VOL. 26, NO. 4
contents The official publication of the American Road
& Transportation Builders Association
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 3
2014 National Convention Preview
Creativity &Teamwork Save a
Legislation & Ballot Initiatives Have
Strong Bipartisan Backing, New
DBE Program Focus of ARTBA’s
Latest Legal Challenge
Chimney Rock Road over I-287,
Building America’s Backbone
ON THE COVER
Recent Emergency Bridge Repairs &
On the cover: Mathews Bridge in Jacksonville, Fla. Photo courtesy of RS&H.
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 5
Whether it’s a short highway overpass or a mile-long suspension bridge, there is a good chance you
will cross a bridge at some point in your daily routine. Earlier this year, I had the pleasure of
crossing the Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge in Charleston, South Carolina. Its endless rows of triangular
cable-stayed suspensions created an optical illusion that made me reflect on the child-like wonder
bridges can inspire.
While the Ravenel bridge is still pretty new, unfortunately, there are many other U.S. bridges in
need of repair and modernization. In this issue, we take a look at some of the measures being taken
to help rebuild and protect these essential tools of daily American living.
Our cover story on page 27 looks at “lessons learned” during three recent emergency repairs in
Kentucky, Ohio and Wisconsin. With transportation improvement resources stretched thin,
owners, designers and builders must work creatively and collaboratively in order to address
On page 16, we spotlight the story of the Mathews Bridge in Jacksonville, Fla., which was repaired
in just 32 days after being struck by a Navy ship. And on page 20, learn how the Chimney Rock Road
in Bridgewater, N.J., is getting a much-needed expansion.
Finally, beginning on page 10, we have the “download” on all of the activities relating to the
September 7-9 ARTBA National Convention, located oceanfront at theTerranea Resort in
southern California.There is something on the program for everyone, and a spouse program not
to be missed! Register now at www.artbanationalconvention.org.
We hope you enjoy reading this issue, and please feel free to share your reactions at:
Editor & Graphic
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July-August 20146 TransportationBuilder
from the chairman
CEO, John Deere Landscapes
2014 ARTBA Chairman
The Stories of
When a University of Maryland
graduate student attending the
inaugural July 16 “National Workshop
for State & Local Transportation
Advocates” in the Nation’s Capital was
asked what he thought of the event, he
replied: “I think life is one big story and
I liked hearing the story about
He was referring to the panel session
where three industry executives
explained how they built political
support and achieved final passage of a
2013 Pennsylvania law that substantially
boosts investment in that state’s
Sharing the Pennsylvania story and
getting such a reaction from attendees
are what we had in mind when creating
the workshop. Transportation
construction executives, “better roads
and transportation” professionals, state
legislators, and chamber of commerce
officials from 22 states participated.
Throughout the day it became clear
that there are at least three keys to
success: 1) Building broad-based
coalitions, including with non-tradition-
al allies when necessary; 2) developing
strong partnerships with the governor,
state legislators and public agency
officials; and 3) creating an integrated
communications plan that delivers
consistent messages to the public about
the value and benefits of the resulting
ARTBA Chief Economist Dr. Alison
Premo Black highlighted trends in state
transportation investment initiatives
since 2000. Public affairs executives,
polling experts, and policy shapers also
detailed “what worked” and “lessons
learned” on a legislative proposal in
Virginia and ballot initiatives in Georgia
and Arkansas. And Oregon State
Senator Bruce Starr, president of the
National Council of State Legislatures,
offered advice on how to make
transportation investment a top priority
for elected officials.
The workshop, hosted by ARTBA’s
newly formed Transportation Investment
Advocacy Center™ (TIAC), is a direct
product of the ARTBA 2011 Strategic
Planning Committee (SPC) report. The
SPC, which I had the pleasure of
co-chairing with immediate past ARTBA
Chairman Steve Wright, believed that
such a resource would be very useful to
transportation investment proponents
outside Washington, D.C.
TIAC is anchored by a robust website,
features 39 detailed case studies of recent
transportation funding campaigns—both
successful and unsuccessful—mounted
in 28 states, and includes the actual
television, radio and print ads, polling
data, and media and coalition strategies
used in the campaigns.
The workshop concluded with ARTBA
announcing the launch of a “Transpor-
tation Investment Advocates Council”
that will create a network of industry
professionals throughout the country
to share experiences and best practices.
We encourage you to become part of the
discussions. ARTBA’s Carolyn Kramer
(firstname.lastname@example.org) can provide you
with additional information.
Just like at the national level, revenue
raising initiatives at the state and local
levels often face steep opposition from
entrenched ideologues and misinformed
stakeholders. But when the public
understands where the money is being
spent and the value that transportation
investment provides—they are much
more likely to support such measures.
Few areas provide the return on invest-
ment that transportation delivers—both
from an economic and quality of life
standpoint. How that is communicated
and by whom determines the outcome.
By sharing “playbook secrets,” as well as
learning from our failures, we can help
pave the way for future state and local
level transportation investment victories.
July-August 20148 TransportationBuilder
T. Peter Ruane
President & CEO
As I write this, Congress is preparing
to complete action on its fifth
short-term Highway Trust Fund (HTF)
patch in seven years. The cynics out
there—and there are many—will claim
this is further evidence that Congress
is unable to pass anything resembling
a long-term transportation package in
today’s hyper-charged political environ-
ment. I certainly understand the frustra-
tion this situation engenders, but it also
requires a broader perspective.
I am reminded of a Nike commercial
with Michael Jordan where he tells the
“I have missed more than 9,000 shots
in my career. I have lost almost 300
games. On 26 occasions, I have been
entrusted to take the game winning shot,
and I missed. I have failed over and over
again in my life. And that is why I
The contribution of perseverance to
success is not confined only to the sports
world, but that trait is a precursor to
achievement in virtually every other
human endeavor—including business
and public policy.
Yes, Congress has again kicked the
proverbial HTF can down the road, but
there are two things that should not be
Since 2008, members of the House
and Senate have infused the HTF
with roughly $65 billion from else-
where in the federal budget. These
actions repeatedly reinforce the
broad bipartisan support that exists
for highway and transit investment
and the lengths Congress will go to
avert cuts in this area; and
The growing interest on Capitol Hill
for a long-term HTF revenue fix is
palpable. When the trust fund faced
its first revenue shortfall in 2008, no
member of Congress talked about
generating new revenues to stabilize
the fund. Virtually every speech on
the floor of the House and
Senate during the debate on this
latest measure included a call to end
this current dysfunctional cycle.
