themselves.
  • 25.  Ritual transactions are simple and stereotyped, complementary transactions, like everyday hellos and good byes.  All children learn the ritual appropriate tin their family culture.  Rituals vary from a simple “Hi” to complicated religious rituals
  • 26.  For some people, rituals becomes a way of life.  After the ceremony is long past, the marriage may be only a series of ritualistic transactions consisting mainly of role playing, of actions devoid of real meaning and intimacy, yet keep the people alive with minimum strokes.
  • 27.  Transactional analysis is the study of social transaction between people.  One useful approach is the classification of Parent, Adult and child ego states.  TA is essentially a learning experience through which an individual discovers how to sort out the data that goes into his decisions.
  • 28.  This approach is useful to improve the interpersonal communication in organization and in social life  I am OK, You're OK life position shows acceptance of self and others  Transactional Analysis is a rational and easy to understand method of clarifying and managing human relationships and behaviours.