TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS•Transactional analysis (TA), is an integrative approach tothe theory of psychology and psychotherapy.•It is described as integrative because it has elementsof psychoanalytic, humanist and cognitive approaches.• TA was first developed by Canadian-bornUS psychiatrist Eric Berne, starting in the late 1950s and it isa widely recognized form of modern psychology.•It is a theory for analysing human behavior andcommunication.It is a model for explaining why and howpeople think, act and interact like they do.It is very useful instudying various behaiour patterns and it is a socialpsychology and a method to improve communication.
The key aspects of TA are:• THE EGO STATES• An ego state is a set of related thoughts,feelings, and behaviors in which part of anindividual’s personality is manifested at a giventime (Stewart & Joines, 1987)• Each of our personalities is made up of variousparts: the Parent, the Adult, and the Child egostates.. All transactional analysts work with egostates, which encompass important facets of thepersonality.
CHILD EGO STATE• When people are in the Child ego state, for example,they sit, stand, speak, think, perceive, and feel as theydid in childhood.• Behavior of the Child is impulsive and stimulus-boundrather than mediated and delayed by reason. Throwingtemper tantrums, being irresponsible, and engaging inwishful thinking or daydreams are some of theexpressions of the Child. At the same time, the Child isthe source of spontaneity, creativity, humor, and fun andis thought to be the best part of the personality, becauseit is the only part that can truly enjoy life.
The Child can be further differentiated into• Natural Child, which is the most emotional,spontaneous, and powerful expression ofa child• Adapted Child, which is the more obedientchild molded to parental demands.• Little Professor, which is the inquisitiveand intuitive child who acts like aprecocious adult.
PARENT EGOSTATE• The Parent ego state contains the values, morals,core beliefs, and behaviors incorporated fromsignificant authority figures, primarily one’s parents.• The Parent contains all the “shoulds” and “oughts” andother rules for living.• We each have a “Nurturing Parent” and a “CriticalParent.• The Critical Parent. (also sometimes called thePrejudiced Parent) includes part of our personalitycontains the prejudged thoughts,feelings and beliefs thatwe learned from our parents.• The Nurturing Parent ego state includes the nurturingside and can be soft, loving, and permission giving.
ADULT EGO STATE• It is the part of our personality that can processdata accurately, that sees, hears, thinks, andcan come up with solutions to problems basedon the facts and not solely on our pre- judgedthoughts or childlike emotions.• This ego state gives a person a measure ofobjectivity. .• The Adult is a gradually developed ego statethat emerges as the person interacts with thephysical and social environment over manyyears.
Examples for different egostates• Critical Parent; Individual stands one hand on hip, onefinger wagging toward the person being transacted with,sharp tone of voice saying You shouldnt do that!• Nurturing Parent; Individual stands leaning forward withone arm around the shoulder of the other individual, agentle expression on their face, saying in a soft tone ofvoice Would you like me to help you with that?• Adult; Stands squarely facing another and asks What isthe time?• Adapted Child - Head facing the floor, hands twisting ineach other and says in a small voice Please can I have…• Free Child; Running wildly with arms outstretchedshouting Yippee.
TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS• T.A. defines three types of transaction.• A Complementary transaction in which theego state addressed is the ego state thatresponds.
Crossed transaction• A Crossed transaction is one in which the transactionalvectors are not parallel. The ego-state being adressed isnot the ego-states that responds.
Ulterior transaction• In an Ulterior transaction two messages are conveyed at the same time.One of these is an overt or social-level message, the other a covert orpsychological-level message.
LIFE POSITIONS• Transactional analysis identifies four basic lifepositions, all of which are based on decisionsmade as a result of childhood experiences, andall of which determine how people feel aboutthemselves and how they relate to others:• 1. I’m OK—You’re OK.• 2. I’m OK—You’re not OK.• 3. I’m not OK—You’re OK.• 4. I’m not OK—You’re not OK.
I’m OK—You’re OK• The I’m OK—You’re OK position is generallygame-free.• It is the belief that people have basic value,worth, and dignity as human beings. That peopleare OK is a statement of their essence, notnecessarily their behavior. This position ischaracterized by an attitude of trust andopenness, a willingness to give and take, and anacceptance of others as they are. People areclose to themselves and to others. There are nolosers, only winners.
I’m OK—You’re not OK• I’m OK—You’re not OK is the position of peoplewho project their problems onto others andblame them, put them down, and criticize them.The games that reinforce thisposition involve aself-styled superior (the “I’m OK”) who projectsanger, disgust, and scorn onto a designatedinferior. This position involves a lack of trust inothers and makes it difficult for the person toform and maintain intimate friendships orrelationships.
I’m not OK—You’re OK• I’m not OK—You’re OK is known as thedepressive position and is characterized byfeeling powerless in comparison with others.• Typically such people serve others’ needsinstead of their own and generally feelvictimized.• This position also leaves the person withdifficulty feeling good about himself or herselfboth in the work arena and in forming trustingand lasting relationships.
I’m not OK—You’re not OK• The I’m not OK—You’re not OK quadrant isknown as the position of futility and frustration ”• This is the life position of despair. The person inthis position has great difficulty seeing the goodin anyone and has trouble having any hope forthe future.This self-destructive stance ischaracteristic of people who are unable to copein the real world, and it may lead to extremewithdrawal, a return to infantile behavior, orviolent behavior resulting in injury or death ofthemselves or others.
CONCLUSION• When people interact in assertive or non-assertive ways, there isa social transaction in which one person responds to another. Thestudy of these social transactions between people is calledTransactional Analysis (TA).• One useful approach is the classification of Parent, Adult and childego states. An Adult-to-adult complementary transaction isespecially desirable at work. Crossed transactions tend to cut offcommunication and produce conflicts. TA is essentially a learningexperience through which an individual discovers how to sort out thedata that goes into his decisions. This approach is useful to improvethe interpersonal communication in organization and in social life..TA gives employees fresh insights into their own personalities