What does this mean for us?
As Winston Churchill once observed,
“If you’re going through hell, keep
Since MAP-21 was enacted in July
2012, ARTBA’s mission has been clear:
build support for a long-term HTF
revenue fix. This continues to be our
North Star, and we are making progress.
While federal highway and transit
investment enjoys broad support on
Capitol Hill, our challenge is
increasing the HTF’s revenue base to be
able to support these investments—a
sufficiently more complex political
obstacle. Legislative bodies, by their
nature, are slow moving institutions that
attempt to avoid controversy. It is easy to
see how these attributes have impeded a
solution over the last seven years.
The HTF’s worsening fiscal outlook
has become so severe, however, that it
is becoming more and more difficult for
Congress to develop temporary patches.
As an example, the first trust fund crisis
required $8 billion infusion. Today, the
trust fund requires $16 billion each year
just to maintain current levels of
Washington has earned well its reputa-
tion for dysfunctional behavior. At some
point, the pressure of repeated trust fund
patches and the sheer amount of money
that Congress must find will produce a
decision that our elected officials have
been trying to avoid.
Therefore, it is incumbent on ARTBA
and its allies in the general business and
transportation communities to keep
pressuring Congress to solve this
situation once and for all. Do not be put
off or let your representatives ignore you.
Continual engagement with lawmakers in
and outside of Washington, D.C., about
the HTF will help reinforce the fact that
this issue is not going away!
Make sure representatives and senators
know the short-term patch they just
approved is nothing to celebrate.
Congress is now on a five week recess
until the second week of September. I
urge you to find your elected officials
while they are home to let them know
you expect them to make enacting a
long-term HTF solution a priority for the
remainder of the year.
Our perseverance will pay off and the
country will be better for it!
July-August 201410 TransportationBuilder
The venue for this year’s September 7-9 ARTBA National Convention is very special.
Rancho Palos Verdes, the home of Terranea Resort, takes its name from Cañada de
Palos Verdes or “canyon of green trees,” and was originally inhabited by the
Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe. The Terranea is nestled along one of Southern California’s most
award-winning golf course and three swimming pools.
ARTBA government affairs and economics teams will update you on the current
situation with the Highway Trust Fund and the reauthorization of MAP-21, and provide a
construction market conditions report and an early forecast for 2015.
We will hear from a very unusual speaker with a powerful and inspiring story.
Gunnar Hanson, a decorated former Navy Seal turned pastor, nearly threw all of his
accomplishments away in one night. Now known as “Pastor Gunnar,” he will discuss
some of his personal losses, and the lessons learned from them, and share the keys to his
Construction Corporation sharing their perspectives on “big picture” issues ahead.
The spouses will visit the Hollywood Walk of Fame, Beverly Hills, Rodeo Drive, and the
world-famous Getty Museum.
Ammann & Whitney. At the event, our old friend and veteran Hollywood comedian
Larry Miller, who had us laughing at the 2007 and 2011 conventions, will
return for an encore performance.
A pristine venue… substantive sessions… and a little taste of Hollywood. All good
The Canyon of Green Trees
2014 ARTBA Chairman
July-August 201412 TransportationBuilder
7:00 – 10:00 p.m.
10:00 – 11.00 p.m.
Wednesday, September 10
8:30 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.
ARTBA P6 Scheduling Academy. Pre-registration is required.
Thursday, September 11
8:00 a.m. – Noon
ARTBA P6 Scheduling Academy. Pre-registration is required.
Tuesday, September 9
6:30 – 9:00 a.m.
7:00 – 8:45 a.m.
8:45 – 10:00 a.m.
General Session: “State of the Transportation Construction
Industry (1.0 PDH)
Moderator: Bill Wilson, editorial director, “Roads & Bridges”
Speakers: Greg Kelly
10:00 – 10:30 a.m.
10:30 – 10:45 a.m.
10:45 a.m. – 12:10 p.m.
and Transportation Construction Market Conditions
Update (1.0 PDH)
Speakers: Dave Bauer, senior vice president of
government relations, ARTBA
Dr. Alison Premo Black, chief economist, ARTBA
Nick Goldstein, vice president of
environmental & regulatory affairs, ARTBA
12:15 – 1:30 p.m.
1:30 – 3:30 p.m.
ARTBA Board of Directors
1:30 – 5:00 p.m.
ARTBA P6 Scheduling Academy. Pre-registration is required.
3:30 – 5:15 p.m.
6:00 – 7:00 p.m.
100 Terranea Way
Rancho Palos Verdes, California 90275
until August 7
Reservations: 1.866.802.8000 or 310.265.2770
the Chairman’s Banquet, are business casual, meaning
Chairman’s Reception & Banquet on Tuesday evening
is business attire—suit for men and cocktail attire for
women. All spouse and guest program events are casual
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 15
Transportation Investment Legislation & Ballot
Initiatives Have Strong Bipartisan Backing, New
Analysis Finds by Dr. Alison Premo Black
Anew ARTBA analysis of the political
makeup of state and local
governments, and the citizens voting
on more than 500 legislative and ballot
initiatives aimed at boosting
transportation investment reveals broad
bipartisan support for the measures.
ARTBA looked at proposals to increase
state gas taxes, issue bonds and levy or
extend sales and use, property or income
taxes dating back to 2000.
State Gas Tax Increases Politically
Twenty-three state governors have
approved an increase in either their state
gas tax, a state sales tax on gasoline or
some other fuel related user fee a total of
32 times since 19971
. These were
bipartisan efforts and all of the
governors who signed these measures
into law and sought reelection were
successful. In addition to these 32
increases, there are also seven states that
have a variable gas tax rate that adjusts
automatically for some sort of pricing
mechanism or inflation.
Both Democrats and Republicans have
spearheaded efforts to increase user
fee revenues for transportation
investment at the state level. Between
1997 and 2013, 13 gas tax-related
increases were passed by states with a
Republican majority in both the House
and Senate of the legislature and a
Republic governor. Seven measures were
approved by states with Democrats in
Political Party of the Governor in States that Increased
Gasoline-RelatedTax User Fees 1997 to 2014
*Rhode Island increased its gas tax under a Republican governor in 1999 and a Democratic governor in 2014.
