Chapter11

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Chapter11

  1. 2. 11 STRATIFICATION BY GENDER AND AGE
  2. 3. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Social Construction of Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining Stratification by Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Women: The Oppressed Majority </li></ul><ul><li>Aging and Society </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining the Aging Process </li></ul><ul><li>Age Stratification in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Social Policy and Gender Stratification: The Battle over Abortion from a Global Perspective </li></ul>
  3. 4. Social Construction of Gender <ul><li>Gender Roles in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Gender roles are expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender roles are evident in our work and also in how we react to others. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Social Construction of Gender <ul><li>Gender Roles in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Gender-Role Socialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Boys must be: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>masculine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aggressive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>daring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dominant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Social Construction of Gender <ul><li>Gender Roles in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Gender-Role Socialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Girls must be: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>feminine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>soft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emotional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sweet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>submissive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Social Construction of Gender <ul><li>Gender Roles in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s and Men’s Gender Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Self-image develops in males and females through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identification with the same gender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>media </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Explaining Stratification by Gender <ul><li>The Functionalist View </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differentiation contributes to social stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Women take on expressive, emotionally supportive roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Men take on instrumental, practical roles. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Explaining Stratification by Gender <ul><li>The Conflict Response </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between men and women is one of unequal power. </li></ul><ul><li>Men have a dominant position over women. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences are a result of the subjugation of women by men. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Explaining Stratification by Gender <ul><li>The Feminist Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>This perspective often views women’s subordination as part of the overall exploitation and injustice in capitalist societies. </li></ul><ul><li>This perspective sometimes argues that women’s subjugation coincided with the rise of private property during industrialization. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Explaining Stratification by Gender <ul><li>The Interactionist Approach </li></ul><ul><li>This approach focuses on everyday behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Men are more likely than women to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>change topics of conversation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ignore topics chosen by women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>minimize ideas of women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interrupt women </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Women: The Oppressed Majority <ul><li>Sexism and Sex Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Sexism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Sexism is the ideology that one sex is superior to the other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Sexism is generally used to refer to male prejudice and discrimination against women. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Women: The Oppressed Majority <ul><li>Sexual Harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Harassment: Behavior that occurs when work benefits are made contingent on sexual favors or when touching, lewd comments, or the appearance of pornographic material creates a “hostile environment” in the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment must be understood in the context of continuing prejudice and discrimination against women. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Women: The Oppressed Majority <ul><li>The Status of Women Worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s subordination is institutionally sanctioned. </li></ul><ul><li>Women remain in second-class positions in most of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are exploited for labor in many developing countries. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Women: The Oppressed Majority Figure 11.1: Percentage of Adult Women in the Paid Labor Force by Country Japanese women have had a high level of participation in the labor force for 40 years.
  15. 16. Women: The Oppressed Majority Mapping Life Worldwide: Female/Male Inequality Source: John H. Allen. 1999. Student Atlas of World Geography . New York: Duskin/McGraw-Hill, map 27 on p. 45. The Female/Male Inequality Gap in the Monied Workforce and in Secondary Education Least inequality Less inequality Average inequality More inequality Most inequality No data
  16. 17. Women: The Oppressed Majority <ul><li>Country Percent </li></ul><ul><li>Australia 64.4 Canada 69.6 Czech Republic 64.9 Denmark 75.8 Finland 71.3 France 60.8 Germany 62.8 Hungary 52.1 Ireland 54.9 Italy 46.0 Japan 63.8 Korea, South 53.1 Luxembourg 64.6 </li></ul>Country Percent Mexico 42.1 Netherlands 64.5 New Zealand 67.7 Norway 78.3 Poland 59.0 Portugal 66.8 Spain 48.9 Sweden 74.6 Switzerland 70.3 Turkey 34.0 United Kingdom 67.5 United States 71.7 Female Labor Force Participation Rates by Country 1999 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Statistical Abstract of the United States 2001 . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Table 1354 on p. 848. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/ prod/2002pubs/01statab/stat-ab01.html.
