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Sociology, A brief introduction: Schaefer (5e)

Sociology, A brief introduction: Schaefer (5e)

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Chapter10 Chapter10 Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • 10 RACIAL AND ETHNIC INEQUALITY
  • Chapter Outline
    • Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups
    • Prejudice and Discrimination
    • Studying Race and Ethnicity
    • Patterns of Intergroup Relations
    • Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    • Social Policy and Race and Ethnicity: Global Immigration
  • Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups
    • Minority Groups
    • Racial Groups
      • --This term indicates a group that is set apart from others because of obvious physical differences.
    • Ethnic Groups
      • --This term indicates a group that is set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns.
  • Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups Figure 10.1: Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States, 1500-2100 (Projected)
  • Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups
    • Minority Groups
    • A subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power than members of the dominant or majority group.
    • Properties of a minority group include:
      • unequal treatment
      • distinguishing cultural characteristics
      • involuntary membership
      • solidarity
      • in-group marriage
  • Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups
    • Race
    • Racial Group
      • --The term racial group refers to those minorities set apart from others by obvious physical differences.
    • Biological Significance of Race
      • --There are no “pure races.”
      • --Migration, exploration, and invasion have led to intermingling of races.
  • Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups
    • Race
    • Social Construction of Race
      • --This term refers to the process whereby people define a group as a race in part on physical characteristics and in part on historical, cultural, and economic factors.
      • --The one drop rule : if a person had a single drop of “Black blood,” they were viewed as nonwhite.
  • Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups
    • Race
    • Stereotypes
      • --A stereotype is an unreliable generalization about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group.
  • Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups
    • Ethnicity
    • An ethnic group is set apart from others based on national origin or distinctive cultural patterns.
    • Ethnic groups in the United States include:
      • Hispanic Americans
      • Jewish Americans
      • Irish Americans
      • Italian Americans
  • Prejudice and Discrimination
    • Prejudice
    • Prejudice
      • --Prejudice is a negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority.
    • Ethnocentrism
      • --Ethnocentrism is the tendency to assume that one’s culture and way of life are superior to all others.
  • Prejudice and Discrimination
    • Discriminatory Behavior
    • Discrimination
      • --Discrimination is the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups based on some type of arbitrary bias.
      • --Discrimination persists even for educated and qualified minority members.
      • --The glass ceiling is the invisible barrier blocking promotion of qualified individuals in a work environment because of gender, race, or ethnicity.
  • Prejudice and Discrimination
    • Institutional Discrimination
    • The denial of opportunities and equal rights that results from the normal operations of a society.
    • Institutional discrimination affects some racial and ethnic groups more than others.
  • Prejudice and Discrimination
    • Institutional Discrimination
    • Institutional discrimination refers to the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from normal societal operations.
    • Some examples are:
      • requiring English only to be spoken at work
      • preferential admissions policies by colleges
      • restrictive employment-leave policies
  • Prejudice and Discrimination
    • Institutional Discrimination
    Affirmative Action : Positive efforts to recruit minority members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities.
  • Prejudice and Discrimination Figure 10.2: Racist Fringe Groups in the United States
  • Prejudice and Discrimination Figure 10.2b: Hate Crime Laws in the United States
  • Prejudice and Discrimination Bias-Motivated Offenses: Percent Distribution 2000 Source: U.S. Department of Justice. 2001. Crime in the United States 2000 . Figure 2-19. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/00cius.htm. Race 54.7% Religion 16.5% Sexual Orientation 15.9% Ethnicity 12.4% Disability 0.4% Multiple Bias 0.2% 1 Due to rounding, the percentages do not add to 100.0.
  • Studying Race and Ethnicity
    • Functionalist Perspective
    • Three functions of racial prejudice for the dominant group include:
      • --Justification for maintaining an unequal society
      • --Discouraging of subordinate groups from questioning their status
      • --Encouraging support for the existing order
  • Studying Race and Ethnicity
    • Conflict Perspective
      • Exploitation Theory
        • --Racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs and supplies the dominant group with a supply of cheap labor.
        • --By forcing minorities to accept low wages, capitalists can restrict wages of all workers.
        • --Workers from the dominant group wanting higher wages can be replaced by minorities who must accept lower wages.
  • Studying Race and Ethnicity
    • Interactionist Perspective
      • Contact Hypothesis
        • --Interracial contact between people of equal status in cooperative circumstances will cause them to become less prejudiced.
  • Patterns of Intergroup Behaviors
    • Extreme Behaviors
    • Genocide: The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.
    • Expulsion : The forced removal of a people from a region or country.
    • Ethnic Cleansing : Term originating with Serbian forces in 1991 in the newly independent states of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This forced expulsion of Croats and Muslims from the former Yugoslavia had elements of expulsion, torture, sexual abuse, and genocide.
  • Patterns of Intergroup Relations
    • Amalgamation
      • Amalgamation occurs when a majority group and a minority group combine to form a new group.
