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  1. 1. mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  2. 2. the bauhausmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  3. 3. The Bauhaus has become the opening chapter to the narrative of twentieth- century design. It is the most widely known, discussed, published, imitated, collected, exhibited, and cathected aspect of modern graphic, industrial, and architectural design. The name Bauhaus stems from the German words for "to build" and "house." Ironically, despite its name and the fact its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department for the first several years of its existence.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  4. 4. A bit of Historymercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  5. 5. political context the foundation of bauhaus occurred at a time of crisis and turmoil in europe as a whole and particularly in germany. its establishment resulted from a confluence of a diverse set of political, social, educational and artistic development in the first two decades of the twentieth century.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  6. 6. political context the conservative modernisation of the german empire during the 1870s had maintained power in the hands of the aristocracy. it also necessitated militarism and imperialism to maintain stability. by 1912 the rise of the leftist SPD had galvanized political positions with notions of international solidarity and socialism set against imperialist nationalism. world war I ensued from 1914–18.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  7. 7. world war on 28th June, 1914, archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of austria- Hungary, was assassinated by the serb nationalist gavrilo princip. on 6th July the German government gave its support for Austro-Hungarian reprisals against Serbia. When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia and France began to mobilize its troops. This resulted in Germany declaring war on Russia (1st August) and France (3rd August). When the German Army entered Belgium on 4th August, Britain declared war on Germany. Italy decided not to come to the aid of Germany and Austria-Hungary when war was declared in August, 1914. However, Turkey had signed a defensive alliance with Germany in July 1914 and two months later it joined the war against Britain, France and Russia.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  8. 8. german revolution in 1917 in the midst of the carnage of the First world war, workers and soldier Soviets seized power in russia. inspired by the russian workers and soldier soviets, similar german communist factions—most notably the spartacist league—were formed, who sought a similar revolution for germany. the war provoked the german revolution, with the SPD securing the abdication of the kaiser and the formation of a revolutionary government. on 1 january 1919, the spartacist league attempted to take control of berlin, an action that was brutally suppressed by the combined forces of the SPD, the remnants of the german army, and paramilitary groups (Freikorps).mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  9. 9. weimar republic elections were held on the January 19, and the weimar republic was established. communist revolution was still a tangible prospect for many; indeed, a soviet republic was declared in munich, before its suppression by the paramilitary Freikorps and regular army. sporadic fighting continued to flare up around the country. the national assembly meets in weimar because berlin is too violent. it seemed like a new start for germany after the revolution, this new republic was a democracy, chosen by the people.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  10. 10. Weimar Republic Weimarmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  11. 11. weimar republic & bauhaus a society which, even in its best years, was politically so insecure provided only the shallowest ground for the roots of any creative cultural life. there is, indeed, little evidence that the weimar republic constituted a distinctive cultural period. the cultural diversity or eclecticism of the weimar period was nowhere better symbolized than in the Bauhaus. this was a combination of artistic vision and artistic reality, the work, above all, of walter gropius. by 1919 his manifesto calling for amalgamation of the arts and crafts and obliteration of the class distinction between their practitioners, as well as his technical ideas, fell on more fertile soil, and gropius opened an academy of fine arts in Weimar with financial support from the provincial government.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  12. 12. weimar republic & bauhaus Adolf Georg Walter Gropius * 18.03.1883 Berlin + 05.07.1969 Bostonmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  13. 13. weimar republic & bauhaus in 1907, artists and industrialists founded the deutscher werkbund in munich, aimed at improving germanys economy by "enhancing craft work". the werkbund was a union of artists, architects, and designers in germany who took into consideration the current processes of industrial production. special emphasis was placed on cooperation with industry during the design process. the members of this movement advocated and brought about the mass production of a wide range of products. the evidence of their work can still be seen in products today the young architect walter gropius soon became one of the leading figures in the werkbund.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  14. 14. mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  15. 15. the bauhaus in weimarmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  16. 