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Braklelyn G. Reantillo
Student, MA.Ed. - Social Studies
Logo
 Historians of anthropology
often trace the birth of
Anthropology to the 16th –century
encounters between Europeans
...
 For Europeans, these
African/American natives and their
practices seemed
BIZARRE or IRRATIONAL,
yet it was important to ...
 CROSS-CULTURAL
UNDERSTANDING as
one of the roots of
Anthropology
 emerging focus on
EVOLUTION
BraklelynG.Reantillo
 Other cultures could be changed, that they could and
should be “civilized”.
 The movement by Europeans to “civilize” ot...
?
THEORY
(More specific
explanations that
can be tested
with empirical
evidence)
THEORETICAL
ORIENTATION
(General idea
abo...
THE EVOLUTION OF EVOLUTION
BraklelynG.Reantillo
THE EVOLUTION OF EVOLUTION
Chain of Being (Macrobius)
“The attentive observer will discover a
connection of parts, from th...
THE EVOLUTION OF EVOLUTION
Systema naturae (Carolus Linnaeus, 1707-1778)
 Classifying plants and animals by placing human...
THE EVOLUTION OF EVOLUTION
Jean Baptiste Lamarck (744-1829)
 Species were not fixed in form.
 Acquired characteristics c...
THE EVOLUTION OF EVOLUTION
Natural Selection Theory (NST)
 Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
 Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)...
EARLY ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY
A. Early Evolutionism
1. Darwinism
“Culture generally develops/ evolves in a
uniform and prog...
EARLY ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY
2. Edward Tylor (1832-1917)
“ Culture evolved from the simple to
the complex and that all soc...
EARLY ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY
2. LEWIS HENRY MORGAN ( 1818-1881)
CULTURAL EVOLUTION
 19th C. European Idea
 All societies...
EARLY ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY
B. “Race” Theory
This posited that the reason human
cultures differed in their behaviors was
...
“RACE” THEORY
*Systema naturae : Humans are classified into 4
distinct races (American, European, Asiatic,
African), each ...
“RACE” THEORY
*Samuel Morton (1799-1851)
 He was the first to explicitly link “race” with
behavior and intelligence.
 Cr...
“RACE” THEORY
*Louis Agassiz (1807-1873)
He argued that significant and stable
differences existed between people of Afric...
“RACE” THEORY
*Richard Herrnstein & Charles Murray
There are “race” differences in IQ (and
success in life) and social pol...
C. DIFFUSIONISM
British School of Diffusionism
German-Austrian School of Diffusionism
G. Elliott Smith
William J. Perry
W....
DIFFUSIONISM
AMERICAN SCHOOL OF DIFFUSIONISM
Clark Wissler and Alfred Kroeber
 Attributed characteristic features of a cu...
CONTEXT OF MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY
19TH – 21ST CENTURIES
 European & American Colonialism
 Scientific approaches to studying...
EARLY MODERN
ANTHROPOLOGY
 Franz Boas
 Founder of American Anthropology
 HISTORICAL PARTICULARISM
 Bronislaw Malinowsk...
FUNCTIONALISM
 Specific cultural institutions function to support the
structure of society or serve the needs of
individu...
EARLY MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY
CULTURAL ECOLOGY & NEOEVOLUTIONISTS
“Culture is the way in which humans adapt to the
environment...
STRUCTURALISM
(STRUCTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY)
“Universal original human culture can be
discovered through analysis and
compariso...
WHY STUDY CULTURAL
ANTHROPOLOGY?
 Just as the individual is not alone in the group,
nor any one society alone among the o...
EARLY MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY
Psychological Approaches
*1920s: some American
anthropologists began to
study the relationship
b...
POLITICAL ECONOMY
“External forces explain the art, ritual, and
the patterns of daily life, as a surface
representation of...
ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONALISM
 Theoretical approach that holds that the ways in which
cultural institutions work can best be u...
ETHNOSCIENCE AND COGNITIVE
ANTHROPOLOGY
 Attempt to derive rules from a logical analysis of
ethnographic data that are ke...