  17. 18. Women: The Oppressed Majority <ul><li>Women in the Workforce of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s participation in the paid labor force of the United States increased steadily throughout the twentieth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, women entering the job market find their options restricted in important ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are underrepresented in occupations historically defined as “men’s jobs,” which often pay more. </li></ul><ul><li> Continued…. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Women: The Oppressed Majority <ul><li>Women in the Workforce of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Glass Ceiling : An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the person’s gender, race, or ethnicity. </li></ul><ul><li>These workplace patterns have one crucial result: women earn less money than men. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are more likely to be poor than men. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Women: The Oppressed Majority <ul><li>Women in the Workforce of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Social Consequences of Women’s Employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- The “ Second Shift” : The double burden that working women face—work outside the home followed by child care and housework—and which few men share equitably. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Studies indicate that there continues to be a clear gender gap in the performance of housework, although the differences are narrowing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Taken together, a woman’s workday on and off the job is much longer than a man’s. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Women: The Oppressed Majority Figure 11.2: Trends in U.S. Women’s Participation in the Paid Labor Force, 1890--1999
  21. 22. Women: The Oppressed Majority Figure 11.3: Gender Differences in Child Care and Housework, 1997
  22. 23. Women: The Oppressed Majority Relative Earnings and Proportion of Bachelor’s Degree Holders Who are Women by Field of Training, 1996 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 . Figure 9-4. (Internet Release) accessed at http://www.census.gov/population/www/pro-profile/profile2000.html#cont. (Percents are based on women and men aged 18 and older, whose highest degree is a bachelor’s degree, with earnings, employed full-time for the previous 4 months) 80.5 72.6 65.9 49.3 58.6 48.8 70.3 48.4 70.2 33.7 67.3 15.4 87.9 38.5 Education Science Social science Liberal arts Business Engineering Other Women’s earnings as a percent of men’s Percent women in field
  23. 24. Women: The Oppressed Majority <ul><li>Women: Emergence of a Collective Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>The feminist movement of the United States originated in upstate New York in 1848. </li></ul><ul><li>Early concerns were political and legal equality for women. </li></ul><ul><li>The movement re-emerged in the 1960s to battle sexist attitudes and the position of women in the workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>Feminism is very much alive today in the growing acceptance of women in nontraditional roles and even the basic acknowledgment that a married mother not only can be working outside the home but also perhaps belongs in the labor force. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Aging and Society <ul><li>“ Being old” is a master status that commonly overshadows all others in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Once individuals are labeled as “old,” this designation has a major impact on how others perceive them and how individuals view themselves. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Aging and Society Mapping Life Worldwide: World Population by Age Groups Source: John H. Allen. 1999. Student Atlas of World Geography . New York: Duskin/McGraw-Hill, map 24, p. 42. Percent of Population in Specific Age Groups (years) Estimate for 2000 More than 40% below age 15 Between 30% and 40% below age 15 More than 60% between ages 15 and 65 More than 10% above age 65 No data Countries in two colors belong to two of the indicated categories.
  26. 27. Aging and Society Age Distribution by Country: 2010 Projection (in percent) Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Statistical Abstract of the United States 2001 . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Table 1328 on p. 834. Also accessible at http:www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/01statab/stat-ab01.html. 3.7 38.0 Kenya 21.9 14.5 Japan 20.5 13.1 Italy 3.9 50.3 Iraq 5.3 28.5 Iran 6.7 31.9 Indonesia 6.1 33.6 India 20.1 14.3 Germany 17.3 18.0 France 3.6 60.3 Ethiopia 5.2 34.9 Egypt 65 yrs old and over Under 15 yrs old Country 2010 Projection 12.5 18.1 Cuba 6.6 33.1 Colombia 8.9 22.5 China 10.2 25.1 Chile 15.5 18.2 Canada 4.5 47.3 Cambodia 7.5 26.4 Brazil 4.5 34.5 Bangladesh 15.3 20.4 Australia 12.3 27.3 Argentina 8.6 30.0 World 65 yrs old and over Under 15 yrs old Country 2010 Projection
  27. 28. Aging and Society Age Distribution by Country: 2010 Projection (in percent) continued Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Statistical Abstract of the United States 2001 . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Table 1328 on p. 834. Also accessible at http:www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/01statab/stat-ab01.html. 5.1 58.0 Saudi Arabia 12.7 14.9 Russia 13.2 15.7 Poland 5.2 40.1 Philippines 6.7 34.3 Peru 5.3 41.9 Pakistan 3.8 53.5 Nigeria 16.0 17.6 Netherlands 6.3 33.2 Mexico 6.1 37.2 Malaysia 65 yrs old and over Under 15 yrs old Country 2010 Projection 6.6 30.7 Venezuela 14.4 21.6 United States 17.0 17.1 United Kingdom 13.9 14.4 Ukraine 8.1 26.2 Turkey 9.2 23.7 Thailand 4.3 44.8 Syria 18.5 13.9 Spain 5.8 26.8 South Africa 65 yrs old and over Under 15 yrs old Country 2010 Projection
  28. 29. Explaining the Aging Process <ul><li>Functionalist Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Disengagement Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Society and the aging individual mutually sever many of their relationships. Thus social roles are passed to another generation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--The passing of social roles to another generation ensures social stability. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Explaining the Aging Process <ul><li>Interactionist Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--This theory argues that the elderly persons who remain active and socially involved will be the best-adjusted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--This theory contends that old people have the same need for social interaction as other groups. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Explaining the Aging Process <ul><li>The Conflict Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The treatment of older people in the United States reflects the many divisions in society. </li></ul><ul><li>The low status of older people is seen in the prejudice and discrimination against them: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>age segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unfair job practices </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Age Stratification in the United States <ul><li>The Graying of America </li></ul><ul><li>We are, as a nation, getting older. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1900, 4.1% of the population of the United States was age 65 or older. </li></ul><ul><li>By 2003, 12.6 % of the population of the United States will be age 65 or older. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Age Stratification in the United States <ul><li>Competition in the Labor Force </li></ul><ul><li>Older workers face discrimination in the labor force. </li></ul><ul><li>Younger adults tend to view older workers as “job stealers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Older workers face discrimination when applying for jobs. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Age Stratification in the United States Figure 11.4: Actual and Projected Growth of the Elderly Population of the United States