July-August 201416 TransportationBuilder
Federal Aid Is Still Critical
Although state and local governments
have been active in increasing revenues
over the last 17 years, this has not
fundamentally shifted the importance of
the federal-aid program, which accounts
for an average of 52 percent of state
highway and bridge capital outlays on
construction, right of way and
engineering over the last decade.
This is because state and local
government expenditures for highways
and bridge programs include such things
as maintenance, administration costs,
bond and debt service payments and
even highway-related law enforcement
costs. State and local governments spent
a total of 47 percent of their total
highway and bridge program revenues
on capital outlays in 2012, according to
data from the Federal Highway
Administration. By law, revenues from
the federal-aid program must be spent
on capital outlays, so this program has
become a critical component of the
national highway and bridge
To see detailed case studies and learn
more about many of these initiatives and
a list of legislation currently being
considered, visit the new ARTBA
Transportation Investment Advocacy
Center’s™ comprehensive website:
Although most of the increases have been in
the state motor fuel tax rate, some states, such
as Pennsylvania, have other user-based fees. In
2013, Pennsylvania approved increasing the cap
on the oil franchise fee as part of their effort to
increase transportation revenues. Some of the
other state initiative approved in 2013 included
levying a sales tax on gasoline while reducing
the motor fuel tax rate.
To determine if a county was either
Republican or Democrat, we examined the voter
registrations at the time of the initiative or used
the county voting outcome in the last three
presidential elections. At this time, we are able
to identify affiliations for 126 of the 137 counties
with initiatives between 2005 and 2013.
Dr. Alison Premo Black is ARTBA chief
both chambers of the legislature and
the governor’s office. The remaining 12
initiatives were approved by a mix of
Republicans, Democrats or
Independents in control of different
branches of the government.
The governors who approved
measures to raise transportation
revenues did not appear to suffer any
political consequences from their
actions. All 11 governors who sought
reelection after passing a gas tax increase,
including nine Republic governors, were
voted into office for another term.
Six states approved increases in
transportation-related user fee revenues
in 2013: Maryland, Massachusetts,
Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia and
Wyoming. New Hampshire and Rhode
Island approved gas tax increases in
2014. There were only three measures to
increase state gas taxes between 2008 and
2012. Given the state of the U.S. economy
after the Great Recession of 2008, it is
not surprising that states held back on
any sort of user fee increase that was not
already in place through an indexed rate.
Local Voters Get It
Voters have approved 73 percent of the
425 initiatives to increase county and
local funding for transportation
investment since 2000. These include
bond measures and the renewal,
extension or implementation of a sales
tax, property tax or income tax. Voters
demonstrated broad support for all of
these revenue sources. Of the 310 that
passed, voters approved 75 percent of
bond measures, 65 percent of sales taxes
and 81 percent of income or property tax
The ARTBA research also identified
the political makeup of many of the
counties that brought these initiatives to
the voters between 2005 and 20132
Once again, the analysis finds that
transportation is a bipartisan issue. Both
Republican and Democratic voters
approved measures to tax themselves to
increase local investment in
transportation. Just over half of the
counties identified, 54 percent, were
majority Democratic and 46 percent
were majority Republican voters.
Not only are local Republicans and
Democrats bringing these measures up
for vote, both groups are also approving
them. ARTBA found that Republican
counties approved 81 percent of the
measures up for vote and Democratic
counties approved 70 percent.
Large Number of Initiatives on the
November 2014 Ballot
There are already 28 state and local ballot
initiatives to be voted on in 2014, with
more measures expected to be
announced as the fall elections draw
closer. Four state level initiatives are on
the November ballot, including a
measure to redirect $1.2 billion annually
in Texas to support transportation im-
provements. Maryland and Wisconsin
voters will be asked to approve trans-
portation trust funds, and a Missouri
measure calls for temporarily raising the
state sales and use tax by .75 percent for
10 years to fund transportation projects.
There have also been 38 transportation
funding-related measures proposed in
20 state legislatures through July. So far,
the only recurring revenue measures that
were approved were gas tax increases
in New Hampshire and Rhode Island.
Additional investment plans through
one time surpluses or transfers were
approved in Michigan, Wisconsin and
Strong Voter Support for
Measures Since 2000
Voters approved 310 of 425, or 73%,
of initiatives to increase county and
local transportation investment.
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 17July-August 2014
Dr. J. Don Brock
The 2014 Dr. J. Don Brock TransOvation™
November 17-19 | Microsoft Headquarters, Redmond, Wash.
Space is limited. Register: www.transovation.org
July-August 201418 TransportationBuilder
CREATIVITY AND TEAMWORK SAVE A
by Jack Haynes, P.E. and Todd Kincaid
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 19
n late September 2013, the Mathews Bridge in Jacksonville,
Fla. was struck by a Navy transport ship that was being
towed to a local shipyard. The geometry and stability of the
bridge was compromised and immediate replacement of a
severed lower chord was required. Working with the Florida
Department of Transportation (FDOT), RS&H led a team that
produced plans and a full bid package for repairs within 76
hours. What followed is a remarkable story of engineering
excellence and interagency coordination. Working non-stop,
the design and construction team repaired the bridge in a mere
26 days—12 days ahead of an already aggressive schedule—
while overcoming numerous obstacles in an unprecedented
Creative, Complex Solution
The Mathews Bridge is Florida’s first and oldest high-level
cantilever truss bridge and serves as a main corridor into the
heart of the city. Restoring it safely was critical for local
residents and area mobility, particularly with the additional
traffic from the looming annual Florida-Georgia football game.
At the point of impact, the bridge’s tension forces are
concentrated in the lower chord, and when it was severed, the
truss pulled apart and sagged. Because of the lack of
redundancy, these members are considered “fracture
critical,” meaning the loss of one would likely result in system
failure. State officials filed a “declaration of emergency,” which
launched immediate repair efforts.
Leveraging an existing districtwide contract, FDOT and
RS&H assembled a team that included maintenance
personnel, bridge design engineers, contractors, surveyors,
steel heat straightening professionals, steel fabricators, pin
testers, bridge and construction engineering inspectors, and
strain gage professionals.
