Ch. 16The Conquest of the WestAfter the Civil war, a dynamic period in American history opened-the settlement of the West. The lives of Western miners, farmers and ranchers were often filled with great hardships, but the wave of American settlers continued. Railroadshastened this migration. During this period, manyNative Americans lost their homelands and their way of life
What is the West?• A mix of myth with reality• The “Great American Desert” Stephen Long• Diverse land and inhabitants
Who lived there?• Native Americas—diverse
Native Americans• The Great Plains were • As ranchers, miners and home to many Native farmers moved out to Americans the Plains—Native• Some were farmers Americans were• But the majority were deprived of their nomads—roamed the hunting grounds vast distances following • The Buffalo was killed their source of food— for sport—by the the buffalo millions
Hispanics• New Mexico, Texas and California—as the Anglo American presence increased and new ranching and farming operations followed, Hispanics were no longer in control of the region and were relegated to unskilled farm work and industrial labor
Chinese—RR, Chinese Exclusion Act, Anti-Coolie clubs
Homestead Act• “Rain follows the Plow”• Homestead Act- the government would give up to 160 acres of land and receive the title to that land after 5 years.• Life was hard
Despite all –settlement occurred. Why?
Railroads—the US government gavethem land to build the RR—the RR inturn sold land to prospective settlers
Migration from the East• After the Civil War, over 2 million came from the East—Scandinavians, Germans, Irish, Russians, Czechs and others
The Changing Western Economy• In the 19th century the region produced 3 major industries: mining, ranching and commercial farming• Gold, silver and copper• Boom to Bust
Cattle Kingdom• Ranchers—at first ranching was not practical—no water, cattle could not survive—tough prairie grasses—but in Texas—The Longhorn—lean and rangy—the longhorn could survive.
Open Range-a vast area of grassland owned by the government. • After the Civil War meat• Hispanic cowhands prices soared developed the tolls • Millions of longhorns roamed in Texas and techniques for • How to move the cattle to the RR rounding up and • Long cattle drives-The driving cattle. Chisholm Trail • Barbed wire• Lariat, lasso, • http://player.discoveryeducati on.com/index.cfm?guidAssetI stampede d=5EB648BC-FBA8-42BD- A0C0- F9B5E28CE42D&blnFromSearc h=1&productcode=US
Cowboy Culture• Buffalo Bill and his Wild West Show• http://youtu.be/SARb8vJJmuA
Romance of the West• Artist flocked to the West to capture the incredible magnificence of the scenery.• Albert Bierstadt• Thomas Moran