Republic of Ghana How they ended up speaking English...and more...
English Language evolution
Troughout the colonial age, English has been subject of many alterations in vocabulary mainly and also in syntax and semantics.
During African colonization , English acquired words such as Zebra and Chimpanzee, to mention a few.
Africa is the third largest continent in the planet. It is extended through 30.330.000 km2, a 22% of the earth’s mass.
The Empires and City-States Era .
After Mohammad’s death in 632, islamic armies invaded Africa and quickly defeated the bizantine resistence in Egypt.
From their base in Egypt, the arabs conquered the west and Morocco, and they converted to Islam, but many others retreated to the center regions and to the Atlas Mounts.
Many christian reigns were conquered with the exception of the Nobatia Kingdom, which remained strong before the invaders and independent for 600 years.
The arabs continued to be the ruling minority.
In Western Africa, there were many black kingdoms whose economic foundations relied basically on Gold, Kola nuts and slaves trading with northern kingdoms.
The first of these kingdoms, Ghana, was formed in the 5 th century in today’s SE Mauritania.
In the early 11 th century, Muslim counselors were found in Ghana’s court, and muslim merchants lived in fancy neihgborhoods, running very lucrative and prosperous businesses.
Before the British occupation, the Kingdom of Ghana was invaded and conquered b the almoravides (a muslim fraction), the Soso people and the kingdom of Mali.
The British challenged the Nederlands presence and they established forts in Kormantine and Cape Coast. Finally there was a war and the Dutch were victorious.
In spite of their defeat, The British Government continued to sponsor slave trading around 1750.
By the end of the 18 th century, England had domain over the region. In the next years, three big factors determined the colonization:
In 1821, 14 years after slavery abolition, the british settlements came to be state dependences.
In 1850 and 1871, England bought the danish and dutch forts.
In 1874, they controlled the coastal area, and they designated it to be a British colony, with the name of Gold Coast.
Rise and Independence
In the early 19 th century, The ashanti people had occupied the coastal area where the Fanti inhabitated, causing a series of conflicts with the british up to the end of the century.
In 1901, the territory’s limits were established and some other territories annexed to the Colony.
After the World War II, there was a political development rising in the country. There was agitation and pressure to the parliament in pursue of self-government.
In January, 1957, The british parliament accepted the independence act of Golden Coast and came to be known as Ghana In March of the same year, after their declaration of Independence. Two years later, they were integrated to the United Nations.
Kwame Nkruma Kwame Nkruma was a very important figure in Ghana’s independence. He was the first Government Chief (1957-1960) and president (1960-1966) of Ghana.
He had a radical panafrican political identity and eventually, he shifted to a dictatorial goverment, creating a one-party regime. He also self-proclaimed perpetual president and promoted cult to himself. He was overthrown in 1966 by a military coupe d’etat and lived in exile his last years, invited by Guinea’s president. He died in Bucarest in 1972.
Climate: Tropical, but there are great differences in rain and temperature depending on proximity to the coast or altitude.
Annual temperature: 26,1ºC in average.
There is a dry wind from the dessert, the Harmmatan that makes days warm and nights cold in January. The highest tepmeratures are in March and the coldest in August.
Wild life and vegetation
Most of Ghana’s natural vegetation has been destroyed by fires to create agricultural zones, but there are still many tree species like african caoba and cedar trees. Two thirds of northern Ghana are covered by the sabana.
Wild life has also experienced a decrease in number and variety but there are many species remaining, such as leopards, hienas, lemurs, buffalos, elephants, antelopes and monkeys. There are also many reptile species like pythons, cobras and horned snakes.
There are two hydroelectric dams, one in Volta River and another downriver in Kpong, conluded in 1970. The dams produce 84% of the country’s energy and they also export a great deal of the energy.
In 2007, there was a population of 22.931.299 with a density of 99 Hab/Km2.
The most numerous peoples belong to the Akan family: the Fanti on the shore and the Ashanti on the center. The Nzima and the ahanta live in the SW and the Accra prairies are inhabitated by the Ga. Most of the people in the north area are from the moshi-dagomba group or the gonja group.
The country is divided in 10 regions: North East West Central Superior East Superior West Volta Ashanti Brong-Ahafo Great Accra
Accra (capital) 1.687.000 inhabitants.
Kumasi, in the ashanti region 399.300 inh.
Sekondi-Takoradi 116.500 inh.
Tamale 151.100 inh.
Tema 180.600 inh.
Cape Coast 57.224 inh.
Accra: capital city of Ghana
Kumasi (Ashanti region)
Typical village in Northern Ghana
Ghana's Anthem and Pledge
God bless our homeland Ghana, And make our nation great and strong, Bold to defend for ever The cause of Freedom and of Right; Fill our hearts with true humility, Make us cherish fearless honesty, And help us to resist oppressors' rule With all our will and might for evermore.