ETHNOSCIENCE
 A theoretical approach that focuses on the ways
in which members of a culture classify their world
and hold...
ETHNOBOTANY
 Describes the ways in which different cultures
classify plants.
BraklelynG.Reantillo
ETHNOMEDICINE
 An anthropological discipline devoted to describing
the medical systems of different cultures.
BraklelynG....
RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN
ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY
• Edward Wilson and Richard Alexander
• Evolutionary Ecology Approaches/ Soci...
FEMINIST APPROACH
-Role of women in culture
Political view: Anthropologist’s tasks is to
identify ways in which women are ...
INTERPRETATIVE APPROACH
Goal of Anthropology: To understand what it means to
be a person living in a particular culture, r...
POSTMODERNIST APPROACH
 Ethnography is viewed as being “constructed’ almost as
a work of fiction.
 Anthropology is just ...
PRAGMATIC APPROACH
 The scientific study of human behavior depends
upon the belief that it is possible to find answers
to...
Table 4-1, p.87
BraklelynG.Reantillo
ANTHROPOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF CULTURE
(SUMMARY)
19th century
evolutionism
A universal human culture is
shared by all s...
Sociobiology
Culture is the visible expression
of underlying genetic coding.
Cultural ecology
and neo-
evolutionism
Cultur...
Anthropology and
gender
Roles of women and ways
societies understand sexuality
are central to understanding
culture.
Symbo...
THE FUTURE (OF ANTHROPOLOGY) …
…DOES NOT END HERE . . .
BraklelynG.Reantillo
“It would hardly be fish
who discovered the
existence of water.”
-Kluckhohn (1949)
BraklelynG.Reantillo
REFERENCE
CAROL EMBER AND MELVIN EMBER,
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 13TH
ED.2011.
BraklelynG.Reantillo
QUICK QUIZ
BraklelynG.Reantillo
Thank you.
Let’s call it a day.
BraklelynG.Reantillo
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Anthropological Theories and Theoretical Orientations

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anthropology, educational anthropology, theories, social sciences

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Anthropological Theories and Theoretical Orientations

  1. 1. Braklelyn G. Reantillo Student, MA.Ed. - Social Studies
  2. 2. Logo  Historians of anthropology often trace the birth of Anthropology to the 16th –century encounters between Europeans and native peoples in Africa and the Americas. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  3. 3.  For Europeans, these African/American natives and their practices seemed BIZARRE or IRRATIONAL, yet it was important to live with them to UNDERSTAND their CULTURES. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  4. 4.  CROSS-CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING as one of the roots of Anthropology  emerging focus on EVOLUTION BraklelynG.Reantillo
  5. 5.  Other cultures could be changed, that they could and should be “civilized”.  The movement by Europeans to “civilize” others between the 16th and 19th centuries destroyed some of the world’s CULTURAL DIVERSITY, but the field of Anthropology emerged.  Despite colonialism’s impact on cultures, anthropologists support the value of other ways of life and try to support the needs of people formerly colonized/dominated by powerful nation-states. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  6. 6. ? THEORY (More specific explanations that can be tested with empirical evidence) THEORETICAL ORIENTATION (General idea about how phenomena are to be explained) BraklelynG.Reantillo
  7. 7. THE EVOLUTION OF EVOLUTION BraklelynG.Reantillo
  8. 8. THE EVOLUTION OF EVOLUTION Chain of Being (Macrobius) “The attentive observer will discover a connection of parts, from the Supreme God down to the last dregs of things, mutually linked together and without a break. And this is Homer’s golden chain, which God, he says, bade hand down from heaven to earth.” BraklelynG.Reantillo
  9. 9. THE EVOLUTION OF EVOLUTION Systema naturae (Carolus Linnaeus, 1707-1778)  Classifying plants and animals by placing humans in the same order (Primates)as apes and monkeys  All species were created by God and fixed in their form.  Humans, apes, and monkeys had a common ancestor. Hierarchical classification scheme (descending)  kingdom – class – order – genus - species BraklelynG.Reantillo
