Why Should Nonprofits Care About Cloud Computing
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Why Should Nonprofits Care About Cloud Computing

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What is cloud computing and why should you understand it? This presentation defines the different types of cloud computing, discusses how it is impacting nonprofits, outlines some criteria for use, ...

What is cloud computing and why should you understand it? This presentation defines the different types of cloud computing, discusses how it is impacting nonprofits, outlines some criteria for use, and mentions some challenges of which you should be aware

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  • The history of technology is characterized by periods of particularly rapid evolution. The adoption of the PC by businesses in the 90s dramatically altered the staid, mainframe/mini-computer dominated world of enterprise IT and empowered individuals to apply technology creatively and broadly across business to the point where – today – it’s almost unimaginable to consider working without a PC. In the middle of the 1990s the Web emerged, and a whole generation of Internet-facing Web applications, both Internet, and intranet within a corporation, were built using HTML and Web servers. And we see many, many thousands, hundreds of thousands of these being written every year. It is still a core model that people use for building modern applications. In the early 2000s Web services and SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) enabled applications to communicate over standard-based Web protocols, be it Web services, or REST-based protocols, and this is also very popular particularly because it promotes the ideal of assembling – or composing – more complex solutions from simpler parts. In fact, it is a core building block for how we think about the Azure services platform. There are many advantages to the services model particularly with the immediacy of global reach, the ease of provisioning and, of course, allowing a 3 rd party with the greater expertise to run the computers, networks, data-centers and software on my behalf. However, there are many advantages to running software on premises too. Principally, the ability to tailor the software to most effectively address specific business needs and the level of privacy and control that can only be guaranteed when the software and data are within my control. The cloud platform builds on previous platform generations but it is a fundamentally different approach and it has its own unique advantages.
  • NIST also refers to 3 delivery mechanisms for cloud computing – the industry is converging on these as well. This is a slide from the Center for Digital Government showing those: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) – essentially vendors providing a data center as a service, where customers can buy server instances; Platform as a Service (PaaS) – development tools and environment allowing customers and ISVs to build applications that consume computing, storage, and other services in the cloud rather than relying on on-premise servers to provide those capabilities; and Software as a Service (SaaS) – software applications delivered across the internet.
  • Private cloud. The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. Community cloud. The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. Public cloud. The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services. Hybrid cloud . The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting).
  • Add Azure
  • Source: Scalable definition, André B. Bondi, 'Characteristics of scalability and their impact on performance', Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on Software and performance, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2000, ISBN 1-58113-195-X , pages 195 - 203 Source: Three attributes for SaaS, Architecture Strategies for Catching the Long Tail, Frederick Chong and Gianpaolo Carraro Microsoft Corporation April 2006, http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa479069.aspx
  • There is not yet an IT system that is fully hosted in the cloud (e.g. You just get your computers to the Internet and everything you need is there). Cloud adoption will be gradual. For instance, you might find a database service that is useful, or an online meeting service like ReadyTalk, or begin using cloud based storage like Windows Live SkyDrive. As time goes on you’ll probably be using more cloud based IT software and services and fewer ‘on premises’ software and services.
  • Shifting costs, increased complexity, lower barrier to entry, easier access to more software outside the office
  • Some possible examples: * Seasonal workers or volunteers Campaigns (advocacy organization) that have spikes in requirements in election years or similar Maybe add some examples to each
  • Source SLA Zone: http://www.sla-zone.co.uk/ Wikipedia definition of SLA: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_level_agreement
  • C&A: Certification and Accreditation of IT Systems
  • For some, services mark the culmination of the evolution of software. Indeed some – Salesforce.com’s CEO Marc Benioff – even go so far as to say that we’ve reached the end of software. In reality, the deployment choice of deploying software on-premises or handing software to a 3 rd party hosting provider to run as services should be based on business’ – not vendors’ technologies’ – requirements, on the unique advantages and limitations of each approach and in the knowledge that the decision will likely change at some point. For security or privacy reasons, for business differentiating purposes that require exquisitely detailed customization or even for the purposes of the peace of mind of knowing where applications and data reside, software will always have unique benefits over a services model. However, for the ability to deliver solutions readily planet wide, for the flexibility in being able to subscribe to and unsubscribe from services without having to deploy people and hardware within an organization and for the ability to offload – or outsource – non-differentiating technologies, services provide many benefits. The debate is not whether enterprises will run software or services but how they may combine the best of both.