With the ultimate goal of restoring the safe load carrying
capacity of the bridge, the team’s biggest challenge was how to
pull the ends of the severed chord back into position to restore
geometry, relieve stresses and hold the chord ends in place
temporarily in order to perform permanent repairs. A tem-
porary repair was needed to restore the truss so that heavier
equipment could be brought onsite for permanent repairs.
The design team used a model previously developed by
RS&H, because it has a long history of working on the bridge.
The model was developed during the Mathews Bridge main
span deck replacement and truss strengthening project in 2006.
Many of the same team members from the previous project
Side view of damage prior to repairs on the Mathews Bridge in Jacksonville, Fla. Photo courtesy of RS&H.
July-August 201420 TransportationBuilder
were brought in for the repair project, including Hardesty and
The solution for the temporary repair involved pulling the
lower chord back into place. This was accomplished by
attaching fortresses at anchor points on either side of the chord
gap and restoring the truss with the missing tension force of
the absent chord. Jacks were used to tension four post-
tensioning bars to pull the chord back into place. Permanent
repairs could then begin, since the load carrying capacity of the
truss was restored.
FDOT actively informed the public about the project as the
crisis unfolded and coordinated with local officials, police, and
the U.S. Coast Guard. In order to reduce closure time, the
contract included an incentive to award or penalize the
contractor $50,000 a day for finishing early or late. To
minimize disruption, construction projects on the major
detour routes to downtown were halted or closed, and lanes
were opened to provide additional capacity during rush hour.
In coordination with the U.S. Coast Guard, marine vessels were
also allowed to travel beneath the bridge once the initial
assessment determined that the structure would not collapse
due to self-weight alone.
During repairs, one key safety innovation was the use of an
above-deck strongback system with saddles to provide
additional safety and redundancy for loads from the truss.
Steel components for temporary and permanent repairs were
fabricated in the Tampa Bay area by Florida Structural Steel,
and the Florida Highway Patrol escorted permitted oversized
loads to get material to the site as quickly as possible.
Major design and construction innovations included heat
straightening the damaged gusset plates, a custom pulley
system used to hoist repairs from the deck, and using an
overlapping gusset plate to restore full joint capacity without
having to unstitch major complicated connections. A
stub-beam was used to facilitate the west connection of the
new lower chord section to the existing gussets. This eliminated
fit-up issues inherent in replacing the entire chord at once.
Project management also had to be creative and innovative.
The team quickly assembled necessary resources, remained
on-call 24 hours a day, and worked long hours to complete
the job. Because of weight restrictions, climbing
engineering inspectors from RS&H and Burgess & Niple
continually monitored the bridge as repairs were made. The
Installation of the permanent chord almost complete with outer gusset plate installed. Photo courtesy of RS&H.
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 21
team chose local construction engineering and inspection
services firms (HNTB, JEAcs, GPI) that had familiarity with
both the Mathews Bridge and the design team from the
previous deck replacement project.
Historic Bridge Restored
The Mathews Bridge emergency repair was an unprecedented
effort with eerie similarities to a historic disaster. On May
9, 1980, a freighter hit one of the main piers of the Mathews
Bridge’s twin structure, the original Sunshine Skyway Bridge
in Tampa. The impact resulted in the immediate collapse of
1,260 feet of bridge and significant loss of life. On the Mathews
Bridge incident, by some engineering estimates, an additional
severing impact to the opposite south truss or an impact in
another panel a few feet away might have caused an immediate
Permanent repairs to the Mathews Bridge were completed
on Sunday, October 27, 2013, 32 days after impact with traffic
resuming on day 34. This was accomplished through the
dedication of nearly 200 professionals working around the
clock to restore the bridge safely and to eliminate the economic
hardship to more than 50,000 motorists who use the bridge
Nearly 20,000 pounds of permanent steel was replaced and
more than 1,000 bolts were installed. The project posed
considerable challenges, including the severity of the
damage, weather, complex and concurrent aspects of design,
plans production, shop drawing process, steel fabrication,
material delivery, tensioning stages, heat straightening,
member repair and removal, strain gage installation, and load
testing. Overcoming these and quickly repairing the bridge
was an amazing accomplishment for all involved. Among other
awards this project has won, Superior Construction Company
Southeast won the 2014 Florida Transportation Builders
Association’s Best in Construction Partnering Award.
Team photo after final installation of permanent member. Photo courtesy of RS&H.
Project video: “In the Blink of an Eye”
When Mathews Bridge in Jacksonville, Florida, was hit by a ship in
September 2013, the Florida Department of Transportation called RS&H to
help design the repairs. More than 200 workers came together to safely
reopen the bridge. This documentary details the team’s quick action and
impressive efforts to repair the bridge. Link: http://vimeo.com/97370834
Jack Haynes is RS&H vice president, transportation/infrastructure leader:
email@example.com. Todd Kincaid is an RS&H marketing/technical
July-August 201422 TransportationBuilder
View of the existing bridge’s four-span
configuration and rigid frame, column and cap
type piers, prior to construction. The new bridge
will be a two-span continuous structure
eliminating the existing shoulder piers located
along I-287 and encapsulating the existing pier in
the center median. Photo courtesy of Dewberry.
CHIMNEY ROCK ROAD
by Richard C. Menino, P.E.
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 23
ith all the activity happening at the heart of the new
interchange currently being built at U.S. Route 22 and
Chimney Rock Road in Bridgewater, N.J.
reconstruction of the existing bridge carrying Chimney Rock
Road over I-287 may hardly be noticed. But for the team of
engineers from The Louis Berger Group and Dewberry
responsible for designing the interchange, the critical role that
reconstructing this bridge plays in the overall success of the
larger project was recognized early on. In addition to being a
vehicular crossing, the bridge also supports several utilities
including water, sanitary, gas, telephone, and electric. It also
provides the employees of United Parcel Service with
pedestrian access between parking areas and their
distribution facility located on the north and south sides of
the bridge, respectively.
The planned interchange required that the existing bridge be
widened to furnish a 48-foot curb-to-curb width and six-
foot-wide sidewalks along both sides in the final condition.
The bridge’s vital role within the local infrastructure was clear,
including the need to maintain vehicular and pedestrian traffic,
as well as the utility services, throughout construction.