  10. 10. THE EVOLUTION OF EVOLUTION Jean Baptiste Lamarck (744-1829)  Species were not fixed in form.  Acquired characteristics could be inherited and therefore, species could evolve.  Individuals who in their lifetime developed characteristics helpful for survival would pass those characteristics on to future generations, thereby, changing the physical make-up of the species.  This hypothesis is now dismissed due to failure to produce evidence to support it. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  11. 11. THE EVOLUTION OF EVOLUTION Natural Selection Theory (NST)  Charles Darwin (1809-1882)  Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)  He rejected the notion that each species was created at one time in a fixed form.  NST is the process through which the physical and genetic forms of the common ancestor diverged to become both monkey /primates and human BraklelynG.Reantillo
  12. 12. EARLY ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY A. Early Evolutionism 1. Darwinism “Culture generally develops/ evolves in a uniform and progressive manner. Most societies pass through the same series of stages, to arrive at a common end.”  Culture change BraklelynG.Reantillo
  13. 13. EARLY ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY 2. Edward Tylor (1832-1917) “ Culture evolved from the simple to the complex and that all societies passed through three basic stages of development: savagery – barbarism – civilization…” *Diffusion: spread of cultural traits *Acculturation: borrowing of culture as a result of contact between two cultures/societies BraklelynG.Reantillo
  14. 14. EARLY ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY 2. LEWIS HENRY MORGAN ( 1818-1881) CULTURAL EVOLUTION  19th C. European Idea  All societies progress through stages  Europeans = most advanced  Justification of European Colonial Rule Lower Savagery Middle Savagery Upper Savagery Lower Barbarism Middle Barbarism Upper Barbarism Civilization Scheme of Social Evolution
  15. 15. EARLY ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY B. “Race” Theory This posited that the reason human cultures differed in their behaviors was because they represented separate subspecies of humans, or “races”. By the 19th century, few cultures were being “civilized” in the way Europeans expected.
  16. 16. “RACE” THEORY *Systema naturae : Humans are classified into 4 distinct races (American, European, Asiatic, African), each defined by physical characteristics as well as emotional and behavioral ones. * Johann Blumenbach (1752-1840) He is the founder of the field of biological anthropology. He divided humans into 5 “races” - Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, Ethhiopian, American – to help classify the variety of humans that European colonists were encountering BraklelynG.Reantillo
  17. 17. “RACE” THEORY *Samuel Morton (1799-1851)  He was the first to explicitly link “race” with behavior and intelligence.  Crania Americana (1839): Not only were native Americans a separate “race”, but their behavioral differences from European Americans were rooted in the physical structures of their brains.  Crania Aegyptiaca (1844): “Race” differences were ancient and unchanging. This justified the exploitive relationships of colonialism and slavery and fought Darwin’s idea of evolution. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  18. 18. “RACE” THEORY *Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) He argued that significant and stable differences existed between people of African versus European descent. He implied that these differences illustrated God’s creation of human “races”. *Francis Galton (1822-1911) Eugenics: A social and political movement aimed at manipulating “races” by selectively breeding humans with desirable characteristics and preventing those with undesirable ones from having offspring BraklelynG.Reantillo
  19. 19. “RACE” THEORY *Richard Herrnstein & Charles Murray There are “race” differences in IQ (and success in life) and social policies should discourage “races” deemed to have low IQs from having many children.  The scholarly use of race theory declined after WWII.  Nazi genocide/ Holocaust  Biologists were able to show that purely genetic races of humans are not clearly identifiable, and therefore, not applicable to humans. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  20. 20. C. DIFFUSIONISM British School of Diffusionism German-Austrian School of Diffusionism G. Elliott Smith William J. Perry W.H.R. Rivers  Aspects of higher civilization were developed in Egypt and filtered out to cultures throughout the world (diffusion). Friedrich Ratzel Fritz Graebner Wilhelm Schmidt  People borrow from others because they are basically uninventive  There is existence of several different cultural complexes (kulturkreise, German)
  21. 21. DIFFUSIONISM AMERICAN SCHOOL OF DIFFUSIONISM Clark Wissler and Alfred Kroeber  Attributed characteristic features of a culture area to a geographical center, where the traits were first developed and from which they then diffused outward.  If a given trait diffuses outward from a single culture center, it follows that the most widely distributed traits found to exist around such a center must be the oldest trait.
