The Renaissance 1400-1600ish The Crusades and the Black Deathwere 2 of the most important events that brought an end to the Middle Ages (Dark Ages).
• The Crusades exposed Europeans to new goods and new ideas and stimulated a rebirth of trade• The Black Death, killing about 1/3 of the population, created a labor shortage, thus weakening the Feudalistic system
The Renaissance• A new interest in learning about the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome developed in the city-states of Italy in the 1400’s.
• During the Renaissance, wealthy Italians acted as supporters (patrons) of the arts, writers, and scholars.• Secularism-relating to the world, not religious, increased as people started to have more interest in this world and not life hereafter. They started to explain life on their experiences and not on Church teachings.
Humanism• Renaissance thinkers placed much thought on the dignity, worth and uniqueness of each person—each human being.
Da Vinci• He was a sculptor, painter, inventor and had one of the best scientific minds of the time. He had a notebook filled with drawings of everything from helicopters to submarines to human muscles and other anatomy
Architecture• http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/vie w/assetGuid/1547A63F-3363-4CDF-8A92- 036FD12E8239• They abandoned the gothic styles of the Middle Ages and used the columns and circular arches of ancient Greece and Rome for a classical style.
The Intellectual Impact Scholarship and Literature• Renaissance humanists studied Classical Roman and Greek literature, poetry, and philosophy.• William Shakespeare• Cervantes• Machiavelli—The Prince• http://youtu.be/5IGBKu6qM7Y
Science and Technology• Important discoveries occurred during the Renaissance with the help of Nicholas Copernicus and Galileo Galilei.• Copernicus: stated the Earth orbited around the sun—the Church opposed his theory• Galileo: inventor of the telescope and believer of Copernicus’ ideas-tried by the Catholic Church, found guilty and confined to his home.• http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/ assetGuid/23C79BE1-41FB-4CBA-BE01- C8B560EA55BC
Johann Gutenberg The Printing Press• Until the mid 1400’s, Europeans copied all books by hand—very few books available, very few people were literate.• Block printing invented in China in the 1300’s— slow process• Gutenberg’s movable type printing press— allowed mass production of printed books—more people read, new ideas spread, etc.• http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/ assetGuid/E555AA86-A016-4E0A-852F- CDC606C49301
The Protestant Reformation• During this time of questioning everything, some began to question the Catholic Church. It had grown very large and corrupt.• Martin Luther was one of the Church’s most vocal critics. He posted his Ninety-Five Theses on a church door in Germany challenging many of the Church’s practices. The Pope excommunicated him. But he refused to back down.
• Luther established the first Protestant church—The Lutheran Church.• He believed people must read the Bible for themselves so he translated the New Testament into German.• He believed the priests nor the Pope had special powers to provide salvation. That only faith through God could a person be saved.
Martin Luther• http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/vie w/assetGuid/92EDB1C0-359B-4E94-BE1A- FF9169536AAA
John Calvin• Calvin was another reformer who thought that since God was all-knowing, it was predestined as to who would be saved and who would be damned.
Effects of the Reformation• 1. End of Religious Unity—warfare would start between Catholics and Protestants.• 2. Growth of Royal Power—without the power of the Catholic Church, many European kings power began to grow.• 3. Persecution-the killing of religious minority
The Catholic Counter-Reformation• As Protestantism spread across Europe, the Catholic church began some reforms of their own.• They ended the sale of indulgences, redefined beliefs, banned Protestant books and created a special court to into heretics called the Inquisition.
The Political Impact of the Reformation• Some countries in Europe sided with the Pope and established Catholic countries—France, Italy, Spain and Southern Germany.• Others sided with the Protestant movement— Northern Germany, Holland and Scandinavia• England remained a Catholic country until Henry the VIII wanted a divorce from his wife—the Church refused so the king declared himself head of the Church of England
Henry VIII and his 6 wives• http://youtu.be/-fadCAHjN-s