The existing 266-foot-long structure, constructed circa 1960,
is composed of four, simply supported spans and is positioned
on a 24-degree skew with respect to I-287. The two central 96
feet nine inches spans are flanked by a 36 foot and 31 foot span.
The bridge provides a 30-foot clear roadway with a six-foot-
wide sidewalk along the east side and a three-foot-wide safety
walk along the west side. A one-foot-wide by two-foot-six-
inch-high concrete parapet, surmounted with chain-link fence,
is present along each walkway resulting in an out-to-out deck
width of 41 feet. The superstructure consists of an eight-inch
reinforced concrete deck composite with six rolled steel or
welded plate girders spaced at seven feet, three-and-a-half
inches on center. The substructure is composed of reinforced
concrete stub abutments and rigid frame, column and cap type
piers supported on spread footings founded on rock.
The interchange improvements required the existing bridge
to be widened 21 feet, six inches to provide the 48-foot
curb-to-curb width, accommodating a 12-foot lane with a
five-foot shoulder for northbound and southbound traffic, in
addition to a 14-foot center turning lane. A six-foot-wide
sidewalk and one-foot-three-inch-wide by three-foot-six-inch-
high concrete parapet will also be provided along both sides of
the bridge in the final condition. The resulting out-to-out width
of the new bridge deck is 62 feet six inches.
Satisfying the constraints associated with maintaining
vehicular and pedestrian traffic, and accommodating the
utilities, required that the improvements be constructed
using three stages. As design advanced, however, the engineers
sought to identify methods to expedite construction. The fact
that the existing bridge was founded on rock presented one
such opportunity. The team determined that the existing bridge
should be reconstructed by completely replacing the
superstructure and modifying the substructure to convert the
structural framing from four simple spans to two continuous
spans. The new, two-span continuous superstructure
arrangement offered the advantages inherent withcontinuous
spans, which include more efficient design and fewer deck
joints, while also eliminating construction
operations associated with widening and modifying the
existing piers located along the shoulders of the heavily
travelled I-287 corridor. This reduced overall costs and
View of the formwork for the center pier’s extension and the original pier’s
partial encapsulation completed in the first stage of construction.
Photo courtesy of Dewberry.
View of the bridge with the new, two-span continuous steel girders
erected in Stage 1, supported on the extended abutments and the
modified center pier. Photo courtesy of Dewberry.
July-August 201424 TransportationBuilder
The new superstructure was designed as a two-span
continuous system with spans of approximately 128 feet and
133 feet. The typical section consists of nine welded steel plate
girders, having a 44-inch web depth, composite with a
nine-inch reinforced high-performance concrete deck.
Girders were spaced at either seven feet six inches or six feet
eight inches on center to accommodate the construction
staging. As noted, by reconfiguring the superstructure
framing, the shoulder piers of the existing bridge were
completely eliminated. The existing stub abutments and center
pier were extended and modified to accept the new
superstructure, and were monitored for movement during
construction. The design also incorporated lead-core
isolation bearings that addressed seismic design forces and
offered potential to reduce and redistribute these forces to
Encapsulating the Existing Pier
Given that the abutments were readily accessible, traditional
cast-in-place construction methods were detailed for the
extensions and the associated wingwall construction. Although
the median of I-287 offered sufficient width to facilitate work at
the center pier, it was still important to minimize the
duration of construction activities within this area. With this
goal in mind, the design team evaluated various options to
extend and modify this pier. The results of these assessments
led to the design of a cast-in-place wall pier that encapsulates
the existing rigid frame, column and cap type pier. Entombing
the existing pier required the stem of the new center pier to be
five feet thick. However, the scale of the new center pier
complemented the increased span lengths of the rehabilitated
bridge, and arch-shaped recesses were introduced as an
architectural treatment. The proposed construction also
simplified staging and expedited construction by eliminating
the need to completely demolish the existing pier.
A Cooperative Effort
Construction of this long-awaited interchange is the direct
result of cooperation between the Federal Highway
Administration, the New Jersey Department of
Transportation, and Somerset County. The interchange will
be created by depressing and realigning existing U.S. Route 22
approximately 16 feet to provide both express and local lanes,
while Chimney Rock Road and Norfolk Southern’s adjacent
track are slightly re-profiled and carried over U.S. Route 22 on
new bridges. In addition to these two new bridges, and
reconstructing the bridge carrying Chimney Rock Road over
I-287 described above, the interchange requires widening of
the existing bridge carrying U.S. Route 22 over Middle Brooke,
six retaining walls with a total length of over 2,000 feet and
four overhead sign structures. The project’s general
contractor, Anselmi & DeCicco, Inc., of Maplewood, N,J.,
started construction of the $60 million interchange in March
2012. Construction is scheduled for completion in 2015.
View of the bridge with the new deck, parapet formwork and shielding
installed along the new steel superstructure. Photo courtesy of Dewberry.
View of the center pier at the conclusion of Stage 1. The top of the original
pier cap and pedestals, still supporting the girders of the original bridge,
can be seen, along with the arch-shaped recesses introduced as an
architectural treatment on the new pier. Photo courtesy of Dewberry.
Rick Menino is an associate vice president in Dewberry’s Bloomfield,
New Jersey office: firstname.lastname@example.org.
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 25
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July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 27
BRIDGE REPAIRS &
LEARNEDby Terrence Tiberio, P.E. and Kenton Zinn, P.E., S.E.
ith the national
continuing to age, the
implications of emergency
closures of major interstate
bridges have recently hit home
in several parts of the country.
Coupled with the short-term
uncertain outlook for enhanced
federal transportation funding,
the continued aging of large
bridges is putting state
departments of transportation
and other agencies in a
position of increased risk.
Owners increasingly need to be
prepared to react swiftly and
with a steady hand to the
possibility of closing a major
structure and significantly
affecting communities and local
Michael Baker International
(Baker) recently provided
engineering and construction
services related to the
emergency closure and
accelerated repair of several
major structures.Two of these
bridges, the Sherman Minton
Bridge in Louisville, Ky., and the
Leo Frigo Bridge in Green Bay,
Wis., carry high volumes of
interstate traffic into and out of
urban areas. A third bridge, the
Eggner’s Ferry Bridge over
Kentucky Lake in western
Kentucky, provides one of the
few access points onto the land
between the Lakes National
Recreational Area. Each of these
projects provided important
lessons that are worthy of
consideration given the potential
for future emergency closures.