      • The melting pot belief became compelling in the early twentieth century; however, many people were not willing to have certain groups as part of the melting pot. The melting pot analogy, therefore, does not adequately describe dominant-subordinate relations existing in the United States.
  • Patterns of Intergroup Relations
    • Amalgamation
      • Assimilation describes the process by which a person forsakes his or her own cultural tradition to become part of a different culture. In general, a minority group member wants to conform to the standards of the dominant group.
      • As persons become more assimilated, they retain fewer of their original cultural characteristics.
  • Patterns of Intergroup Relations
    • Segregation
    • This term refers to the physical separation of two groups of people in terms of residence.
    • Generally, a dominant group imposes segregation on a minority group.
    • Examples include:
      • apartheid in South Africa
    • housing practices in parts of the United States
  • Patterns of Intergroup Relations
    • Pluralism
    • Pluralism is based on mutual respect among various groups in a society for one another’s cultures.
    • Pluralism allows a minority group to express its own culture and participate without prejudice in the larger society.
    • Switzerland exemplifies a modern pluralistic state.
  • Patterns of Intergroup Relations Intergroup Relations Continuum Source: Richard T. Schaefer. 2000. Racial and Ethnic Groups. 8 th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Figure 1.4 on p. 25. EXTERMINATION or genocide EXPLUSION SUCCESSION or partitioning FUSION or amalgamation or melting pot SEGREGATION ASSIMILATION PLURALISM or multiculturalism
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    • Racial Groups
    • African Americans
      • --African Americans are currently the largest minority group in the United States.
      • --Contemporary prejudice and discrimination patterns against African Americans are rooted in our history of slavery.
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States African Americans, 2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Mapping Census 2000: The Geography of U.S. Diversity. Series CENSR/01-1, p. 41. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/dt_atlas.html.. Number of people indicating exactly one race, Black or African American, by county 50,000 to 1,406,000 10,000 to 49,999 5,000 to 9,999 1,000 to 4,999 100 to 999 0 to 99
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    • Racial Groups
    • Native Americans
      • --Native Americans represent a diverse array of cultures.
      • --Native Americans have a teen suicide rate four times the national average.
      • --An increasing number of Americans are claiming identity as Native American.
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States American Indians and Alaska Natives, 2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Mapping Census 2000: The Geography of U.S. Diversity. Series CENSR/01-1, p. 53. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www. census.gov/population/www/cen2000/dt_atlas.html.. 50,000 to 76,990 10,000 to 49,999 5,000 to 9,999 1,000 to 4,999 100 to 999 0 to 99 Number of people indicating exactly one race, American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN), by county
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    • Racial Groups
    • Asian Americans
      • --Asian Americans comprise one of the fastest growing segments of the United States population.
      • --Asian Americans include:
    • Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese and Korean Americans
      • --Asian Americans are often held up as a model or ideal minority group.
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States Asian Americans, 2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Mapping Census 2000: The Geography of U.S. Diversity. Series CENSR/01-1, p. 65. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www. census.gov/population/www/cen2000/dt_atlas.html..
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    • Ethnic Groups
    • Hispanics
      • --Hispanics are the largest ethnic minority in the United States.
      • --Hispanics share Spanish language and culture, which can be problematic for assimilation in the U.S.
      • --Hispanic Americans include:
      • Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban
      • Americans
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States Latino Americans, 2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Mapping Census 2000: The Geography of U.S. Diversity. Series CENSR/01-1, p. 95. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www. census.gov/population/www/cen2000/dt_atlas.html.. All races: Number of people indicating Hispanic or Latino origin by county 50,000 to 4,243,000 10,000 to 49,999 5,000 to 9,999 1,000 to 4,999 100 to 999 0 to 99
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    • Ethnic Groups
    • Jewish Americans
      • --Jewish Americans constitute 3 percent of the population.
      • --Jewish Americans have high levels of education and professional training.
      • --Jewish Americans, like other groups, face the problem of maintaining cultural heritage and the problem of assimilation.
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    • Ethnic Groups
    • White Ethnics
      • --White ethnics are people whose ancestors came from Europe in the last 100 years.
      • --Predominant White ethnic groups include:
      • German Americans, Irish Americans, Italian
      • Americans, and Polish Americans.
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States Figure 10.3: Census 2000: The Image of Diversity
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States Table 10.1: Relative Economic Positions of Various Racial and Ethnic Groups, 2000
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States Figure 10.4 Major Asian American Groups in the United States, 2000
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States Figure 10.5 Major Hispanic Groups in the United States, 2000
  • Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    • NOTE: Please answer BOTH Questions 5 and 6.