16. bauhaus in weimar (1919 -1925) the obverse of rationalistic ideas, calculated to take advantage of the facts and needs of mass society, was a visionary romanticism in which building (bau) was to be the supreme unifying principle governing all the arts; and in gropius academy (bauhaus) students learned not only architecture but the use of all kinds of materials for decorative or functional purposes in a building. as a matter of fact, there was no course in architecture for some years. the most brilliant instruction was given in the general preliminary course (basic course), which gropius entrusted to johannes itten. but itten was a mystic who did not hold the elements of subjectivity and functionalism in the balance that gropius desired, and after a few years he was replaced by a more technologically oriented teacher.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  17. 17. bauhaus in weimar (1919 -1925)mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  18. 18. bauhaus in weimar (1919 -1925) 1919 1920 1923 1925 The Bauhaus is established The Basic Course is Under pressure from Gropius, Having lost support of the in the city of Weimar. established, with the painter Itten resigns. Laszlo Moholy- Weimar government, the Architect Walter Gropius is Johannes Itten as its master. Nagy becomes director of the Bauhaus moves to Dessau, an the schools director. All incoming students take this Basic Course, which is also industrial city near Berlin. course, which deals with the taught by Wassily Kandinsky, principles of design and the Paul Klee, and Josef Albers. nature of materials. Ittens De Stijl and Constructivism influence is seen in the begin to influence Bauhaus expressionism which typography. dominates Bauhaus typography.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  19. 19. bauhaus in weimar kandinsky, gropius, klee, mies van der rohe, itten, stoelz, feininger, breuer, albers, muche, schlemmer.....mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  20. 20. bauhaus in weimar johannes itten 1888 – 1967 he was influenced by meditation exercises and the Far-Eastern mysticismmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  21. 21. bauhaus in weimar johannes ittenmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  22. 22. bauhaus in weimar johannes ittenmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  23. 23. bauhaus in weimar wassily kandinsky born in moscow in 1866 kandinsky continued painting almost until his death in June, 1944.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  24. 24. bauhaus in weimar wassily kandinskymercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  25. 25. bauhaus in weimar wassily kandinskymercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  26. 26. bauhaus in weimar paul klee, 1879 - 1940 a swiss-born painter and graphic artist whose personal, often gently humorous works are replete with allusions to dreams, music, and poetry,, is difficult to classify..mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  27. 27. bauhaus in weimar paul kleemercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  28. 28. bauhaus in weimar paul kleemercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  29. 29. bauhaus in weimar moholi-nagy, lászló (1895, Bácsborsod - 1946, Chicago) painter, photograph and art critic, in 1937 he moved to the USA where he founded the new bauhaus in chicago.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  30. 30. bauhaus in weimar moholi-nagy, lászlómercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  31. 31. bauhaus in weimar moholi-nagy, lászlómercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  32. 32. bauhaus in weimar moholi-nagy, lászlómercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  33. 33. bauhaus in weimar basic course the most brilliant instruction was given in the general preliminary course, which gropius entrusted to johannes itten. the understanding of the bauhaus as a point of origin is an effect of its perception within the history of art and design, as well as a reflection of its own ideals: johannes itten, who taught in the early years of the school, used unconventional teaching methods, hoping to "unlearn" students and return them to a state of innocence, a point of origin from which true learning could begin.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  34. 34. bauhaus in weimar basic course this interest in the clean slate, the first moment, is evident in wassily kandinskys point and line to plane: "we must at the outset distinguish basic elements from other elements, viz.-elements without which a work... cannot even come into existence." From its inception, the bauhaus was premised on the notion of a return to origins in hope of discovering a lost unity.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  35. 35. bauhaus in weimar basic course figure from wassily kandinskys point and line to plane, originally published in 1926. Kandinsky, for instance, isolates the "elements" of pictorial construction (point, line, plane), identifying them as the constituent parts of a pictorial speech. similar to the ABC of anschauung, Kandinskys Point and Line to Plane identifies a grammar of lines yet he ascribes to them abstract, emotive power, rather than a strictly descriptive function.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  36. 36. bauhaus in weimar basic course bauhaus curriculum, 1923, this diagram shows the prerequisite to specialized study. the position of building at the center parallels walter gropiuss founding manifesto.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  37. 37. bauhaus in weimar basic course for gropius, the unity would be recovered through training that would develop within students a generalized competence in crafts, forming an indispensable basis for all artistic production. the basic course was a general introduction to composition, color, materials, and three-dimensional form that familiarized students with techniques, concepts, and formal relationships considered fundamental to all visual expression, whether it be sculpture, metal work, painting, or lettering.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  38. 