Installation of Steel Plating for Sherman Minton
Bridge Arch Ribs. Photo courtesy of Michael
July-August 201428 TransportationBuilder
Description of Projects
Sherman Minton Bridge. The Sherman Minton Bridge carries
I-64 East Bound and West Bounc over the Ohio River between
New Albany, Ind. and Louisville, Ky. The bridge has two
800-foot-long fracture-critical double-decker steel tied arch
truss spans that carry approximately 80,000 vehicles per day.
During the course of Baker’s in-depth bridge inspection, criti-
cal defects were encountered in the fracture critical steel arch
ties that prompted the Indiana Department of Transportation
(INDOT) to impose an emergency closure on September 9,
2011. Baker developed a repair procedure in cooperation with
INDOT and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
that involved installing bolted steel plates along the full length
of each of the 800-foot arch ties. The repair plan allowed for the
bridge to be reopened in February 2012.
Leo Frigo Bridge. The I-43 Leo Frigo Bridge in Green Bay,
Wis., closed in September 2013 after corroded steel piles failed
under one of the approach piers, causing a 400-foot section of
the bridge to sink by approximately two feet. In cooperation
with the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT),
FHWA, and Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates (WJE), Baker’s
structural and geotechnical engineers investigated the source of
the failure and recommended a repair that involved the
installation of four concrete drilled shafts per pier that were
socketed into bedrock and post-tensioned to the existing
footings. The drilled shafts were designed to fully support
all structural loads with no help from the existing corroded
piles and the superstructure was jacked back into its original
position. The investigation and repair were completed and the
bridge reopened 102 days from the incident, returning service
to 40,000 vehicles a day.
Eggner’s Ferry Bridge. On January 26, 2012, a barge of
unusual height collided with and collapsed a 322-foot span of
the Eggner’s Ferry Bridge that carries U.S. 68/KY 80 over
Kentucky Lake in western Kentucky. The subsequent
bridge-closing cut off a vital link to the area and the western
gateway to the Land Between the Lakes National Recreational
Area. The detour spanned nearly 50 miles. The Kentucky
Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) prescribed a single span steel
truss and an accelerated bid procurement process for
replacement of the failed span. Through time saving techniques
and close cooperation between KYTC, Baker as the designer,
Tensor Engineering as the steel detailer, and the general
contractor Hall Contracting of Kentucky, Inc., the bridge
reopened to traffic on May 25, 2012, just 16 weeks after closure.
While each of these emergency replacements involved unique
challenges and significantly differing site conditions, the
lessons provided by each offer strategies that can be of value to
Sherman Minton Bridge over the Ohio River. Photo courtesey of Michael Baker International.
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 29
management may be best handled by the use of an
independent firm, working in parallel with the main
design firm and in constant communication. In the case
of the Leo Frigo emergency repair, Baker’s design team
benefitted significantly from the review efforts of
WisDOT’s in-house structural engineering staff, in
addition to WJE’s independent quality assurance.
Intelligent design. The development of design and
fabrication details that balance material cost with ease of
fabrication is critical. Too many designs over-prioritize
material savings to the point of increasing fabrication
complexities which produce delays due to errors and
shop fit-up challenges. More repetitive and simplified
design details used on both the Eggner’s Ferry and
Sherman Minton Bridges allowed an enhanced delivery
with minimum field adjustments. In the end, simplified
connection and member design will many times result
in lower cost, schedule benefits, and improved future
Innovative procurement. The ability to procure a
construction contractor quickly can play a huge role
in reopening the closed bridge as quickly as possible.
Design/Build and Construction Management/General
Contractor (CM/GC) procurement methods can offer
owners and designers if future similar situations emerge:
Constant and open communication between the
designer, owner, and FHWA. To expedite the aggressive
reopening of these critical structures, lines of
communication between Baker, the DOTs and FHWA
needed to remain open around the clock. In the case
of the Sherman Minton and Leo Frigo projects, Baker
placed staff directly in the DOT offices to allow for
constant communication and prompt responsiveness as
the direction of each project evolved.
Creative brainstorming. Emergency response demands
the ability to generate creative ideas and solutions early
in addressing the emergency. In a truly collaborative
environment, the team (including designer, contractor,
owner, and FHWA) needs to feel free to offer any and all
resourceful ideas. In turn, the team members also need
to be open to sincere criticism as ideas are evaluated. In
other words, egos must be checked at the door.
Dedicated quality management. As repair plans are
developed under extremely aggressive schedules,
checking and quality control are of the utmost
importance since field problems and resulting delays are
not tolerable in an emergency environment. This quality
Emergency repair of the Leo Frigo Bridge. Photo courtesy of URS Corporation.
July-August 201430 TransportationBuilder
significant schedule benefits and
lead to construction innovation.
On the Eggner’s Ferry Bridge,
Baker’s ability to work hand-
in-hand with Tensor and Hall
Construction in developing design
details was critical in allowing
the bridge to reopen ahead of an
already aggressive schedule.
Accelerated Bridge Construction
(ABC) Techniques. Emergency
repair projects clearly offer fertile
ground for many of the ABC
techniques that are growing in
popularity and frequency across
the country. The Eggner’s Ferry
replacement involved complete
off-site fabrication of the
replacement span, followed by
barging the span in and then
lifting it into place. Erection of the
truss span on-site at an elevation
over water could not have been
accomplished in the same
condensed time frame.
Bridge owners across the country will
be challenged with managing an aging
bridge inventory while future federal
transportation funding levels are
uncertain. In emergency bridge closure
situations, bridge owners are faced with
immense challenges to return a critical
bridge to service under an aggressive
schedule. When placed in that
environment, the engineering team must
provide open communication, dedicated
leadership from all parties, and
innovative solutions in order to satisfy
the public’s high expectations.
Eggner’s Ferry Bridge with new truss span. Photo courtesey of Michael Baker International.
Accelerated replacement of truss span for Eggner’s Ferry Bridge.
Photo courtesey of Michael Baker International.
