1919 -1933 GROPIUS’ FIRST PROCLAMATION OF THE BAUHAUS The complete building is the final aim of the visual arts…. Art is not a "profession." There is no essential difference between the artist and the craftsman…in moments beyond the control of his will, the grace of heaven may cause his work to blossom into art. But proficiency in his craft is essential to every artist. Therein lies a source of creative imagination. Let us create a new guild of craftsmen, without the class distinctions which raise an arrogant barrier…Together let us conceive and create the new building of the future, which will embrace architecture and sculpture and painting in one unity and which will rise one day toward heaven from the hand of a million workers like the crystal symbol of a new faith.
PRINCIPLES <ul><ul><li>• Mass production over individual craftsmanship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Synthesis of fine & applied arts . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• New & modern sense of beauty through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rational design . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• A forward-thinking over an academically qualified faculty, including purely creative artists as spiritual counterpoints to the practical technicians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Thorough experience with materials . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Student offered no refuge in the past, should be equipped for modern world in various aspects: artistic, technical, social, economic, spiritual. He must function in society not as a decorator but as a vital participant. </li></ul></ul>
Itten <ul><li>THREE TASKS OF FIRST YEAR COURSE: </li></ul><ul><li>Free unique creativity of student. </li></ul><ul><li>Make choice of career easier. </li></ul><ul><li>Convey design fundamentals. </li></ul><ul><li>COURSE METHODOLOGY: </li></ul><ul><li>1 Experiments with actual materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyses of old masters. </li></ul><ul><li>Color and form theory. </li></ul>FIRST YEAR: PRELIMINARY COURSE Johannes
Itten FIRST YEAR: PRELIMINARY COURSE Johannes Horizontal/Vertikal, 1915 Vogelthema, 1918
Albers Month 1: GLASS. Month 2: PAPER Month 3: TWO MATERIAL COMBINATION. Month 4: STUDENT CHOICE. PRELIMINARY COURSE 1922-33 Josef “ Discover” specific qualities of materials. Produce no waste. Grid Mounted, glass assemblage 1922
Albers 1888-1976 Josef Homage to a Square, 1971 Bundled, 1925
Moholy-Nagy PRELIMINARY COURSE 1923-1928 László 1: Combine elements to corresponded to preconceived idea. Response manifested on “tactile charts.” Grid Mounted, glass assemblage 1922 3: 3D studies to sharpen sense of volume: simple elements and materials used to construct objects in both visual and real balance. 2: Distinguish composition (balance between parts) from construction.
Moholy-Nagy 1895-1946 László Dual Form with Chromium Rods, 1946 Eifersucht (Jealousy), 1927 AXL II, 1924 Leuk 5, 1946
From left: Josef Albers, Hinnerk Scheper, Georg Muche, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer, Joost Schmidt, Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, Vassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger, Gunta St oz l and Oskar Schlemmer. MASTERS
Highway and Byways 1929 Senecio 1922 Zitronin 1932 1879- 1940 FINE ART MASTERS: Paul Klee
AFTERMATH The Bauhaus dissolved itself under Nazi pressure in 1933. Gropius, Mies van der Rohe, and other Bauhaus masters migrated to the United States. 1932 MOMA had an exhibition of contemporary architecture. The accompanying Hitchcock and Johnson catalogue was entitled The International Style: Architecture Since 1922 . “ International Style” now used to refer to American incarnation of Bauhaus architecture.
the BAUHAUS school 1919-1925: WEIMAR 1926-1932: DESSAU 1932-1933: BERLIN Wilhelm Wagenfeld Bauhaus Lamp <ul><li>Founded by </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Gropius . </li></ul><ul><li>Became </li></ul><ul><li>“ International </li></ul><ul><li>Style ” in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLES </li></ul><ul><li>unity of fine and applied </li></ul><ul><li>arts </li></ul><ul><li>preliminary immersion in </li></ul><ul><li>design & craftsmanship </li></ul><ul><li>subsequent focus in </li></ul><ul><li>master-led workshops </li></ul><ul><li>embrace potential of </li></ul><ul><li>industrial mass </li></ul><ul><li>production </li></ul>JOHANNES ITTEN preliminary course painter JOSEF ALBERS preliminary course painter László Maholy-Nagy preliminary course painter, photographer, graphic design Vassily Kandinsky, painter abstract expressionist Marianne Brandt photographer, metalwork GUNTA STÖLZL weaving PAUL KLEE painter HERBERT BAYER graphic design, typography MART STAM first cantalievered chair, prototype from steel tubes
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