Q. What is the forced control of one nation by another nation called?
Q. What is empire building by taking over other countries’
government’s trade, and culture.
Q. Can you give an example of European/African Imperialism?
Q. Why did the European Powers want to establish colonies in Africa?
A. Belgium and The Congo
A. To expand their empires and control
Africa’s wealth of natural resources
Q. What was the series of meetings held by
European nations, that discussed how to
divide Africa’s land even though Africa’s rulers
not in attendance.
A. The Berlin Conference of 1884
Q. What were the effects on Africa and its
people due to the Berlin Conference?
A. (+) End of slave trade, new
roads, schools, modern
technology and health care
A. (-) Split up cultures and forced
others together. Stole wealth of
natural resources. Killed Millions
of Africans. Made artificial or
political boundaries that are still a
source of contention to this day.
Who were the European colonial powers that
took control of the African tribes land and
their way of life?
_______________ is the idea that there
is a global African community made up
of native Africans and the descendants
of African slaves and migrants across the
Pan- African Movement
• Began in the late 1800’s to early 1900’s as way to secure
equal rights, self-government, independence, and unity for
• Inspired by Marcus Garvey, it encouraged self-awareness on
the part of Africans by encouraging the study of their history
• The Pan-African Movement marked the beginning of the
Nationalist Movements that started to sweep across the
Pan- African Movement
• Pan-African movement led to the founding of the African
Union in 2001.
• African Union: sought to unite Africans to improve conditions
across the continent.
• GOALS OF AU
– Economic growth
– End poverty and starvation
– Advancement of women’s rights, improve education
– End African wars
• African’s want to control their own countries and natural
resources, thus giving berth to ____________________.
•______________is a strong pride in one’s country; desire for
•____________________are movements that seek
independence for the people living in the country.
•By the 20th
Century, European countries had colonized
almost all of Africa. Only independent countries were
• Is home to many different ethnic groups. After the Berlin
Conference ,Great Britain was given control of Nigeria.
• The British separated Nigeria into TWO colonies.
• Many ethnic groups were opposed to being part of the same
• These divisions between ethnic groups led to different treatment by
Brits. By the 1940s, Nigerians started many organizations to fight
• Many Nigerians admired the British because of their education in
England. However, most believed that the only way for Nigerians to
have rights was to be free of European rule.
• These groups pushing for independence became
political parties that worked for Nigerian
• By late 1940s and 50s, the British let Nigerians
elect their own government.
• They elected Abubkar Tafawa Balewa as their
Prime Minister in 1957.
• On October 1, 1960 Nigeria was granted its
• Nigeria did not have to fight GB for its
The First Nigeria Prime Minister
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
Kenya Nationalist Movement
• Many Kenyans throughout British rule believed that
their land was taken unfairly.
• In opposition to British rule they organized a group
known as the Mau Mau (1952-1960).
• Mau Mau a secret organization that believed the only
way to win Kenyan rights and independence was
through the use of force.
• In 1954 the British mostly defeated the Mau Mau,
however violence between the two groups continued
• Thousands of people were killed during fighting, only
about 100 were European.
• Eventually, overwhelming Kenyan support for
the Mau Mau led the British to grant Kenya its
• In 1963 the British helped Kenyans hold
democratic elections, they elected Jomo
• Kenya was once again free from foreign rule.
• In 1948 the racist Nationalist Party defeated English-
speaking whites and was elected to power. Now the
Afrikaners had complete control of South Africa’s
• Afrikaners established “Apartheid”. This is an Afrikaan
word meaning “separateness” an official policy of
• Apartheid stripped black Africans of the few rights
they enjoyed and required segregation. The South
African government tried to completely separate the
small number of whites from the black majority.
African National Congress (ANC)
• Founded in 1912, goal was to unite people of all
races to fight for rights and freedoms.
• Nelson Mandela in 1944 founded the ANC Youth
• Purpose was to raise up a new generation to fight
against racism and apartheid.
• Nelson Mandela became the leader of the ANC in
1961. Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist.
• Afrikaners passed laws outlawing the ANC and
other groups. Mandela will be imprisoned for 27
years for his involvement with the ANC.
• In 1958, the government separated black people
from white people by making blacks live on
reserves, or homelands.
• Several blacks also lived in shanty towns –
overcrowded towns full of poorly built shacks on
the edges of cities.
“Homelands” for blacks; Homelands were poor,
crowded areas far away from the cities.
Black South Africans could only leave their homeland if
they were going to work for a white person.
The shanty towns became centers for black
groups who resisted the white government.
Homelands often did not have running water or
electricity and very over crowed schools.
Most black men had to leave their homeland to find
work in mines or factories.
Blacks forced to carry passes at all times or
else could result in imprisonment.
refusing to work,
refusing to buy
going into “white
only” areas, and
End of Apartheid
• In 1970s pressure was placed on South Africa to bring an end
• Some countries imposed sanctions on South Africa.
• What are Sanctions ?
• In the 1990s F.W. de Klerk was elected as the president of
South Africa he began undermining the political structure of
Sanctions are when nations refuse to trade with another country in hopes
that economic pressure will force the country to change its policies.
F.W. de KlerkF.W. de Klerk
• De Klerk ended the
laws against the ANC.
• De Klerk agreed to
end apartheid and
wanted to see multi-
• F.W. del Klerk
president of South
Mandela from prison.
Nelson MandelaNelson Mandela
• Mandela leader of the ANC
was arrested on August 5,
1962. He was imprisoned
for 27 years until he was
granted his release in 1990
by F. W. de Klerk.
• 1994 Nelson Mandela was
elected as the first
president in S. Africa.
• Also S. Africa’s first black