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Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote
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  1. 1. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 1 2 3 4 0. Introduction5 6
  2. 2. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 7 Hi, I’m Makoto Okamoto from Japan, the President and Producer of Academic8 Resource Guide, Inc. and the Project Leader of saveMLAK project.9 10 It’s a great pleasure for me to have this opportunity to report from Japan to11 you.12 13 14 15 And I want to say “Thank you” for all of your kind support to Japan after the16 great earthquake and Tsunami in March eleven 2011.17 18
  3. 3. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 19 20 Today, I want to tell you about our Wiki-based collaborative relief project. It is21 called saveMLAK. Please see this slide. This is the saveMLAK Wiki.22 23 24 25 Soon after the March eleven tragedy, we launched the Wiki system to aggregate26 and share detailed information on the damage to cultural institutions, including27 museums, libraries, archives and kominkans. Kominkan is a kind of community center28
  4. 4. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto in Japan.29 30 I believe that our experience through the great earthquake and tsunami in31 Japan is useful for everyone, because natural disasters can happen to anyone anywhere.32 33 34 35 No one is free from the risk of natural disasters like earthquake, tsunami, flood,36 hurricane, cyclone, tornado, epidemic diseases, influenza pandemic and so on.37 38
  5. 5. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 39 40 I hope I can offer all of you some knowledge and information obtained through41 our about two years’ experience.42 43 44 45 1. Beginning of saveMLAK46 1.1. Beginning of saveMLAK – Launch of savelibrary and its reason47 48
  6. 6. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 49 50 The very next day of March eleven, I started savelibrary project, the relief51 project for libraries damaged by the earthquake and tsunami.52 53 54 55 At first, I launched savelibrary wiki using free Wiki platform called @wiki.56 Then I announced on Twitter that57 58
  7. 7. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 59 60 61 62 “I launched savelibrary Wiki. It is a portal for gathering information on the63 damage and appealing for aid for damaged libraries. Please join and work with us. I64 appreciate your retweet and posting to library mailing lists”.65 66 You may wonder why I started such a project just after the disaster when67 confusion was everywhere. At that time, in fact, no one had a grasp on the whole picture68
  8. 8. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto of the damage from the earthquake and tsunami. However, most of us were gradually69 realizing that it was an unpredictable tragedy far beyond our imagination. I asked70 myself what I could and should do. I did not have any ability to save human life directly.71 I’m not a doctor or nurse. I’m just a producer of cultural institutions.72 73 74 75 What can I do?76 What kind of role can I play?77 78 I found the answer in information aid.79 80
  9. 9. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 81 82 I once worked as a web producer in Yahoo! JAPAN. About ten years ago, I83 produced Yahoo! Answers, in Japanese, Yahoo! Chiebukuro. So, I had some experience84 in launching and managing a web-based community for mutual cooperation. I realized85 that information aid was the role and task I should assume. That’s why I launched86 savelibrary Wiki.87 88 89 90
  10. 10. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 1.2. Beginning of saveMLAK – growth of savelibrary project91 Collaborators appeared immediately after launch of savelibrary wiki. My social92 stream of Twitter became full of related tweets like this slide.93 94 95 96 As the project progressed steadily, similar movements emerged. As I said, I97 launched savelibrary Wiki at noon of March twelve. A person who was working for98 museum launched savemuseum Wiki in the evening of the same day.99 100
  11. 11. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 101 102 In addition, savearchives Wiki was launched on the following day103 104 105 106 and savekominkan Wiki was launched next week.107 108
  12. 12. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 109 110 These series of actions were started by those who were influenced by111 savelibrary Wiki project.112 113 114 115 The savelibrary Wiki was a good example of relief efforts for other kinds of116 cultural institutions. At that point, we, I mean those who were working for relief aid of117 libraries, museums, archives and kominkans, came to know and cooperate with each118
  13. 13. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto other beyond the differences of institutions.119 120 121 122 1.3. Beginning of saveMLAK – Integration into saveMLAK123 After a few weeks of cooperation among savemuseum, savelibrary,124 savearchives and savekominkan, we naturally came to feel and consider the need to125 integrate these four activities. In fact, we were already keeping in contact with each126 other. For example, it was very common that members of savelibrary helped other Wiki127 activities and vice versa.128 129
  14. 14. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 130 131 In response to this gain of momentum, we decided to integrate these four132 separate Wiki systems.133 134 135 136 From April first to April eleven, the integration of systems and projects was137 completed. We launched “saveMLAK” Wiki and started “saveMLAK” project.138 139
  15. 15. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 140 141 During the integration process, we switched to MediaWiki, although each142 project was on @Wiki. In addition, we reorganized the main communication tools143 including mailing list and social hash tag of Twitter.144 145 146 147