Terrence Tiberio, P.E. is Michael Baker
International senior technical manager in
Kenton Zinn, P.E., S.E. is Michael Baker
International vice president:
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 31www.ammann-whitney.com
Da Nang, Vietnam
A Tradition of Excellence
July-August 201432 TransportationBuilder
BUILDING AMERICA’S BACKBONE
by Jonathan Hirschfeld
estled in the Blue Ridge Highlands region of the
Appalachian Mountains is an area rich in outdoor
recreation with biking, hiking, and fishing. Long scenic
drives following the settlements scattered throughout the area
take you along highways and bypasses filled with wide mouth
river crossings, tree lined miles and blankets of bluegrass
lining the mountainous terrain. Southwest Virginia is known
for its outdoor experiences, but this area is also home to
another contributor to quality of life: manufacturing jobs.
With a long history deeply rooted in coal mining and cash
crop farms, the area’s strong workforce community is an
established cornerstone providing ample skilled workers and
high quality results. According to the Virginia
Manufacturers Association, the state’s 5,000+ manufacturers
employ over 200,000 individuals and contribute $34 billion to
the gross state product, accounting for over 80 percent of the
state’s exports to the global economy.
At the Hirschfeld Industries plant, located between Abingdon
and Bristol, there are 70 employees busy at work, fabricating
steel girders for bridge superstructures. In a literal sense, the
plant provides the backbone of highway and rail bridges. Our
Virginia plant is resilient, too, despite multiple recessions and
industry bankruptcies, our quality workforce has churned out
bridge girders without interruption for 60 years.
“The manufacturing of goods has long been the foundation
of jobs for American workers,” said Congressman Morgan
Griffith (R-Va.), who represents the region that is home to our
Virginia plant. “Hirschfeld Industries and other
manufacturers are key to both the local and national
economies, and also create thousands of jobs for those living
nearby. For our nation to remain competitive long-term in the
global economy, we must ensure that American companies like
Hirschfeld Industries remain able to efficiently develop and
manufacture products here at home, thus continuing to be a
source of good-paying jobs.”
The strength of our Virginia plant highlights our industry’s
lean and efficient manufacturing practices to weather the down
markets and scale up when transportation construction
investment expands. Such an opportunity came our way with
The new N.Y. Bridge, a monumental project that will revitalize
the existing Governor Malcolm Wilson Tappan Zee Toll Bridge
that connects Rockland County to Westchester County,
crossing the Hudson River at one of its widest points.
The new N.Y. Bridge, designed to last 100 years without
major structural maintenance, is made possible by the
coming together of two U.S. competitors in the manufacturing
and steel industry. In total, Tappan Zee Constructors, LLC (and
a consortium of some of the world’s best-known and
highly-regarded design, engineering and construction firms,
including Fluor, American Bridge, Traylor Bros. and Granite)
is utilizing the East Coast manufacturing strength from a joint
marketing partnership forged by Hirschfeld Industries and
Renderings of the new Tappan Zee Bridge.
Photo courtesy of New York State Thruway Authority.
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 33
Designed to carry up to 100,000 vehicles each day across
eight traffic lanes and slated for completion in 2018, the new
N.Y. Bridge will continue in the spirit of the Tappan Zee Bridge
as a vital artery for residents, commuters, travelers and
commercials traffic. It will also have a dedicated commuter
bus lane and will accommodate bus rapid transit, light rail or
commuter rail, as well as a bike and pedestrian path. The $3.1
billion innovative design of the 3.1-mile twin span cable-stayed
bridge with angled main span towers will reach completion in a
little over five years.
The winning steel design minimized dredging and piers for
the 350-foot American-made steel girder approach spans. The
new N.Y. Bridge will be lighter, and the modular assembly will
offer the safest and most expedited construction of a project of
this size so far in the industry.
“As the largest fabricator of steel bridges in the United States,
we are proud to come together with other leaders in the
industry to complete this immense task,” said Wendall
Hirschfeld, vice president of business development at
There are more than 10 best-in-class bridge fabrication facili-
ties along the East Coast demonstrating the strength of the U.S.
Steel fabrication industry and taking on large scale projects
like the new N.Y. Bridge, which will be the single largest bridge
construction project in state history. Tappan Zee Constructors
is allocating a portion of these facilities to provide the bridges
required for the five-year project. The availability of U.S. Steel
manufacturing provides the means for HDR, TZC’s Engineer,
to turn design into reality—and constructability.
Since the turn of the 20th
century, steel has been basic to
the world’s industrial economy. As a company that can trace
its roots all the way back to 1919, Hirschfeld has experienced
impressive growth and diversification to become one of North
America’s premier fabricators of structural steel components
used in complex, large-scale industrial, commercial and bridge
Fabricating more than 100,000 tons of steel annually, we are
known for our work in a wide range of end markets including
transportation infrastructure, industrial development,
commercial construction and power generation. With 11
facilities from the Southwest to the East Coast, providing a
national presence and an industry-leading footprint, Hirschfeld
is a major participant in the expansion and redevelopment of
the U.S. transportation and energy infrastructure systems and
the new N.Y. Bridge is part of that story.
Jonathan Hirschfeld is Hirschfeld Industries vice president, project
coordination/business development: email@example.com.
Hirschfeld’s Abingdon, Va. plant. Photo courtesy of Hirschfeld.
Photographer: Jennifer Jernigan.
July-August 201434 TransportationBuilder
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July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 35
DBE Program Focus of ARTBA’s Latest Legal Challenge
by Nick Goldstein
Nick Goldstein is ARTBA assistant counsel and
vice president of regulatory affairs:
After a successful legal challenge in the
Public-Private Partnerships (P3)
arena last year, ARTBA, which has been
the industry’s primary legal advocate for
more than 20 years, is branching out in a
new direction for 2014: trying to ensure
the fair application of the federal
Disadvantaged Business Enterprise
You may recall that in 2013, ARTBA
for the first time became involved in
litigation concerning the constitutional-
ity of P3s. The outcome was a good one,
as ultimately we helped to overturn a
court decision which could have
endangered a multi-billion dollar P3
project in Virginia, as well as provided a
blueprint for additional P3 legal
challenges throughout the country.
On the DBE case, it’s important to
stress that ARTBA recognizes the goals
of the program and the need to
encourage the participation and
utilization of disadvantaged businesses in
the transportation construction industry.