Hail to thy name, O Ghana, To thee we make our solemn vow: Steadfast to build together A nation strong in Unity; With our gifts of mind and strength of arm, Whether night or day, in mist or storm, In ev'ry need, whate'er the call may be, To serve thee, O Ghana, now and evermore.
Raise high the flag of Ghana And one with Africa advance; Black Star of hope and honour To all who thirst for Liberty; Where the banner of Ghana freely flies, May the way to freedom truly lie; Arise, arise, O sons of Ghanaland, And under God march on for evermore!
I promise on my honour to be faithful and loyal to Ghana my motherland. I pledge myself to the service of Ghana with all my strength and with all my heart. I promise to hold in high esteem our heritage, won for us through the blood and toil of our fathers; and I pledge myself in all things to uphold and defend the good name of Ghana. So help me God.
Ghana’s flag Red represents the blood of those who died in the country's struggle for independence, Gold stands for the minerals wealth, while Green symbolizes the rich forest. The Black star represents the lonestar of African freedom.
Ghana’s coat of arms
Literally means "God's eye brow (the rainbow)." It was created in exaltation of the beauty and mystery of the rainbow phenomenon. The arrangement of warp threads mimics the visual characteristics of the rainbow. This cloth symbolizes DIVINE BEAUTY, GRACEFULNESS, DIVINE CREATIVITY, UNIQUENESS, and GOOD OMEN.
Akyempem Literally means "thousands shields." This is a reference to shields used by highly well organized militia consisting of thousands of men and women who defended the Asante Kingdom against external aggression. According to the military strategy of the Asante Kingdom, the chief of the shield bearers, the Akyempemhene, and the rear guards of the King are his own sons. Shields once used as military weapons are now used in royal ceremonies to symbolize and commemorate the military prowess of the Asante Kingdom. The cloth symbolizes MILITARY PROWESS, UNITY THROUGH MILITARY STRENGTH, BRAVERY, POLITICAL VIGILANCE & SPIRITUAL DEFENSIVENESS.
Folk tales, culture and tradition
In Ghana, like in every other country in the world, people used stories to explain certain facts about nature, to give examples of life and to teache their children morals and values.
Let’s take a look at a famous ganahian folk tale.
A Story About the Tongue
Once a chief told one of his servants to bring him the best meat from the market. The servant brought him a tongue. The next day the chief told the servant to bring him the worst piece of meat from the market. The servant brought a tongue again. "What?" the chief said. "When I ask for the best piece of meat, you bring a tongue and then you bring the same thing for the worst piece of meat."
The servant said, "Sometimes a man is very unhappy because of his tongue; and sometimes his tongue makes him very happy." "You are right," the chief said. "Let us be masters of our tongue!“
A House in the Sky
Once upon a time there lived a poor man, Abunuvas by name. He was clever and often made jokes at rich people and even at the chief. So they did not like him and wanted to kill him. Once the chief sent for Abunuvas, and he came to the chief's house. :I hear that you are very clever, Abunuvas! Can you build me a house in the sky in three days? You may have as many men as you need. If you cannot do that, my soldiers will kill you." "I shall build it, my chief," said Abunuvas and went home. He began to think. Then he made a kite and tied a bell and a long string to it. When the wind blew, the kite rose high in the air. But it did not fly far, because Abunuvas tied the string to a tree.
The next day all the people of the town heard the bell and saw a dark spot in the sky. The chief saw the spot, too. Abunuvas came up to the chief and said: "Oh, my chief, the house in the sky will soon be ready. Do you hear the bell? The workers are ringing the bell from the sky. They need some boards for the roof of the house. Please tell your soldiers to climb up to the sky with the boards." "But how will my soldiers climb up to the sky?" asked the chief. "Oh, there is a way up," said Abunuvas. So the chief ordered his soldiers to get some boards and to follow Abunuvas. They came back to the tree and saw the string there. "This is the way to the sky," Abunuvas said. "Climb up the string and you will come to the sky."
The soldiers soldiers tried to climb up the string, but could not do that. "Try again, try again! Our chief will be very angry if you do not carry the boards up to his house in the sky!" said Abunuvas. Then the soldiers went to the chief and said, "Oh, chief, no man can climb up to the sky!" The chief thought a little and said: "That is right. Nobody can do that." Then Abunuvas said to the chief: "Oh, my chief, if you know that, why do you ask me to build you a house in the sky?" And the chief could give no answer to that. Abunuvas went to the tree, cut the string and took away the kite.
The main ingredients of ghanaian foods are grains, fruits, nuts, rice, plantain, spices and sea food among others. The following are recipes that are frequent options for ghanaians.
Avocado with smoked fish
Ghanaian Mass Media
Ghanaian artistic expressions and means of communication are marked by their cultural nuances and unique visions of life.
Following, a few examples of Ghana’s repertoire of mass media...
The essence of Ghana
To wrap up this presentation...
Streets, people, aromas, colors, sounds, language, landscapes, all to take in....