  16. 16. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 2. Activities of saveMLAK148 2.1. Activities of saveMLAK – Contents of saveMLAK Wiki149 So far I talked about the beginning of saveMLAK project after March eleven.150 151 Now, let’s move on to the contents of saveMLAK Wiki and collaborative152 activities based on MediaWiki.153 154 155 156 What kind of contents are in saveMLAK Wiki?157 158
  17. 17. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 159 160 This is the front page of saveMLAK Wiki in Japanese.161 162 163 164 From these links you can access the English and Chinese versions of the front165 page. This Wiki has various contents. One of the main contents is the detailed166 information on damaged cultural institutions. You can view the information by the167 areas and by the types of institutions. I’ll show you later.168
  18. 18. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 169 170 171 Here are two numbers. First one is the number of the damaged institutions.172 Second one is the total number of institutions in the area affected by the disaster. At173 present, saveMLAK Wiki contains information on approximately one thousand174 damaged institutions and twenty five thousand institutions in total.175 176 177 178
  19. 19. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto Please see the next slide. This is an example of the detail page of each cultural179 institution. This is the page of “Minami-Sanriku Town Public Library” . This library was180 completely destroyed by tsunami and one librarian died.181 182 183 184 Each page mainly consists of five parts, including fact sheet, details of damage,185 operation status, relief efforts, and source of information.186 187 188
  20. 20. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 189 For example, these lines are address and lat/long of this library. We created190 map display using these data and Google Map API.191 192 Most of the descriptions are written manually by real people with the exception193 of some automatic and mechanical processing. This page of “Minami-Sanriku Town194 Public Library” has been edited about forty times by about ten people. Of course, using195 MediaWiki, complete history of revisions has been saved and you can see the differences196 between versions.197 198 199 200 In addition to these contents, there are four other types of useful pages201 targeted for different types of users of saveMLAK Wiki.202
  21. 21. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 203 First, information for the victims of the disaster is offered. For instance, you204 can find libraries that offer them public access.205 206 Second, this is the information for supporters who works for the victims and207 affected areas. If you are working for preservation of damaged materials such as books,208 magazines and other valuable materials, you can access reliable information on how to209 rescue and preserve such materials.210 211 Third, if you want to work for the victims, you can find various ways of212 contribution, such as donation, registration as pro bono volunteers who provide213 professional services, and so on.214 215 Fourth, information for those who work for cultural institutions is also216 provided.217 218 Unfortunately, these are all in Japanese. But I think you can read basic219 information through Google translation or other similar services. Please see later.220
  22. 22. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 221 222 223 2.2. Activities of saveMLAK – Statistics of saveMLAK Wiki224 225 Now, I’ll show you some statistics of saveMLAK Wiki.226 227 How many pages are published in saveMLAK Wiki?228 How many people are working for the project?229 How many times have the pages been edited by volunteers?230 231 Please see this slide.232 233
  23. 23. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 234 235 The total page count of saveMLAK Wiki is about thirty thousand. About236 Twenty percent of these pages have been generated by human editing. Remaining pages237 have been generated automatically by programming.238 239 The total number of editors is about three hundred. This number is very close240 to the number of the members registered in our mailing list.241 242 Approximately three hundred editors have edited saveMLAK Wiki three243 hundred thousand times in these 2 and half years.244 245 And I’ll show you some charts.246 247
  24. 24. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 248 249 This chart shows the changes in the total page count in these 2 and half years.250 251 Please see the next chart.252 253 254 255 It shows the changes over time in newly published pages.256 257
  25. 25. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 258 259 This is the total edit counts by editor. Thirty eight editors have edited more than260 one hundred times.261 262 This is the last chart.263 264 265 266 It shows the change of page views and unique users. Although page view is267
  26. 26. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto gradually decreasing, but number of unique users is still over twenty thousands in268 monthly average.269 270 271 272 2.3. Activities of saveMLAK – Key to Success of saveMLAK Wiki273 As you can see now, at least in Japan, saveMLAK is one of the most successful274 Wiki-based collaborative projects.275 276 This is a surprising thing in Japan, because in Japan, even Japanese277 Wikipedia has some difficulties in expanding collaboration. Japanese Wikipedia has a278 lot of users, but most of them are just readers and viewers. It has only eighty-six279 hundred thousand articles, although more than one hundred million people speak280 Japanese.281