  22. 22. CONTEXT OF MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY 19TH – 21ST CENTURIES  European & American Colonialism  Scientific approaches to studying people, society and culture  Decline of colonialism, national liberation movements, “native anthropologists” BraklelynG.Reantillo
  23. 23. EARLY MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY  Franz Boas  Founder of American Anthropology  HISTORICAL PARTICULARISM  Bronislaw Malinowski  Trobriand Islands (Pacific)  FUNCTIONALISM Bronislaw Malinowski 1884-1942 Franz Boas 1858-1942 BraklelynG.Reantillo
  24. 24. FUNCTIONALISM  Specific cultural institutions function to support the structure of society or serve the needs of individuals in society.  Early functionalists include Émile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, Meyer Fortes, A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, and Edward Evan Evans- Pritchard. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  25. 25. EARLY MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY CULTURAL ECOLOGY & NEOEVOLUTIONISTS “Culture is the way in which humans adapt to the environment and make their lives secure.”  Leslie White (1900-1975)  Julian Steward (1902-1972)  Marshall Sahlins (born in 1930)  Elman Service (1915-1996) BraklelynG.Reantillo
  26. 26. STRUCTURALISM (STRUCTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY) “Universal original human culture can be discovered through analysis and comparison of the myths and customs of many cultures.” Claude Levi-Strauss (1908-2009) A theoretical approach that holds that all cultures reflect similar, underlying patterns and that anthropologists should attempt to decipher these patterns. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  27. 27. WHY STUDY CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY?  Just as the individual is not alone in the group, nor any one society alone among the others, so man is not alone in the universe.  When the spectrum or rainbow of human cultures has finally sunk into the void created by our frenzy….in the contemplation of a mineral more beautiful than all our creations; in the scent that can be smelt at the heart of a lily and is more imbued with learning than all our books; or in the brief glance, heavy with patience, serenity and mutual forgiveness, that, through some involuntary understanding, one can sometimes exchange with a cat. -Claude Lévi-Strauss, Tristes Tropiques, pp. 414-415. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  28. 28. EARLY MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY Psychological Approaches *1920s: some American anthropologists began to study the relationship between culture and personality. Early proponents: Sigmund Freud Edward Sapir Ruth Benedict Margaret Mead 1930s and 1940s Abram Kardiner  There is a basic personality in every culture produced by primary institutions.  Type of household, subsistence, childrearing practices  Basic personality gives rise to other institutions (art, folklore, religion) BraklelynG.Reantillo
  29. 29. POLITICAL ECONOMY “External forces explain the art, ritual, and the patterns of daily life, as a surface representation of the underlying structure of the human mind.” *Moiety systems reflect the human mind’s predisposition to think and behave in terms of binary oppositions (contrasts between one thing and another). This exists if a society is divided into two large intermarrying kin groups. (You are born into one of two groups and you marry someone in the other). Claude Levi-Strauss Eric Wolf Sidney Mintz Eleanor Leacock Andre Gunder Frank Immanuel Wallerstein “This approach reminds us that the world, every part of it, is interconnected, for better or worse.” BraklelynG.Reantillo
  30. 30. ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONALISM  Theoretical approach that holds that the ways in which cultural institutions work can best be understood by examining their effects on the environment. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  31. 31. ETHNOSCIENCE AND COGNITIVE ANTHROPOLOGY  Attempt to derive rules from a logical analysis of ethnographic data that are kept as free as possible from contamination by the observer’s own cultural biases  Ethnoscientists seek to understand a people’s world from their point of view (Emic Strategy)  Ex.: Studying language and formulation of rules underlying cultural domains, Kinship terms, plant and animal taxonomies, disease classification  “If we can discover the RULES that generate cultural behavior, we can explain much of what people do and why they do it.” BraklelynG.Reantillo