38. bauhaus in weimar basic course the basic course developed an abstract visual language that would provide a theoretical and practical basis for any artistic endeavor. since it was seen as the basis for all further development, the course aimed to strip away particularities in favor of discovering fundamental truths operating in the visual world.. while the concept of a basic course is one of the greatest legacies of the bauhaus, it was a notion that had many precedents in progressive educational reforms of the nineteenth-century, particularly in the kindergarten, as developed by its founder, friedrich froebel (1782-1852) .mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  39. 39. bauhaus in weimar workshop the basic idea of the Bauhaus teaching concept was the unity of artistic and practical tuition. every student had to complete a compulsory preliminary course, after which he or she had to enter a workshop of his or her choice. this was headed both by an artist and a master craftsman. here, the mediation of the basics of the craft, together with design parameters, were directly combined with practical experience. this could involve the development of prototypes, then to be serialised, either directly in the bauhaus workshops, or else - most particularly during the dessau period - for industrial production under licence. -metal - weaving - pottery - furniture -typography - wall paintingmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  40. 40. bauhaus in weimar design theory the bauhaus was not a monolithic institution; like any school, it was a changing and often divisive coalition of students, faculty, and administrators, interacting with the often hostile community outside. thus the bauhaus contained within itself contradictory ideas; walter gropius is to the general public the grand old man of a movement that has long since become international, in the art schools it was ittens ideas that were the more influential. but itten, for all subjectivism, breathing exercises, and oriental philosophy, had been affected as much as gropius by social realities. we do not try to account for the complicated history of the bauhaus, which has been chronicled richly elsewhere; our focus is rather on the bauhaus and design theory.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  41. 41. bauhaus in weimar design theory thinking about design in a theoretically self-conscious way is one of the major contributions of the bauhaus, and yet the schools focus on vision as an autonomous realm of expression helped engender the hostility towards verbal language which is common to post-WWII design education. in 1923 kandinsky proposed a universal correspondence between the three elementary shapes and the three primary colors:mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  42. 42. bauhaus in weimar design theory the dynamic triangle is inherently yellow, the static square is intrinsically red, and the serene circle is naturally blue. Today, this equation , has lost its claim to universality and works instead as a floating sign capable of assuming numerous meanings.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  43. 43. bauhaus in weimar design theory itten, klee, and kandinsky aimed at uncovering the origins of "visual language"; they sought this origin in basic geometries, pure colors, and abstraction. their practice and pedagogy have the character of both science and fantasy. on the one hand, they constitute an analysis of forms, colors, and materials directed towards a science of art; on the other hand they are theoretical constructions about primordial laws of visual form that supposedly operate outside of history and culture.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  44. 44. bauhaus in weimar design theory despite its diversity, the production of the bauhaus is united by an awareness of its departure from history, of its ambition towards a point of origin. with the assimilation of its forms and methods into modern design training, the bauhaus itself became a point of origin. while Kandinsky, klee, and itten articulated a visual language through the concept of a childhood of art, the Bauhaus has become the childhood of design.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  45. 45. bauhaus in weimar design theory geometric form, gridded space, and a rationalist use of typography have been foregrounded as the prime lessons of the bauhaus legacy. the linguistic potential of bauhaus theory-evident in frequent analogies between writing and drawing-was ignored: the project of a "visual language" was taken up in isolation from, rather than in tandem with, verbal language. graphic designs synthesis of words and images makes it an important site for re- opening early modernisms attempt to make form discursive: to re-open it to the social and cultural dimension of visual language.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  46. 46. bauhaus in weimar design theory paul klees pedagogical sketchbook (1925) and wassily kandinskys point and line to plane (1926), both published by the bauhaus, are primers for the grammar of visual writing. gyorgy kepess language of vision (1944) and laszlo moholy-nagys vision in motion (1947) use gestalt psychology to lend the "language of vision" a scientific rationale; both books were written at the school of design in chicago, founded as the "new bauhaus" in 1937. gestalt psychology has since become a dominant theoretical source for basic design teaching. numerous textbooks have appeared since world war II which describe the "language" of designmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  47. 47. bauhaus in weimar design theory a key difference between verbal language and the modernist ideal of a visual "language" is the arbitrariness of the verbal sign, which has no natural, inherent relationship to the concept it represents. The sound of the word "horse for example, does not innately resemble the concept of a horse. ferdinand de saussure called this arbitrariness the fundamental feature of the verbal sign. saussure proposed the study of a new branch of linguistics: semiology, a general theory of signs.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  48. 