Transactional analysis


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Transactional analysis

  2. 2. Transactional Analysis The concept was developed by Eric Berne
  4. 4. PARENT • This is our ingrained voice of authority, absorbed conditioning, learning and attitudes from when we were young. • We were conditioned by our real parents, teachers, older people, next door neighbours, aunts and uncles
  5. 5. • Our Parent is made up of a huge number of hidden and overt recorded playbacks. • Typically embodied by phrases and attitudes starting with 'how to', 'under no circumstances', 'always' and 'never forget', 'don't lie, cheat, steal', etc, etc. • Our parent is formed by external events and influences upon us as we grow through early childhood.
  6. 6. • The Nurturing Parent is caring and concerned and often may appear as a mother-figure (though men can play it too). They seek to keep the Child safe and offer unconditional love, calming them when they are troubled. • The Controlling (or Critical) Parent tries to make the Child do as the parent wants them to do, perhaps transferring values or beliefs or helping the Child to understand and live in society.
  7. 7. CHILD • Our internal reaction and feelings to external events form the 'Child'. • This is the seeing, hearing, feeling, and emotional body of data within each of us. When anger or despair dominates reason, the Child is in control.
  8. 8. • The Natural Child is largely un-self-aware and is characterized by the non-speech noises they make (yahoo, etc.). They like playing and are open and vulnerable. • Little Professor is the curious and exploring Child who is always trying out new stuff (often much to their Controlling Parent's annoyance). Together with the Natural Child they make up the Free Child.
  9. 9. • The Adaptive Child reacts to the world around them, either changing themselves to fit in or rebelling against the forces they feel.
  10. 10. ADULT • Our 'Adult' is our ability to think and determine action for ourselves, based on received data. • The adult in us begins to form at around ten months old, and is the means by which we keep our Parent and Child under control. • the Adult in us is the 'grown up' rational person who talks reasonably and assertively, neither trying to control nor reacting. The Adult is comfortable with themselves and is, for many of us, our 'ideal self'.
  11. 11. • Parent is our 'Taught' concept of life • Adult is our 'Thought' concept of life • Child is our 'Felt' concept of life
  12. 12. • Three Basic Concepts: Parent, Adult and Child • Transactions: Among P, A and C P < -- > P A < -- > A C < -- > C • There are 9 possible transactions
  13. 13. Shift in Ego States • Parent- “Do as I do” • Child- “What shall I do?” • Adult- “I will be frank with you”
  14. 14. • Parent- “Why don’t you prepare a timetable?” • Child- “What is the point when one cannot follow it?” – Becomes an Adult.
  15. 15. Transactional Stimulus and Response • The initiator of the transaction is called the transactional stimulus. • The response of the respondent is called transactional response.
  16. 16. • A transaction = any interaction or communication between 2 people • People send and receive messages out of and into their different ego states • How people say something (what others hear?) is just as important as what is said
  17. 17. • This morning, Rohan said to Sheela, “Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight?” • Intonations: It’s the Way You Say It!
  18. 18. Placement of the emphasis What it means • Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? • Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? • Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? I was going to take someone else. Instead of the guy you were going with. I’m trying to find a reason why I shouldn’t take you.
  19. 19. Types of Transactions • Complementary • Crossed • Ulterior
  20. 20. Complementary Transactions • Appropriate and Expected Transactions indicating healthy human relationships. • Communication takes place when transactions are complementary.
  21. 21. Complementary Transactions • Interactions, responses, actions regarded as appropriate and expected from another person. • Parallel communication arrows, communication continues. Example 1: #1 What time do you have? #2 I’ve got 11:15. P P A A C C
  22. 22. Complementary Transactions Example 2: P A A C C #1 You’re late again! #2 P I’m sorry. It won’t happen again.
  23. 23. • Interactions, responses, actions regarded as appropriate and expected from another person. • Parallel communication arrows, communication continues.
  24. 24. Crossed Transactions • • Interactions, responses, actions NOT regarded as appropriate or expected from another person. Crossed communication arrows, communication breakdown. Example 1 # #2 P P A A C C What time do you have? There’s a clock on the wall, why don’t you figure it out yourself?
  25. 25. Crossed Transactions This causes most difficulties in social situations. Example 2: Parent-Child interaction • • “May be, you should improve your listening skills”. “You always find fault with me whatever I do”
  26. 26. Crossed ‘Transactions’ cont’d Example 2 You’re late again! Yeah, I know, I had a flat tyre P P A A C C
  27. 27. Ulterior Transactions • Interactions, responses, actions which are different from those explicitly stated Example 1 Oh! You are looking lovely today!! P P A A C C
  28. 28. Life positions • Life positions are basic beliefs about self and others, which are used to justify decisions and behaviour.
  29. 29. Johari Window Named after the first names of its inventors, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction.
  30. 30. Johari Window Exercise Objective: This is an exercise which increases self-awareness by encouraging sharing, self-disclosure and feedback. Draw your own Johari Windows on a sheet of paper and to fill the panes with: • • • • Pane 1 (Open): list things that are generally known about yourself — hobbies etc. Pane 2 (Blind): identify the feedback you would like to receive about your behaviour, mannerisms etc. Pane 3 (Hidden): identify aspects of yourself that you have not told to anyone before, but you might be willing to share. Pane 4 (Unknown): could include areas that they would like to explore with the help of the group — for example your future, how you would react in a particular situation...