sr834 Early life • Full
name - GEORGE WALTER ADOLF GROPIUS. • Born in Berlin 18 May, 1883 • He was the third child of Walter Adolph Gropius and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber. • Earlier he was taught by his father.
sr834 Early education • Educated
in private elementary school • 1903 he left school and went to the Technical University in Munich to study architecture. • Although he studied architecture in Berlin and Munich (1903-1907), he received no degree. • Gropius could not draw, and was dependent on collaborators and partner-interpreters throughout his career. • In school an assistant is hired to complete his homework for him. • 1904-1905 he served in the military, then went back to school. • 1907 he left school without completion and went back to Berlin because of the death of his brother.
sr834 Married life • Gropius
married Alma Mahler(1879–1964), widow of Gustav Mahler. • Walter and Alma has a daughter, named Manon. • Manon died of polio at age eighteen. • Gropius and Alma divorced in 1920. • Alma had by that time established a relationship with Franz Werfel, whom she later married. • In 1923 Gropius married Ise Frank, and they remained together until his death. • He adopted Beate Gropius, also known as Ati.
sr834 Inspiration • His father
and his great-uncle Martin Gropius were architect, that was why he wanted to become an architect from his childhood days. • inspired by William Morris. • William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, artist, writer, and socialist who founded a design firm and associated English Arts and Crafts Movement.
sr834 International style • Simple
geometry often rectangular • Used of modern meterials like steel and glass • Smooth surface • Primary colors • Linears and horizontal elements
sr834 Technique • This advocacy
of industrialized building carried with it a belief in team work and an acceptance of standardization and prefabrication. • Using technology as a basis, he transformed building into a science of precise mathematical calculations. • An important theorist and teacher, Gropius introduced a screen wall system that utilized a structural steel frame to support the floors and which allowed the external glass walls to continue without interruption.
sr834 Walter Gropius • “to
built is to create event” • Architect, sculptures, painters, we must all return to the crafts! • For art is not a ‘profession’. There is no essential difference between artist and the craftsman • The artist is the exalted craftsman. about architecture
sr834 Famous Quotes • Society
needs a good image of itself. That is the job of an architect. • “The mind is like and umbrella-it functions best when open.” • “Architecture begins where engineering ends.” • “Spacialists are people who always repeat the same mistakes.” • “Only work which is the product of inner compulsion can have spiritual meaning.” • “The final goal of all artistic activity is architecture”.
sr834 • “A modern, harmonic
and lively architecture is the visible sign of authentic democracy.” • “Our guideline principal was that design is neither an intellectual nor a material affair, but simply an integral part of the stuff of life necessary for everyone in a civilized society.” • “if your contribution is vital the will always be somebody to pick up where you left off, and that will be your claim to immorality”
sr834 FAGUS FACTORY, THE FAGUS
FACTORY,A SHOE LAST FACTORY IN ALFELD IN GERMANY, IS AN IMPORTANT EXAMPLE OF EARLY MODERN ARCHITECTURE. IT WAS BUILT AT ALFELD – AN– DER – LEINE IN 1911. IT WAS IN COLLABORATION WITH ADOLF MEYER. IT WAS HIS FIRST INDEPENDENT COMMISSION. MOST STRIKING THING: SIMPLICITY AND CONFIDENCE OF THE ARCHITECTURE. IN FAGUS WORKS, GROPIUS BROUGHT THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE PAST FIFTEEN YEARS. THE MAIN BUILDING CAN BE SEEN AS AN INVERSION OF THE TURBINE FACTORY. ALFELD, GERMANY
sr834 IT WAS DESIGNED BY
GROPIUS KEEPING IN MIND THE SURROUNDINGS. IT WAS CALLED BY GROPIUS AN ARTISTIC AND PRACTICAL DESIGN. FAGUS BUILDING WAS THE FIRST TO EXTRACT THE FULL AESTHETICALLY REVOLUTIONARY IMPACT FROM THE STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT. FAGUS STRUCTURE WAS ACTUALLY A HYBRID CONSTRUCTION OF BRICK COLUMNS, STEEL BEAMS AND CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS AND STAIRWAYS. IT WAS A STEEL FRAME SUPPORTING THE FLOORS, GLASS SCREEN EXTERNAL WALLS. PILLARS ARE SET BEHIND THE FAÇADE SO THAT ITS CURTAIN CHARACTER IS FULLY REALIZED.
sr834 GLASS SCREEN WAS USED
ALL OVER THE WALLS TO HAVE PROPER VIEW FROM INSIDE. WALLS ARE NO LONGER SUPPORTERS OF THE BUILDING BUT SIMPLE CURTAIN PROJECTING AGAINST INCREMENT WEATHER. IT WAS DOMINATION OF VOIDS OVER SOLIDS. PLANE SURFACES PREDOMINATE IN THIS FACTORY. THE GLASS AND WALLS ARE JOINED CLEANLY AT THE CORNERS WITHOUT THE INTERVENTION OF PIERS. EXTERNAL VIEW FAGUS FACTORY- INTERNAL VIEW
sr834 Glass facade • It
was constructed in 1911 according to Werner’s plan but with the glass facades designed by Gropius and Meyer and then expanded in 1913. • Both have corners free of supports, and glass surfaces between piers that cover the whole height of the building.