48. bauhaus in weimar design theory / graph a graph plots data in a gridded space, whose axes represent variables such as time, temperature, or quantity. many graphs depict change over time with a linear mark, as in a sine curve or a "fever" chart. the graph belongs to the category of signs called the index, which has a causal relationship to its referent. for example, a photograph, a footprint, or a shadow is an index, because it results from physical contact with an object. an arrow is an index, because its meaning in any given instance depends on its proximity to an object. indexical signs appear throughout the textbooks of klee, kandinsky, and moholy- nagy; they serve as potential characters in a universal script that would have a direct link to the physical or spiritual world.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  49. 49. bauhaus in weimar design theory / graph first case the line is active and the plane is passive. second case there is an equality between the line and the plane it demarcates. third case the plane is active, while the line the border between the two planes is passive.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  50. 50. bauhaus in weimar design theory / translation the term translation appears in kandinskys bauhaus textbook point and line to plane, where it refers to the act of drawing correspondences between graphic, linear marks and a range of non-graphic experiences, such as color, music, spiritual intuition, and visual perception. the series represents kandinskys attempt to prove a universal correlation between color and geometry; it has become one of the most famous icons of the Bauhaus.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  51. 51. bauhaus in weimar design theory / translation kandinsky conceived of these colors and shapes as a series of oppositions: yellow and blue represent the extremes of hotlcold, light/dark, and active/passive, while red is the intermediary between them. the triangle, square, and circle are graphic equivalents of the same polarities. while few designers today would accept the universal validity of this equation, the model of visual "language" as a grammar of perceptual oppositions remains the basis of numerous textbooks of basic designmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  52. 52. bauhaus in weimar design theory / translation the term translation is also used in geometry, where it refers to the uniform movement of a figure in a single direction. In discussions of language, translation refers to the act of exchanging symbols from one system with symbols from another. what correspondences-and differences-might one draw between kandinskys "language" of vision and verbal language? how might one translate the visual sign into the realm of the linguistic?mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  53. 53. bauhaus in weimar design theory / translation according to the theory of the verbal sign proposed by the linguist ferdinand de saussure at the turn of the twentieth century, language consists of two distinct yet inseparable planes: sounds and concepts, or signifiers and signifieds. The link between signifier and signified is not an inherent quality of the sign, but is rather a function of the overall system. a sign is thus not an autonomous, self-contained vessel of meaning, but only has value in relation to other signs. kandinskys equation is analogous in some ways to a system of linguistic signs.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  54. 54. bauhaus in weimar design theory / grid a grid organizes space according to an x and y axis. the grid, a structural form pervading bauhaus art and design, articulates space according to a pattern of oppositions: vertical and horizontal, top and bottom, orthogonal and diagonal, and left and Another opposition engaged by the grid is the opposition of continuity and discontinuity. as described by saussure, language is also a kind of grid: language articulates the "uncharted nebula" of pre-linguistic thought into distinct elements, breaking down the infinitely gradated continuum of experience into repeatable signs. language is a grid, and a grid is a language.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  55. 55. bauhaus in weimar design theory / grid kandinsky called a four-square grid "the prototype of linear expression;“ it is an elementary diagram of two-dimensional space. similarly, the dutch de stijl movement, headed by theo van doesburg,identified the grid as the fundamental origin of art.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  56. 56. bauhaus in weimar design theory / gridmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  57. 57. bauhaus in weimar design theory / grid this figure demonstrates another perceptual principle: at the intersections of a grid, the negative space becomes active, beginning to solidify into rectangular figures. In addition to its formal ambiguity, kepess figure is conceptually ambiguous: it is at once figure and frame, theory and practice, science and art, perceptual diagram and mondrian grid.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  58. 58. bauhaus in weimar design theory / gridmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  59. 59. bauhaus in weimar design theory / gridmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  60. 60. bauhaus in weimar design theory / gridmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  61. 61. bauhaus in weimar design theory / gridmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  62. 62. bauhaus in weimar design theory / gridmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  63. 63. bauhaus in weimar design theory / gridmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  64. 64. mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  65. 65. the bauhaus in dessaumercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  66. 66. bauhaus in dessau (1935 - 1933) the bauhaus masters on the roof of the bauhaus building in dessau. From the left: josef albers, hinnerk scheper, georg muche, lászló moholy-nagy, herbert bayer, joost schmidt, walter gropius, marcel breuer, vassily kandinsky, paul klee, lyonel feininger, gunta stölzl and oskar schlemmer.