The Bauhaus


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An overview of the Bauhaus movement; design principles, history, main actors.

Published in: Design, Education

The Bauhaus

  2. 2. 1919 -1933 GROPIUS’ FIRST PROCLAMATION OF THE BAUHAUS The complete building is the final aim of the visual arts…. Art is not a "profession." There is no essential difference between the artist and the craftsman…in moments beyond the control of his will, the grace of heaven may cause his work to blossom into art. But proficiency in his craft is essential to every artist. Therein lies a source of creative imagination. Let us create a new guild of craftsmen, without the class distinctions which raise an arrogant barrier…Together let us conceive and create the new building of the future, which will embrace architecture and sculpture and painting in one unity and which will rise one day toward heaven from the hand of a million workers like the crystal symbol of a new faith.
  3. 3. PRINCIPLES <ul><ul><li>• Mass production over individual craftsmanship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Synthesis of fine & applied arts . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• New & modern sense of beauty through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rational design . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• A forward-thinking over an academically qualified faculty, including purely creative artists as spiritual counterpoints to the practical technicians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Thorough experience with materials . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Student offered no refuge in the past, should be equipped for modern world in various aspects: artistic, technical, social, economic, spiritual. He must function in society not as a decorator but as a vital participant. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Itten <ul><li>THREE TASKS OF FIRST YEAR COURSE: </li></ul><ul><li>Free unique creativity of student. </li></ul><ul><li>Make choice of career easier. </li></ul><ul><li>Convey design fundamentals. </li></ul><ul><li>COURSE METHODOLOGY: </li></ul><ul><li>1 Experiments with actual materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyses of old masters. </li></ul><ul><li>Color and form theory. </li></ul>FIRST YEAR: PRELIMINARY COURSE Johannes
  5. 5. Itten FIRST YEAR: PRELIMINARY COURSE Johannes Horizontal/Vertikal, 1915 Vogelthema, 1918
  6. 6. Albers Month 1: GLASS. Month 2: PAPER Month 3: TWO MATERIAL COMBINATION. Month 4: STUDENT CHOICE. PRELIMINARY COURSE 1922-33 Josef “ Discover” specific qualities of materials. Produce no waste. Grid Mounted, glass assemblage 1922
  7. 7. Albers 1888-1976 Josef Homage to a Square, 1971 Bundled, 1925
  8. 8. Moholy-Nagy PRELIMINARY COURSE 1923-1928 László 1: Combine elements to corresponded to preconceived idea. Response manifested on “tactile charts.” Grid Mounted, glass assemblage 1922 3: 3D studies to sharpen sense of volume: simple elements and materials used to construct objects in both visual and real balance. 2: Distinguish composition (balance between parts) from construction.
  9. 9. Moholy-Nagy 1895-1946 László Dual Form with Chromium Rods, 1946 Eifersucht (Jealousy), 1927 AXL II, 1924 Leuk 5, 1946
  10. 10. From left: Josef Albers, Hinnerk Scheper, Georg Muche, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer, Joost Schmidt, Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, Vassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger, Gunta St oz l and Oskar Schlemmer. MASTERS
  11. 11. & textile design <ul><li>woman-run </li></ul><ul><li>weaving technique coupled well with Bauhaus aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>contrasting material, thick / thin, glossy / matte </li></ul>Gunta Stölzl weaving w/ Marcel Breuer African Chair, 1921 Kitty Fischer-van der Mijll-Dekker woollen blanket design, gouache 1932
  12. 12. Kathedrale Woodcut, 1919 Street in Arceuil 1915 Gables I, Lueneberg, 1925 1871- 1956 FINE ART MASTERS: Lyonel Feininger
  13. 13. & Joost Schmidt Weimar Bauhaus Poster 1923 Universal Type 1926 Bauhaus Journal Cover 1928 graphic design typography Kiosk for exhibition stand 1924 <ul><li>ALL CAPS or all lower case </li></ul><ul><li>sans serif </li></ul><ul><li>grid structures & geometric forms </li></ul><ul><li>bold & primary colors </li></ul>HERBERT BAYER
  14. 14. FINE ART MASTERS: Vassily Kandinski Impression III 1911 Untitled 1922 1866-1944 Swinging 1925
  15. 15. & metalwork photography Self portrait with jewelry for metal party 1929 Marianne Brandt
  16. 16. cont. Marianne Bildergalerie Teapot, 1930 Bildergalerie Ruppel-Trio desk set, 1930 Touch desk lamp 1930 Weimar Metal Workshop, 1923 Lidded Bowl, 1930 Ashtrays…
  17. 17. Highway and Byways 1929 Senecio 1922 Zitronin 1932 1879- 1940 FINE ART MASTERS: Paul Klee
  18. 18. AFTERMATH The Bauhaus dissolved itself under Nazi pressure in 1933. Gropius, Mies van der Rohe, and other Bauhaus masters migrated to the United States. 1932 MOMA had an exhibition of contemporary architecture. The accompanying Hitchcock and Johnson catalogue was entitled The International Style: Architecture Since 1922 . “ International Style” now used to refer to American incarnation of Bauhaus architecture.
  19. 19. the BAUHAUS school 1919-1925: WEIMAR 1926-1932: DESSAU 1932-1933: BERLIN Wilhelm Wagenfeld Bauhaus Lamp <ul><li>Founded by </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Gropius . </li></ul><ul><li>Became </li></ul><ul><li>“ International </li></ul><ul><li>Style ” in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLES </li></ul><ul><li>unity of fine and applied </li></ul><ul><li>arts </li></ul><ul><li>preliminary immersion in </li></ul><ul><li>design & craftsmanship </li></ul><ul><li>subsequent focus in </li></ul><ul><li>master-led workshops </li></ul><ul><li>embrace potential of </li></ul><ul><li>industrial mass </li></ul><ul><li>production </li></ul>JOHANNES ITTEN preliminary course painter JOSEF ALBERS preliminary course painter László Maholy-Nagy preliminary course painter, photographer, graphic design Vassily Kandinsky, painter abstract expressionist Marianne Brandt photographer, metalwork GUNTA STÖLZL weaving PAUL KLEE painter HERBERT BAYER graphic design, typography MART STAM first cantalievered chair, prototype from steel tubes