  27. 27. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 282 283 284 Actually, according to the statistical data on the numbers of articles by285 languages, the number of Japanese articles is ranked tenth, as you can see in this chart.286 287 How could saveMLAK gain powerful support in such a situation?288 289 Why do we have more than three hundred editors?290 291 And why did they take part in editing saveMLAK Wiki?292 293 2.3.1. Activities of saveMLAK – Key to Success of saveMLAK Wiki - Dealing with fear294 As a matter of fact, at first, about ninety percent of our editors did not have any295
  28. 28. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto experience in editing Wikipedia or any other Wiki platforms. For most of us, except for a296 few people, saveMLAK and its preceding Wikis such as savelibrary were the first297 experience in involvement in and editing of Wiki.298 299 300 301 We have found that beginners of Wiki system often feel fear in three aspects:302 first, fear about the Wiki system, second, fear about the descriptive rule of Wiki, and303 third, fear about co-editing on Wiki.304 305 I’ll explain more in detail.306 307
  29. 29. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 308 309 Fear about the Wiki system is unavoidable. Obviously, the Wiki system is a310 little more complicated than other web tools like Blogs, Twitter, Facebook and other311 social media. It would not surprise me if a beginner of Wiki system could not create a312 new article or rename an old article.313 314 315 316 Second, the Wiki system has many rules in two senses. There are so many317
  30. 30. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto system-based global rules like “Markup”, “History” and so on. Moreover, there are also318 domestic descriptive rules in each Wiki. Even saveMLAK Wiki has domestic editing319 rules and formats, as I said before.320 321 322 323 Third, even today, we are not familiar with web-based collaborative works.324 When we collaborate with others on Wiki system, sometimes we experience325 discommunication like edit conflict. It is a very ordinary accident for experienced Wiki326 editors, but beginners do not think so.327 328
  31. 31. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 329 330 2.3.2. Activities of saveMLAK – Key to Success of saveMLAK Wiki - Mindset331 To deal with these three types of fear commonly experienced by those who have332 just started using the Wiki system, we always encourage them in three approaches.333 Actually, these approaches are very simple and easy but some patience and tolerance334 will be required. I think this is the key element of my speech.335 336 337 338
  32. 32. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto First, we always recommend beginners to ask other members using Twitter,339 the mailing list, and other means when they have questions. Posting on Twitter with340 hash tag “#saveMLAK” is most recommended.341 342 And we never say “Please check help and other guide pages”. Everyone has the343 first time. Everyone is a beginner at first. Also, we always forget things. We cannot344 remember everything because it is human nature. Just asking someone is the best way345 to learn and remember.346 347 This is our philosophy.348 349 That’s why we recommend them to just ask others without any apologies.350 351 Second, we created simple rules and formats. In saveMLAK Wiki, we have352 defined only four main human editing fields, including details of damage, operation353 status, relief efforts, and source of information. The structure of article is very simple.354 355 In addition, we do not require editors to always use “Markup”. Wiki system has356
  33. 33. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto a lot of potential. One of such potential is co-editing. If someone does not complete the357 whole description, others can fill in the missing parts. Editing the whole article is not358 the responsibility of a single person.359 360 At the same time, we always try to show an understanding attitude toward361 beginners’ failures. If someone makes a mistake when trying to edit an article, it is not a362 big deal because others can re-edit the article and correct the mistakes. This is what a363 Wiki system is for. In fact, having an experience in editing Wiki is more important than364 avoiding mistakes. Mistakes can be recovered, but we cannot recover beginners’365 willingness if we get angry at their mistakes.366 367 Third, many people are not familiar with web-based collaborative works. They368 fear troubles with other collaborators and hesitate to re-edit and modify the texts369 written by other people. They become obsessed with concerns like “They might get370 angry with me if I edit their documentation”.371 372 However, contents of saveMLAK and any other Wikis can be refined when373 edited from various perspectives. This is also one of the characteristic features of the374
  34. 34. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto Wiki system. To deal with their fear, we always recommend them to edit the texts375 written by others and make sure that no one will get angry with them. We tell them376 that if they make a mistake when they edit, we can roll back to the previous version377 based on the page history.378 379 These are our mindset for Wiki-based collaboration. However, this mindset is380 not the solution to all problems. We sometimes need more practical solutions.381 382 2.3.3. Activities of saveMLAK – Key to Success of saveMLAK Wiki - Event383 384 385 386 One solution is Wiki festival. Wiki festival is a kind of event where we get387 together. From April of year 2011 to September of year 2012, we have had eleven Wiki388