  32. 32. ETHNOSCIENCE  A theoretical approach that focuses on the ways in which members of a culture classify their world and holds that anthropology should be the study of cultural systems of classification. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  33. 33. ETHNOBOTANY  Describes the ways in which different cultures classify plants. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  34. 34. ETHNOMEDICINE  An anthropological discipline devoted to describing the medical systems of different cultures. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  35. 35. RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY • Edward Wilson and Richard Alexander • Evolutionary Ecology Approaches/ Sociobiology “Natural selection can operate on the behavioral or social characteristics of populations, not just on their physical traits.” (individual selection) Adaptive- the ability of individuals to get their genes into future generations • CULTURAL ECOLOGY - focuses on group selection (how certain behavioral/social characteristics may be adaptive for a group/society in a given environment) BraklelynG.Reantillo
  36. 36. FEMINIST APPROACH -Role of women in culture Political view: Anthropologist’s tasks is to identify ways in which women are exploited in order to come up with ways on how to overcome these [exploitations]. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  37. 37. INTERPRETATIVE APPROACH Goal of Anthropology: To understand what it means to be a person living in a particular culture, rather than to explain why cultures vary. He popularized the idea that culture is like a literary text that can be analyzed for meaning, as the ethnographer interprets it. Clifford Geertz (1926-2006) BraklelynG.Reantillo
  38. 38. POSTMODERNIST APPROACH  Ethnography is viewed as being “constructed’ almost as a work of fiction.  Anthropology is just another tool used by dominant powers to control others. Michael Foucault (1926-1984) -Those in political power were able to shape the way accepted truths were defined. -In the modern age, truth is defined through science, and science, in turn, is controlled by Western political and intellectual elites. -Science became a way to understand the world, control the world, and dominate the world. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  39. 39. PRAGMATIC APPROACH  The scientific study of human behavior depends upon the belief that it is possible to find answers to puzzling questions about humans  It is not where ideas come from but where they will lead you and what you can predict.  It is POSSIBLE to study humans and their culture; that is why up to these days, ANTHROPLOGY as a discipline continues to thrive. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  40. 40. Table 4-1, p.87 BraklelynG.Reantillo
  41. 41. ANTHROPOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF CULTURE (SUMMARY) 19th century evolutionism A universal human culture is shared by all societies. Turn of the century sociology Groups share sets of symbols and practices that bind them into societies. American historical particularism Cultures are the result of the specific histories of the people who share them. Functionalism Social practices support society's structure or fill the needs of individuals. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  42. 42. Sociobiology Culture is the visible expression of underlying genetic coding. Cultural ecology and neo- evolutionism Culture is the way humans adapt to the environment and make their lives secure. Ecological materialism Physical and economic causes give rise to cultures and explain changes in them. Ethnoscience and cognitive anthropology Culture is a mental template that determines how members of a society understand their world. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  43. 43. Anthropology and gender Roles of women and ways societies understand sexuality are central to understanding culture. Symbolic and interpretive anthropology Culture is the way members of a society understand themselves and what gives their lives meaning. Postmodernism Cultural understanding reflects the observer’s biases and can never be completely or accurately described. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  44. 44. THE FUTURE (OF ANTHROPOLOGY) … …DOES NOT END HERE . . . BraklelynG.Reantillo
  45. 45. “It would hardly be fish who discovered the existence of water.” -Kluckhohn (1949) BraklelynG.Reantillo
  46. 46. REFERENCE CAROL EMBER AND MELVIN EMBER, CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 13TH ED.2011. BraklelynG.Reantillo
  47. 47. QUICK QUIZ BraklelynG.Reantillo
  48. 48. Thank you. Let’s call it a day. BraklelynG.Reantillo

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