sr834 • However, in the
Turbine factory the corners are covered by heavy elements that slant inside. The glass surfaces also slant inside and are recessed in relation to the piers. • The load-bearing elements are attenuated and the building has an image of stability and monumentality. • In Fagus exactly the opposite happens; the corners are left open and the piers are recessed leaving the glass surface to the front AEG Turbine Factory by Peter Behrens, 1910 FAGUS FACTORY
sr834 • The Fagus building
is a 40-centimeter high, dark brick base that projects from the facade by 4 centimetre. • The interiors of the building, which contained mainly offices, were finished in the mid 20s. The other two big buildings on the site are the production hall and the warehouse. Both were constructed in 1911 and expanded in 1913.
sr834 • The warehouse is
a four-storey building with few openings. Its design followed closely the original plan by Werner . • Apart from them, the site contains various small buildings designed by Gropius and Meyer. Gropius and Meyer were able to enforce only minor changes in the overall layout of the factory complex.
sr834 CONSTRUCTUCTION SYSTEM • The
main building was erected on top of a structurally stable basement with flat caps. Non- reinforced (or compressed) concrete, mixed with pebble dashing was used for the basement walls, an unfortunate blend unable to support great individual loads. • The ceilings were underpinned with a formwork shell and finished in rough-cast plaster on the services installation side. The floors were composed of planks on loose sleepers – that is, sleepers that were not fixed between the floor joists. • . Along the side of the building, 3-millimetre-thick steel plates sealed the wedge between window frame and piers.
sr834 DESIGN • Although constructed
with different systems, all of the buildings on the site give a common image and appear as a unified whole. • The first one is the use of floor-to-ceiling glass windows on steel frames that go around the corners of the buildings without a visible (most of the time without any) structural support. • The other unifying element is the use of brick.
sr834 All buildings have a
base of about 40 cm of black brick and the rest is built of yellow bricks In order to enhance this feeling of lightness, Gropius and Meyer used a series of optical refinements like greater horizontal than vertical elements on the windows, longer windows on the corners and taller windows on the last floor.
sr834 Bauhaus Archive • This
is the museum of design that collects art pieces, items, documents and literature which relate to the Bauhaus School (1919–1933). • The Bauhaus Archive was founded in Darmstadt in 1960. • Gropius was asked to design it. In 1964. Berlin
sr834 • He produced plans
for a new museum in Darmstadt, which was prevented by local politics. • The foundation stone was finally laid in 1976 and the building was ready by 1979. • The necessary changes to the plan were carried out by his former colleague Alex Cvijanovic, in conjunction with the Berlin architect Hans Bandel.
sr834 • The collection documents
the history of Bauhaus in art, teaching, architecture and design. • The collection includes teaching materials, workshop models, architectural plans and models, photographs, documents and a library. i n t e r i o r
sr834 Materials And Forms •
The building emphasized the direct and honest use of materials as a functional design. • The result was rectilinear architectural forms • structural components such as steel, glass and concrete were used, directly and honestly, without trying to imitate any other way. • The colourful metal columns placed at both ends of the ramp.
sr834 Gropius house • The
Gropius House was the family residence of Gropius. • It is now owned by Historic New England and is open to the public. • This house was his first architectural commission in the United States. • He designed it in 1937, when he came to teach at Harvard University's Graduate School of Design, and it was built in 1938. Lincoln, Massachusett
sr834 • The house caused
a sensation when built. In keeping with Bauhaus philosophy, every aspect of the house and its surrounding landscape was planned for maximum efficiency and simplicity. • Gropius carefully sited the house to complement its New England habitat on a rise within an orchard of 90 apple trees. • the Gropius House mixes up the traditional materials of New England architecture (wood, brick, and fieldstone) with industrial materials such as glass block, acoustic plaster, and chrome banisters. • The house structure consists of a traditional New England post and beam wooden frame. • It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 2000.
sr834 Siemensstadt Housing Estate or
Ring Estate • It is a nonprofit residential community in the Charlottenburg- Wilmersdorf district of Berlin. • It is one of the six Modernist Housing Estates in Berlin recognized in July 2008 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Europe, Eurasia, Germany, Western Europe
sr834 Embassy of the United
States, • The Embassy of the United States in Athens is the embassy of the United States in Greece. • It was constructed between 1959 and 1961 and is a protected architectural landmark. • inspired by the architecture of the Parthenon. • The office building is 5026 m² and includes office space for over 150 people. Athens
sr834 MetLife Building • The
MetLife Building is a skyscraper. • Built in 1958–63 as the Pan Am Building, then headquarters of Pan American World Airways. • It is in collaboration with Emery Roth & Sons,Pietro Belluschi. Park Avenue, New York
sr834 Josephine M. Hagerty House
• Located a few feet from the shoreline, it was the first building in the United States commissioned from Gropius. • The house was built in 1938 and added to the National Historic Register in 1997. Cohasset, Massachusett
sr834 Conclusion GROPIUS IS RECOGNIZED
AS ONE OF THE FOUR PIONEERS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE, THE OTHERS BEING MIES VAN DER ROHE, FRANK LYOD WRIGHT AND LE-CORBUSIER. GROPIUS WAS A FUNCTIONLIST MOST OF HIS BUILDINGS IN GERMANY, ENGLAND AND AMERICA ARE CONSTRUCTED THAT AIM TO BE LOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF PURPOSE FOR INSTANCE:IMPINGTON VALLAGE SCHOOL, HARVARD GRADUATE CENTRE. GROPIUS WAS QUICK TO SEE THE ADVANTAGES OF ECONOMY IN THE BUILDINGS. GROPIUS WAS EXPERIMENTED IN HIS PROJECTS. BEING AN EDUCATOR HIS NATURE MADE HIM READY TO LISTEN TO OTHERS AND GIVE THEM THEIR FULL DUE. HE WAS ALWAYS READY TO CONSULT AND LEARN FROM OTHERS.