  34. 35. Age Stratification in the United States Population 65 Years of Age and Over: United States, 1950-2030 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 . Figure 9-4. (Internet Release) accessed at http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/profile2000.html#cont. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Year 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Number in millions
  35. 36. Age Stratification in the United States Figure 11.5: Twenty-Six Floridas by 2025
  36. 37. Age Stratification in the United States Living Arrangements of Persons 65 Years of Age and Over by Age and Sex: United States, 1997 Source: Kramarow E., Lentzner H., Rooks R., Weeks J., Saydah S.,. 1999. Health, United States, 1999 . Health and Aging Chartbook. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Figure 2 on p. 25. Alone With Spouse With other relatives With nonrelatives Women 65-74 Years 75-84 Years 85 years and over 85 years and over 75-84 Years Men 65-74 Years 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent
  37. 38. Age Stratification in the United States Neighborhood Characteristics of Elderly and Non-Elderly Households, 1999 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 . Figure 7-4. (Internet Release) accessed at http:www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/profile2000.html#cont. Housing units Note: Elderly householders are those aged 65 and older Elderly Nonelderly Broken plaster or peeling paint (interior) Lacking some or all plumbing facilities Open cracks or holes in interior Missing roofing material Uncomfortably cold for 24 hours or more last winter Signs of mice in last 3 months Leakage from inside structure Water not safe to drink Leakage from outside structure 1.7 3.0 1.8 1.3 2.9 6.2 3.2 3.8 4.3 8.0 4.7 7.5 5.4 10.6 5.6 11.0 9.7 13.0
  38. 39. Age Stratification in the United States Household Characteristics of Elderly and Non-Elderly Households, 1999 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 . Figure 7-4. (Internet Release) accessed at http:www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/profile2000.html#cont. Neighborhoods Note: Elderly householders are those aged 65 and older Elderly Nonelderly Major accumulation of trash within 300 feet Bothersome odors in neighborhood Major street repairs needed within 300 feet Unsatisfactory police protection Bothersome street noise Neighborhood crime present No car, truck, or van available Unsatisfactory neighborhood shopping No public transportation available 2.7 2.9 4.2 4.9 5.5 6.5 8.1 8.5 12.3 10.2 15.4 17.1 7.2 19.2 16.0 43.1 47.4
  39. 40. Age Stratification in the United States Note: The data points represent the midpoints of the respective years. The latest recession began in July 1990 and ended in March 1991. Data for people 18 to 64 and older are not available from 1960 to 1965. Poverty Rates by Age: 1959--2000 Source: Figure in Joseph Dalaker. 2001. Poverty in the United States: 2000 . Current Population Reports Series P60-214. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty00.html. Percent Recession 1959 1964 1969 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 2000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 18 to 64 years 16.2 percent 10.2 percent Under 18 years 65 years and over 9.4 percent
  40. 41. Age Stratification in the United States <ul><li>The Elderly: Emergence of a </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of the social power of the elderly has been growing. </li></ul><ul><li>AARP—the largest organization representing the elderly—has enormous power and is the third largest volunteer organization in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The elderly in the United States are better off today financially and physically than ever before. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Social Policy and Gender Stratification <ul><li>The Battle over Abortion from a Global Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>The Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Roe vs. Wade , 1973, was based on a woman’s right to privacy and granted a woman the right to terminate pregnancies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--The ruling was condemned by pro-life groups who believe that life actually begins at the moment of conception and that abortion is an act of murder. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Social Policy and Gender Stratification <ul><li>The Battle over Abortion from a Global Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>The Setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- The debate following Roe vs. Wade revolves around prohibiting abortion altogether or, at the very least, putting limits on it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Changing technology, such as the “day-after” pill available in some nations, make abortions easier to perform, even the day after conception. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--The people of the United States appear to support their right to a legal abortion, but with reservations. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Social Policy and Gender Stratification Figure 11.6: Restrictions on Public Funding for Abortion
  44. 45. Social Policy and Gender Stratification <ul><li>The Battle over Abortion from a </li></ul><ul><li>Global Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological Insights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Sociologists see gender and social class as largely defining the issues surrounding abortion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--The intense conflict over abortion reflects broader differences over women’s position in society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--In terms of social class, the first major restriction on the legal right to abortion affected poor people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Viewed from a conflict perspective, this is one more financial burden that falls especially heavily on low-income women. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Social Policy and Gender Stratification <ul><li>The Battle over Abortion from a </li></ul><ul><li>Global Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- The Supreme Court currently supports the general right to terminate a pregnancy by a narrow margin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Many European nations also legalized abortions in the 1970s, although Ireland, Belgium, and Malta continue to ban it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--It is primarily in Africa, Latin America, and parts of Asia that women are not allowed to terminate a pregnancy upon request. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Social Policy and Gender Stratification Figure 11.7: The Global Divide on Abortion

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