    • Is this person Spanish/Hispanic/ Latino? Mark X the “NO” box if not Spanish/Hispanic/Latino
    • No, not Spanish/Hispanic/Latino
    • Yes, Mexican, Mexican Am., Chicano
    • Yes, Puerto Rican
    • Yes, Cuban
    • Yes, other Spanish/Hispanic/ Latino Print Group
    Who Are We? What is this person’s race? Mark X one or more races to indicate what this person considers himself/herself to be . White Black, African Am., or Negro American Indian or Alaska Native – Print name of enrolled or principal tribe . Asian Indian Native Hawaiian Chinese Guamanian Filipino or Chamorro Japanese Samoan Korean Other Pacific Vietnamese Islander Other Asian – Print race . Some other race – Print race Source: Bureau of the Census. 1998. United States Census 2000. Dress Rehearsal . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Social Policy and Race and Ethnicity
    • Global Immigration
    • The Issue
      • -- Worldwide immigration is at an all time high.
      • --The constantly increasing number of immigrants puts pressure on the job markets and welfare systems of the countries they enter.
      • --Who should be allowed in?
      • --At what point should immigration be curtailed?
  • Social Policy and Race and Ethnicity Figure 10.6: Major Migration Patterns of the 1990s
  • Social Policy and Race and Ethnicity Figure 10.8: Foreign-Born Population of the United States, 1999
  • Social Policy and Race and Ethnicity
    • Global Immigration
    • The Setting
      • -- The immigration of people is not uniform across time or space.
      • --However, more and more migrants who cannot make adequate livings in their home nations are making permanent moves to developed nations.
      • --Fear and resentment of this growing racial and ethnic diversity is a key factor in opposition to immigration.
  • Social Policy and Race and Ethnicity Countries of Birth and Foreign-Born Population with 500,000 or more in 2000: 1990 and 2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000. Figure 3-1. (Internet Release) accessed at http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-206.pdf. Mexico* China* Philippines* India* Cuba* 7,841 (7,364-8,318) 4,298 1,391 (1,195-1,588) 921 913 1,222 (1,038-1,407) 1,007 (839-1,174) 450 737 952 (784-1,121) 863 (708-1,019) 543 465 765 (614-916) 701 (561-841) 568 692 (548-836) 348 Vietnam* El Salvador* Korea Dominican Republic* Canada Germany Soviet Union* United Kingdom 745 678 (536-820) 653 (547-759) 624 (521-727) 613 (511-716) 712 334 640 2000 1990 *Change from 1990 to 2000 is statistically significant. (Numbers in thousands. 90-percent confidence intervals in parentheses for 2000 estimates. For 1990, resident population. For 2000, civilian noninstitutional population plus Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post)
  • Social Policy and Race and Ethnicity Foreign-Born Population and Percent of Total Population for the United States: 1850 to 2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Figure 1-1 in Profile of the Foreign-Born Population. Current Population Reports P23-206. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/foreign/cps2000.html. 2.2 4.1 5.6 6.7 9.2 10.3 13.5 13.9 14.2 11.6 10.3 9.7 9.6 14.1 19.8 28.4 13.2 14.4 13.3 14.8 13.6 14.7 13.2 9.7 11.6 8.8 6.9 5.4 4.7 6.2 7.9 10.4 Foreign-born population (in millions) Percent of total population 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 (For 1850-1990, resident population. For 2000, civilian noninstitutional population plus Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post)
  • Social Policy and Race and Ethnicity Immigrants to the United States by Decade: Fiscal Years, 1821 to 1998 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Figure 1-2 in Profile of the Foreign-Born Population. Current Population Reports P23-206. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/foreign/cps2000.html. 0.1 0.6 1.7 2.6 2.3 2.8 5.2 3.7 8.8 5.7 4.1 0.5 1.0 2.5 3.3 4.5 7.3 7.6 1821- 1830 1831- 1840 1841- 1850 1851- 1860 1861- 1870 1871- 1880 1881- 1890 1891- 1900 1901- 1910 1911- 1920 1921- 1930 1931- 1940 1941- 1950 1951- 1960 1961- 1970 1971- 1980 1981- 1990 1991- 1998
  • Social Policy and Race and Ethnicity
    • Global Immigration
    • Sociological Insights
      • -- Immigration provides many valuable functions.
      • --Receiving nations, it alleviates labor shortages such as in the areas of health care and technology in the United States.
      • --For the sending nation, migration can relieve economies unable to support large numbers of people.
      • Continued…
  • Social Policy and Race and Ethnicity
    • Global Immigration
    • Sociological Insights
      • -- Conflict theorists note how much of the debate over immigration is phrased in economic terms.
      • --But this debate intensifies when the arrivals are of different racial and ethnic backgrounds from the host population.
  • Social Policy and Race and Ethnicity
    • Global Immigration
    • Policy Initiatives
      • -- The entire world feels the overwhelming impact of economic globalization on immigration patterns.
      • --The intense debate over immigration reflects deep value conflicts in the culture of many nations.
      • --Hostility to potential immigrants and refugees reflects not only racial, ethnic, and religious prejudice, but also a desire to maintain the dominant culture of the in-group by keeping out those viewed as outsiders.