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  1. 1. Q. What is the forced control of one nation by another nation called? A. Colonialism Q. What is empire building by taking over other countries’ government’s trade, and culture. A. Imperialism Q. Can you give an example of European/African Imperialism? Q. Why did the European Powers want to establish colonies in Africa? A. Belgium and The Congo A. To expand their empires and control Africa’s wealth of natural resources
  2. 2. Q. What was the series of meetings held by European nations, that discussed how to divide Africa’s land even though Africa’s rulers not in attendance. A. The Berlin Conference of 1884
  3. 3. Q. What were the effects on Africa and its people due to the Berlin Conference? A. (+) End of slave trade, new roads, schools, modern technology and health care A. (-) Split up cultures and forced others together. Stole wealth of natural resources. Killed Millions of Africans. Made artificial or political boundaries that are still a source of contention to this day.
  4. 4. France Britain Belgium Who were the European colonial powers that took control of the African tribes land and their way of life? Spain Germany Portugal Italy
  5. 5. _______________ is the idea that there is a global African community made up of native Africans and the descendants of African slaves and migrants across the world. Pan-Africanism
  6. 6. Pan- African Movement • Began in the late 1800’s to early 1900’s as way to secure equal rights, self-government, independence, and unity for African peoples. • Inspired by Marcus Garvey, it encouraged self-awareness on the part of Africans by encouraging the study of their history and culture. • The Pan-African Movement marked the beginning of the Nationalist Movements that started to sweep across the continent.
  7. 7. Pan- African Movement • Pan-African movement led to the founding of the African Union in 2001. • African Union: sought to unite Africans to improve conditions across the continent. • GOALS OF AU – Economic growth – End poverty and starvation – Advancement of women’s rights, improve education – End African wars
  8. 8. Nationalist Movements • African’s want to control their own countries and natural resources, thus giving berth to ____________________. •______________is a strong pride in one’s country; desire for self-government. •____________________are movements that seek independence for the people living in the country. •By the 20th Century, European countries had colonized almost all of Africa. Only independent countries were ___________and__________. Nationalist Movements Nationalism EthiopiaLiberia “Nationalist Movements”
  9. 9. Nationalist Movements • Nigeria • Is home to many different ethnic groups. After the Berlin Conference ,Great Britain was given control of Nigeria. • The British separated Nigeria into TWO colonies. • Many ethnic groups were opposed to being part of the same country . • These divisions between ethnic groups led to different treatment by Brits. By the 1940s, Nigerians started many organizations to fight British rule. • Many Nigerians admired the British because of their education in England. However, most believed that the only way for Nigerians to have rights was to be free of European rule.
  10. 10. Nigeria • These groups pushing for independence became political parties that worked for Nigerian independence. • By late 1940s and 50s, the British let Nigerians elect their own government. • They elected Abubkar Tafawa Balewa as their Prime Minister in 1957. • On October 1, 1960 Nigeria was granted its independence. • Nigeria did not have to fight GB for its independence.
  11. 11. The First Nigeria Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
  12. 12. Kenya Nationalist Movement • Many Kenyans throughout British rule believed that their land was taken unfairly. • In opposition to British rule they organized a group known as the Mau Mau (1952-1960). • Mau Mau a secret organization that believed the only way to win Kenyan rights and independence was through the use of force. • In 1954 the British mostly defeated the Mau Mau, however violence between the two groups continued until 1960. • Thousands of people were killed during fighting, only about 100 were European.
  13. 13. Kenya • Eventually, overwhelming Kenyan support for the Mau Mau led the British to grant Kenya its independence. • In 1963 the British helped Kenyans hold democratic elections, they elected Jomo Kenyatta president. • Kenya was once again free from foreign rule.
  14. 14. Jomo Kenyatta
  15. 15. South Africa • In 1948 the racist Nationalist Party defeated English- speaking whites and was elected to power. Now the Afrikaners had complete control of South Africa’s government. • Afrikaners established “Apartheid”. This is an Afrikaan word meaning “separateness” an official policy of racial discrimination. • Apartheid stripped black Africans of the few rights they enjoyed and required segregation. The South African government tried to completely separate the small number of whites from the black majority.
  16. 16. African National Congress (ANC) • Founded in 1912, goal was to unite people of all races to fight for rights and freedoms. • Nelson Mandela in 1944 founded the ANC Youth League. • Purpose was to raise up a new generation to fight against racism and apartheid. • Nelson Mandela became the leader of the ANC in 1961. Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist. • Afrikaners passed laws outlawing the ANC and other groups. Mandela will be imprisoned for 27 years for his involvement with the ANC.
  17. 17. Homelands • In 1958, the government separated black people from white people by making blacks live on reserves, or homelands. • Several blacks also lived in shanty towns – overcrowded towns full of poorly built shacks on the edges of cities.
  18. 18. “Homelands” for blacks; Homelands were poor, crowded areas far away from the cities.
  19. 19. Black South Africans could only leave their homeland if they were going to work for a white person.
  20. 20. The shanty towns became centers for black groups who resisted the white government.
  21. 21. Homelands often did not have running water or electricity and very over crowed schools.
  22. 22. Most black men had to leave their homeland to find work in mines or factories.
  23. 23. Blacks forced to carry passes at all times or else could result in imprisonment.
  24. 24. Women raised whatever crops they could.
  25. 25. Thousands resisted apartheid by refusing to work, refusing to buy white products, going into “white only” areas, and marching in nonviolent demonstrations.
  26. 26. End of Apartheid • In 1970s pressure was placed on South Africa to bring an end to apartheid. • Some countries imposed sanctions on South Africa. • What are Sanctions ? • In the 1990s F.W. de Klerk was elected as the president of South Africa he began undermining the political structure of apartheid. Sanctions are when nations refuse to trade with another country in hopes that economic pressure will force the country to change its policies.
  27. 27. F.W. de KlerkF.W. de Klerk • De Klerk ended the laws against the ANC. • De Klerk agreed to end apartheid and wanted to see multi- racial, democratic South Africa. • F.W. del Klerk president of South Africa, released Mandela from prison.
  28. 28. Nelson MandelaNelson Mandela • Mandela leader of the ANC was arrested on August 5, 1962. He was imprisoned for 27 years until he was granted his release in 1990 by F. W. de Klerk. • 1994 Nelson Mandela was elected as the first democratically elected president in S. Africa. • Also S. Africa’s first black president.