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  67. 67. bauhaus in dessau building "the Bauhaus building provides an important landmark of architectural history, even though it was dependent on earlier projects of the well as on the basic outlines and concepts of Frank lloyd wright.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  68. 68. bauhaus in dessau building "It consists of three connected wings or and workshop are connected through a two-story bridge, which spans the approach road from dessau.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  69. 69. bauhaus in dessau building the administration was located on the lower level of the bridge, and on the upper level was the private office of the two architects, walter gropius and adolf meyer, which could be compared to the ship captains command bridge due to its location.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  70. 70. bauhaus in dessau building the dormitories and the school building are connected through a wing where the assembly hall and the dining room are located, with a stage between.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  71. 71. bauhaus in dessau building "the basic structure of the bauhaus consists of a clear and carefully thought-out system of connecting wings, which correspond to the internal operating system of the school.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  72. 72. bauhaus in dessaumercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  73. 73. bauhaus in dessaumercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  74. 74. bauhaus in dessaumercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  75. 75. bauhaus in dessaumercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  76. 76. bauhaus in dessaumercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  77. 77. bauhaus in dessaumercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  78. 78. bauhaus in dessaumercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  79. 79. bauhaus in dessaumercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  80. 80. bauhaus in dessaumercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  81. 81. bauhaus in dessau (1935 - 1933) 1925 1930 1932 1933 1937 Having lost support of the Architect Mies van der The Dessau Bauhaus is The Berlin Bauhaus closes. A group of Chicago Weimar government, the Rohe becomes director dissolved by the local During the 30s, numerous industrialists found a Bauhaus moves to Dessau, of the Bauhaus. Klee government. Mies transfers Bauhaus students and design school, and hire an industrial city near leaves the school in the school to Berlin, where faculty emigrate to the Moholy-Nagy as director. Berlin. 1931; Albers and it operates briefly on a U.S., including Gropius, Called the New Bauhaus, Herbert Bayer and Joost Kandinsky stay until the much smaller scale. Mies, Bayer, MoholyNagy, the school later is Schmidt, formerly students, end. and Albers. They pursue renamed the School of join the faculty. A course in influential careers as Design and then the "Typography and educators and Institute of Design. Advertising Art" is practitioners. Gyorgy Kepesteaches instituted, taught by Bayer photography and graphic as part of the Printing design, drawing on Workshop. Gestalt psychology.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  82. 82. bauhaus in dessau ludwig mies van der rohe 1886 aachen - 1969 chicago architektmercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  83. 83. bauhaus in dessau ludwig mies van der rohemercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  84. 84. bauhaus in dessau ludwig mies van der rohemercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  85. 85. bauhaus in dessau ludwig mies van der rohemercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  86. 86. bauhaus in dessau ludwig mies van der rohemercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  87. 87. bauhaus in dessau marcel breuer was born on 21 may 1902 in the provincial city of Pecs, hungary. he retired in 1976 and died on the 1st of july 1981 after a long illness.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  88. 88. bauhaus in dessau marcel breuermercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  89. 89. bauhaus in dessau marcel breuermercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  90. 90. bauhaus in dessau marcel breuer unesco - parismercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  91. 91. bauhaus in dessau herbert bayer was born in Haag, austria. between 1921 and 1923, he attended the bauhaus where he first studied typography and later joined wassily kandinskys mural workshop. bayer taught graphic design and typography at the school from 1925 to 1928.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  92. 92. bauhaus in dessau herbert bayermercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  93. 93. bauhaus in dessau herbert bayermercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  94. 94. bauhaus in dessau Herbert Bayermercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  95. 95. bauhaus - the end in 1928 gropius resigns from the bauhaus in april to go to berlin to work as an architect. moholy-nagy, bayer, and breuer also quit the school. at the suggestion of gropius, hannes meyer is appointed director. meyer advocates a more scientific approach in the work and the classes. he considers creativity to be an objective process, which derives from rationally tangible perception. in 1930 student political involvement increases; accused for his communist tendencies, the director, hannes meyer, is dismissed by the city of dessau. Following a recommendation by gropius, the architect ludwig mies van der rohe is appointed director in april; he assumes his post in autumn.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  96. 