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  2. 3. How Did Communities Originate? <ul><li>Early Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Early communities were very dependent on the physical environment for their food supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Horticultural societies, where people cultivated food rather than merely gathering fruits and vegetables, led to dramatic changes in human social organization. </li></ul><ul><li>It was no longer necessary to move in search of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Stable communities helped establish food surpluses. </li></ul>
  3. 4. How Did Communities Originate? <ul><li>Preindustrial Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Preindustrial cities had only a few thousand people living within their borders. </li></ul><ul><li>Preindustrial cities were characterized by relatively closed class systems and limited mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>In preindustrial cities, status was based on ascribed characteristics, and education was limited to the elite. </li></ul>
  4. 5. How Did Communities Originate? <ul><li>Preindustrial Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Preindustrial cities remained small due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reliance on animal power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modest levels of surplus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problems in transportation and storage of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hardships of migration to the city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dangers of city life </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. How Did Communities Originate? <ul><li>Industrial and Postindustrial Cities </li></ul><ul><li>The industrial revolution , which began in the mid-eighteenth century, focused on using non-animal sources of power to perform tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>The factory system that developed during the industrial revolution led to a more refined division of labor than was seen in the preindustrial cities. </li></ul>
  6. 7. How Did Communities Originate? <ul><li>Industrial and Postindustrial Cities </li></ul><ul><li>In comparison to preindustrial cities, industrial cities have a more open class system and more mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>In the latter part of the 20 th century, the postindustrial city emerges and is based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>global finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic flow of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decentralized production </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Urbanization <ul><li>Functionalist View: Urban Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Human Ecology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Human ecology examines the interrelationships between people and their spatial settings and physical environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urban Ecology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Urban ecology focuses on relationships as they emerge in urban areas. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Urbanization <ul><li>Functionalist View: Urban Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-nuclei theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--All urban growth does not radiate out from a central district. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--A metropolitan area may have several centers of development reflecting an urban need or activity. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Urbanization Figure 15.6: Comparison of Ecological Theories of Urban Growth
  10. 11. Urbanization <ul><li>Conflict View: New Urban Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>New urban sociology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--This approach considers the interplay of local, national, and worldwide forces and their effects on local space. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World systems analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--This approach argues that certain industrialized nations hold a dominant position at the core of the global economic system. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Urbanization <ul><li>Conflict View: New Urban Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer developing countries are on the periphery of the global economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral countries tend to be exploited by core nations. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Urbanization Table 15.4: Comparing Approaches to Urbanization
  13. 14. Types of Communities <ul><li>Central Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Dwellers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Gans distinguishes five types of people found in our cities: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cosmopolites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unmarried and childless people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ethnic villagers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the deprived </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the trapped </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Types of Communities <ul><li>Central Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Dwellers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Defended neighborhood refers to people’s definitions of their community boundaries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues Facing Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inadequate transportation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Types of Communities U.S. Largest Cities: 1900 to 2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Statistical Abstract of the United States 2001 . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Table 34 on p. 35. Also accessible at Detroit, MI St. Louis, MO Pittsburgh, PA Cincinnati, OH 10. San Antonio, TX Washington, DC Boston, MA San Francisco, CA 9. Dallas, TX Cleveland, OH Baltimore, MD Buffalo, NY 8. San Diego, CA Houston, TX St. Louis, MO Cleveland, OH 7. Phoenix, AZ Baltimore, MD Cleveland, OH Baltimore, MD 6. Philadelphia, PA Detroit, MI Los Angeles, CA Boston, MA 5. Houston, TX Philadelphia, PA Detroit, MI St. Louis, MO 4. Chicago, IL Los Angeles, CA Philadelphia, PA Philadelphia, PA 3. Los Angeles, CA Chicago, IL Chicago, IL Chicago, IL 2. New York City, NY New York City, NY New York City, NY New York City, NY 1. Place Place Place Place Rank 2000 1960 1930 1900
  16. 17. Types of Communities <ul><li>Suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Suburb generally refers to any community near a large city. </li></ul><ul><li>Three social factors differentiate suburbs from cities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less dense than cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>private space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more exacting building codes </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Types of Communities <ul><li>Suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Suburban Expansion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Suburbanization has been the most dramatic population trend in the United States during the 20 th century. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversity in the suburbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--The suburbs contain a significant number of low-income people from all backgrounds. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Types of Communities Figure 15.7: Ethnic Diversity in U.S. Suburbs, 1990 and 2000
  19. 20. Types of Communities <ul><li>Rural Communities </li></ul><ul><li>One-fourth of the population lives in towns of 2,500 people or less that are not adjacent to a city. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture now only accounts for 9 percent of employment in non-urban counties. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Types of Communities Table 15.5: Comparing Types of Cities
  21. 22. Types of Communities Table 15.6: The 10 Most Populous Cities in the World, 1970 and 2015 (in millions)
  22. 23. Types of Communities Figure 15.8: Urbanization Around the World, 2000
  23. 24. Social Policy <ul><li>World Population Policy </li></ul><ul><li>The Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- World population growth is threatening the earth’s ability to sustain it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Social policies that address population growth touch on the most sensitive aspects of people’s lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Reaching a global consensus on population issues has been difficult. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Social Policy <ul><li>World Population Policy </li></ul><ul><li>The Setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- International concern for population growth began in the 1950s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--To reduce birth rates, planners devised programs aimed at encouraging family planning and limiting the number of children couples had through contraception. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Such programs were controversial. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--In the U.S., anti-abortionists charged that public funds should not be used to support family planning clinics. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Social Policy <ul><li>World Population Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological Insights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Functionalists would note that the best course of action for a community might differ from the best course of action for a society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Feminist critics complain that population workers too often ignore sociocultural influences on sexuality and childbearing—influences that often ran counter to the contraceptives they were distributing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--The conflict view has questioned why the U.S. and other industrialized nations ar so enthusiastic about controlling the population of developing countries. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Social Policy <ul><li>World Population Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- The Mexico City Policy: The Bush administration requires health workers who receive U.S. government funding to refrain from discussing abortion, either publicly or with their patients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--More funding is needed in those countries where government resources are overtaxed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Family planning is still sparse in poverty-stricken rural areas the world over. </li></ul></ul>