At the same time, the integrity of the
program is critical. Compliance with
its many requirements on federal-aid
projects is also a key task for all types of
contractors. It comes within the
industry’s overall objectives of delivering
these projects safely and efficiently, while
at the same time minimizing disruption
to the traveling public and maximizing
the use of innovation. However, if the
program is not administered correctly at
the state level, the impacts on contractors
can be severe.
With this in mind, ARTBA June 20
filed a “friend of the court” brief with
the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sev-
enth Circuit in the case of Dunnet Bay
Construction Company v. Gary Hannig.
A lower court dismissed Dunnet Bay’s
case by “summary judgment.” Essentially,
this means the court reached its decision
without ever getting to the merits of the
arguments. ARTBA strongly felt the ar-
guments raised by Dunnet Bay deserved
a fair hearing and has supported Dunnet
Bay’s efforts to appeal the ruling.
At issue is a lower court ruling
dismissing Dunnet Bay’s claim that the
state of Illinois improperly administered
the federal DBE program in a manner
which undermined DBE program goals
and caused the program to be
administered as an unconstitutional,
quota-based system. ARTBA said that, if
allowed to stand, the lower court’s
holding would effectively eliminate the
ability of contractors nationwide to
challenge misapplication of the DBE
program, which could include the
rejection of responsible low bids on
transportation construction projects.
Further, the lower court’s decision
in the Dunnet Bay case could severely
erode the ability of states to allow
contractors who have employed “good
faith efforts” to comply with DBE stan-
dards, but are unable to do so because of
factors outside of their control. ARTBA
explained that waivers are a necessary
part of the federal program requiring DBE
participation because of basic market
realities. Within some geographic areas,
there are in fact not enough certified and
available DBE firms, or an inadequate
number of such firms qualified and
available to perform certain subcontract-
ing disciplines needed for a particular
It should be noted that the Dunnet Bay
case was brought to ARTBA’s attention
by one of our state chapters, the Illinois
Road & Transportation Builders
Association (IRTBA), which has played a
leading role in raising industry
awareness of this litigation. Such
information-sharing is essential to
ARTBA’s litigation program. An issue in
one state can have nationwide impacts.
Indeed, when IRTBA alerted us to the
Dunnet Bay case and shared it with other
ARTBA state chapter affiliates, there was
an outpouring of support from multiple
chapters for ARTBA’s participation.
ARTBA thanks IRTBA and all of the
state chapters that helped facilitate our
involvement, including retaining a
well-known Chicago law firm to prepare
the brief under ARTBA’s guidance.
This case is just the latest example of
ARTBA’s efforts aimed at helping protect
your market. There is no set timetable for
oral arguments in the case, but ARTBA
but ARTBA hopes to have a decision by
early 2015. We will keep you posted on
any further developments.
July-August 2014 TransportationBuilder 37
focus on work
Mobile elevating work platforms
(MEWPs) are among the most
versatile and necessary pieces of
equipment on any jobsite. They allow
workers to perform a variety of tasks at
heights that could not be safely reached
by any other method.
The Association of Equipment Manu-
facturers (AEM) is playing an important
role in ensuring that the already
outstanding industry-wide standards for
MEWP design and safety reflect state-of-
Experts from AEM’s Technical &
Safety Services department are involved
in leading a process whose end result will
be a new topic-specific MEWP standard
covering design, safety requirements and
test methods for vertical-type,
scissor-type and boom supported
MEWPs, ANSI/SAIA A92.20.
In addition, safety professionals from
most (or all) of the AEM member
companies that manufacture MEWPs sit
on the A92 committee and provide
critical perspectives for the group’s
Among the new safety requirements
included in the standard are a load
Such systems are designed to limit
movement of the extending structure to
down only when the machine is over-
loaded while in a raised position and
to not allow the machine to raise when
overloaded at ground level (or in some
cases at one meter).
Load sensing system requirements
already exist in standards created by
ISO/TC 214 (International) and in CEN/
TC 98 (Europe). AEM member represen-
tatives also serve on these committees.
Since nearly all AEM members who
manufacture MEWPs market their
equipment globally, many already equip
their machines with these systems to
enter international markets. For them,
the U.S. is just another market where this
system will eventually be a requirement.
As currently proposed, load-sensing
systems will operate as follows:
The system will trigger after the
rated load is reached and before 120
percent of the rated load is exceeded.
When the load-sensing system is
triggered, a red light will flash and
an acoustic signal will sound. The
light will continue to flash for as long
as the overload persists and the
acoustic alarm will sound for
periods of at least five seconds,
repeated every minute.
If the load-sensing system was
triggered during movement of the
work platform, the possibility of
movement will remain.
If the load-sensing system is
triggered while the work platform is
stationary, it will prevent all
movement of the work platform.
Movement will only restart if the
overload is removed.
For Type I, group A mobile
elevating work platforms (MEWPs),
AEM provides trade and business development
services for companies that manufacture equip-
ment, products and services used world-wide
in the agricultural, construction, forestry, mining
and utility sectors. AEM is headquartered in Mil-
waukee, Wisconsin, with offices in Washington,
D.C., Ottawa, and Beijing.
it is permitted for the load-control
device to be effective only when
raising the extending structure from
the lowest position. In this case, the
test load will be 150 percent of the
For group A MEWPs, the load-
sensing device need not be activated
until the work platform is elevated
more than one meter or 10 percent
of lift height, whichever is the
greater, above the lowest position.
If an overload condition is sensed at
or above this height, further
elevation will be prevented.
The emergency override system shall
remain active independent of the
state of the load-sensing system.
While approval of the final standard is
still several years away, AEM will
continue to monitor the process and
work with other stakeholders on the
ANSI/SAIA A92 committee to produce a
standard that maintains the global
competitiveness of U.S. equipment
manufacturers while protecting
For more information on the
ANSI/SAIA A92.20 standard, contact
Al Cervero, AEM vice president of
construction, mining and utility
July-August 201438 TransportationBuilder
Promote your company’s products and services in
Contact ARTBA’s Peter Embrey at 202.289.4434 or
Check out our rates in the 2014 media kit available
Advertise with “Transportation Builder”
“ARTBA reserves the right, at its discretion and without liability of any
nature whatsoever, to reject, cancel or suspend any advertising in whole
or in part, in which case any fees paid in advance shall be refunded to
the advertiser on a pro-rata basis.”
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