  35. 35. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto festivals.389 390 The events are held globally at the same time and we set up some real sites in391 Tokyo and other cities. Everyone have two options. One is participation from home via392 internet. The other is participation at the real sites. In Wiki festivals, we get together393 and work together, usually in accordance with the selected topics such as “enhancement”394 of the pages for museums, libraries, archives or kominkans.395 396 In Wiki festivals, we have tutorial sessions by well-experienced editors, which397 are broadcast live via USTREAM. In the sessions, beginners ask experts questions and398 experts answer. The festivals also provide opportunities for off-line collaboration.399 400 401 402
  36. 36. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto Statistics show the obvious effects of Wiki festivals. At each Wiki festival,403 saveMLAK Wiki was edited an average of one thousand two hundred times by an404 average of about thirty people. Clearly, Wiki festivals increased the commitment to405 editing saveMLAK Wiki. I think this type of gathering event can be a good example for406 your Wikipedia and other web-based collaborative communities.407 408 409 410 3. Other Activities of saveMLAK – Intermediary Support411 I would like to add one more thing before ending. Our saveMLAK activities are412 not limited to web-based Wiki collaboration. We have also provided intermediary413 support between other supporters and the victims. I’ll show you the examples.414 415
  37. 37. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 3.1. Other Activities of saveMLAK – Intermediary Support – Minami-Sanriku416 417 418 419 As I mentioned before, Minami-Sanriku Town Public Library was completely420 destroyed by tsunami. But people need a library. People need public access. People need421 institutions that guarantee the right to know. After a half year from the tragedy, we422 started working with people of Minami-Sanriku to rebuild a library.423 424 425
  38. 38. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 426 After so many problems and struggles, at the beginning of this year, the library427 finally moved from the temporary building to the permanent building. In this428 reconstruction project, members of saveMLAK played an intermediary role to429 coordinate other supporters and people of Minami-Sanriku Town.430 431 3.2. Other Activities of saveMLAK – Intermediary Support – Natori432 433 434 435 This is another example. This is the new Natori City Public Library. Natori City,436 located in the south of Sendai City, was attacked by the great tsunami and about one437 thousand citizens died. The building of the library was not affected by tsunami, but438 seriously damaged by the earthquake.439
  39. 39. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 440 441 442 As well as people in Minami-Sanriku, people in Natori City also need a library443 and the things it offers. Again, members of saveMLAK played an intermediary part in444 the library reconstruction project. We introduced the library to the funder and the445 university which provided the good construction method. As a result, in these two years,446 Natori City built two libraries as you can see in these photos.447 448 3.3. Other Activities of saveMLAK – Intermediary Support – Significance449 These are only a few examples. We still have a lot more experience in similar450 intermediary support.451 452 Why did I mention these cases?453
  40. 40. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto What is the meaning of these examples?454 455 456 457 These approaches originated from Wiki-based collaboration. Efforts to launch458 and maintain saveMLAK Wiki have made our friendship and trust strong. That’s why459 this kind of relief activities became possible. I think I can even say that these are the460 model cases of O2O, Online to Offline.461 462 463
  41. 41. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 464 4. Conclusion and Acknowledgement465 So far, I talked about our saveMLAK project for relief aid after the great466 earthquake and tsunami that occurred in 2011467 468 469 .470 We launched saveMLAK Wiki using MediaWiki to aggregate and share471 information on the damage to cultural institutions, including museums, libraries,472 archives and kominkans.473 474 This project shows us surprising outcomes of web-based collaboration using475 Wiki system. However, it is not an easy experience. We learned many lessons. Today, I’m476 here to share our lessons for further enhancement of your Wiki communities. I hope our477
  42. 42. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto experience will bring you some new insight and findings.478 479 480 481 Finally I want to express my thanks to all members of saveMLAK, especially,482 Dr. Yuka Egusa and Dr. Masao Takaku. They are here today.483 Yuka and Masao, please stand up. They are engineer and also researcher of484 information system.485 486 487
  43. 43. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 488 And look at them, please. We brought some goods and items of saveMLAK from489 Japan. We are asking for donations for supporting our activity. After this session, coffee490 break will be held. Then please visit us.491 492 493 494 I also have to return my thanks to Wikipedians in Japan. Some of them have495 been constantly helping us since the launch of saveMLAK Wiki. Thank you, Mr. Kris496 Cheng and other local host members. Your coordination is very excellent.497 498
  44. 44. Wikimania2013 Opening Keynote saveMLAK - Wiki based relief aid for 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami by Makoto Okamoto 499 500 To close my speech, I would like to say “Thank you” again for all your kind501 supports to Japan after the great earthquake and tsunami in March eleven 2011. Still502 we are struggling with so many problems. But I believe we can get over every problem503 by always keeping the spirit of Wiki collaboration in mind.504 505 Thank you.506 507 508
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