96. bauhaus - the end in april 1931, klee leaves the bauhaus for an appointment to the academy in düsseldorf, gunta stölzl quits in october. in november 1931, the elections for the municipal council of dessau take place; the NSDAP is the strongest party. the first point of their election campaign concerns cutting financial support to the Bauhaus and the demolition of its buildings. mies van der Rohe decides to continue the school as a private institute in berlin. this is enabled by the income from license royalties.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  97. 97. bauhaus - the end on April 11 1933, at the start of the summer semester, the bauhaus building undergoes a police search and is placed under seal. 32 students are temporarily arrested. the future of the school, which is in a disastrous financial situation,is uncertain. on July 20, the final dissolution of the Bauhaus is decided upon at a staff conference. a letter from the secret state police, dated July 21 concerning the re-opening of the school states several conditions; kandinsky and hilberseimer are requested to relinquish their position to staff "standing on the soil of national socialist ideology" and the new curriculum should satisfy the "claim of the new state to its inner structure".mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  98. 98. bauhaus - the end the most prominent bauhaus teachers emigrate over the course of the following years, amongst them Josef Albers (1933/USA), Vassily Kandinsky (1933/France), paul kee (1933/switzerland), Walter Gropius (1934/Great Britain, 1937/USA), László Moholy-Nagy (1934/Netherlands, 1935/Great Britain, 1937/USA), Marcel Breuer (1935/Great Britain, 1937/USA), Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1937/USA), Herbert Bayer (1938/USA), Walter Peterhans (1938/USA).mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  99. 99. bauhaus - succession new bauhaus - iit the New bauhaus, founded in 1937 in chicago, was the immediate successor to the bauhaus dissolved in 1933 under national socialist pressure. the former bauhaus master lászló moholy-nagy was founding director of the new bauhaus. chicago bauhaus and beyond, also know as CBB, derives its name from the New bauhaus school of design, located in chicago, descendent of the influential german bauhaus design school and precursor of the illinois institute of technologys institute of design. the new bauhaus, and later IIT, played crucial roles in developing and promoting modern design.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  100. 100. bauhaus - succession new bauhaus - iit bauhaus ideology had a strong impact throughout america, but it was only at the new bauhaus that the complete curriculum as developed under walter gropius in weimar and dessau was adopted and further developed the methods which came from the german bauhaus and which were then transferred to chicago and further developed there have been adopted in manifold modified form by other American schools. the Bauhaus is mainly responsible for the gradual reduction of the until then unchallenged predominance in the united states of the beaux-arts tradition.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  101. 101. bauhaus - succession ulm hochschule für gestaltung hochschule für gestaltung in ulm 1953 to 1968 (design school ulm) - represent later developments. after world war II, the bauhaus program was revived at the highly influential school of design in ulm, west-germany. max bill is co-founder of the hochschule für gestaltung in ulm, he plans the curriculum and the buildings, first rector , he has studied at the bauhaus in dessau, under teachers including wassily kandinsky, paul klee and oskar schlemmer. the theory of functionalism strongly represented by the ulm academy for design, the orientation toward technology, and systematic thinking had their effect on mass production and brought about a rectangular formalism in both architecture and design.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  102. 102. bauhaus - succession ulm hochschule für gestaltung Good Form and Neo-Functionalism During the 1960s the Ulm Academy for Design shifted its focus from its rectangular functionalism to a new stylistic combination of "good form" and functionalism. Through this adaptation of "form follows function" designers began to think of themselves as engineers rather than creators. In the face of this changing tide, the field of ergonomics emerged The Braun Sixtant by Hans Gugelot, 1962, became a classic among modern electric razors. "Good Form", characterized by functionality, simply form, utility, durability, "timelessness," order, clarity, thorough and solid workmanship, suitable materials, finished details, technology, ergonomic design, environmental responsibilitymercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  103. 103. bauhaus - conclusion u the Bauhaus began with an utopian definition: "the building of the future" was to combine all the arts in ideal unity. this required a new type of artist beyond academic specialisation with holistic vision, for whom the bauhaus would offer adequate education. in order to reach this goal, the founder, walter gropius, saw the necessity to develop new teaching methods and was convinced that the base for any art was to be found in handcraft: "the school will gradually turn into a workshop". indeed, artists and craftsmen directed classes and production together at the bauhaus in weimar. this was intended to remove any distinction between fine arts and applied arts.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011
  104. 104. bauhaus - conclusion u of course, the educational and social claim to a new configuration of life and its environment could not always be achieved. and the bauhaus was not alone with this goal, but the name became a near synonym for this trend. the history of the bauhaus is by no means linear. the changes in directorship and amongst the teachers, artistic influence from far and wide, in combination with the political situation in which the bauhaus experiment was staged, led to permanent transformation. the numerous consequences of this experiment still today flow into contemporary life.mercredi, 16 novembre 2011