Why Should Nonprofits Care About Cloud Computing Why Should Nonprofits Care About Cloud Computing Presentation Transcript

  • September 28, 2010 Why Nonprofits Should Care About Cloud Computing Anna S. Jaeger Co-Director of GreenTech TechSoup Global [email_address] www.techsoup.org/greentech
  • Topic and Objective
    • Topic: Overview of Cloud Computing - Defining types of cloud computing and how it might apply to your organization
    • Take Aways:
    • Understand the different types of cloud computing,
    • Understand how it is impacting nonprofits,
    • Outline some criteria for use,
    • Mention some challenges of which you should be aware.
  • We are working toward a time when every nonprofit and social benefit organization on the planet has the technology resources and knowledge they need to operate at their full potential
  • TechSoup is an integrated offering of the Resources, Knowledge, and Connections that NPO ’ s need to effectively use technology to advance their work
  • Mission of GreenTech
    • Help nonprofits and NGOs reduce their environmental impact through the effective use of technology.
    • ____________________
    • We help you, reduce the impact of your IT and use IT to reduce the impact of your organization.
    www.techsoup.org/greentech @TSGreenTech
  • Please Ask Questions
    • What are some things you would specifically like to learn today?
    • ____________________
    • As we go along, please feel free to ask questions.
  • Valuable Prizes
    • Pay attention, I have prizes to give away, but you must answer questions based on the presentation!
    Prizes!
  • Your Technical Experience Poll
    • Technical Experience:
    • Accidental Techie
    • Some Technical Experience
    • Solid Tech Experience
    • Advanced
  • Quick Audience Poll
    • Knowledge of Cloud Computing
    • Beginner
    • Intermediate
    • Advanced
  • Last Poll
    • Do you use cloud computing in your organization or personally ?
      • Yes
      • No
      • Who knows?!
  • Defining Cloud Computing
    • Understanding the Types
  • CyberOptic Group Cloud Definition
    • “ … cloud computing enables computer software and hardware resources to be accessed over the Internet without the need to have any detailed or specific knowledge of the infrastructure used to deliver the resources, much like a utility model. You really don't need to know what the phone company or electric company does on there end to enable calls and allow the lights to go on when you flip the switch; and, you really don't want to know as long as when you plug into it, it works.”
  • Forrester Research Definition
    • “ A standardized IT capability (services, software, or infrastructure) delivered via Internet technologies in a pay-per-use, self-service way .…”
    • From: TechRadar™ For Infrastructure & Operations Professionals: Cloud Computing, Q3 2009 , James Staten, Forrester Research, Inc., Oct. 2, 2009
  • Fun Video
    • Cloud Computing in plain English by CommonCraft
  • Slide by Microsoft
  • Cloud as Business Model
    • Some say “cloud computing” is nothing new.
    • Despite all the hype, there’s very little, from a technical capability standpoint, that hasn’t been widely available for years.
    Image from: http://www.eci.com/blog/25-why-cloud-computing-is-right-for-your-hedge-fund.html
  • Why Should You Care?
    • IDC forecasts that from 2009 through 2014
    • Worldwide IT product spending will grow at an annual rate of 5.0%
    • Spending on Cloud Services will increase at an annual rate of 27%, i.e., _very_ fast.
    • Non-Cloud IT product spending will grow at an annual rate of 3.3%, i.e., positively, but slowly.
    • Source: IDC’s Public IT Cloud Services Forecast: New Numbers, Same Disruptive Story
  • Benefits of Cloud Computing
    • Little to no upfront costs : watch out for recurring operating costs.
    • Little to no IT staff required : many applications available in the cloud require much less in-house IT support because the hosting provider takes care of installs, upgrades, backups, security, and standard maintenance for you.
    • No servers need to be researched, purchased, maintained, or recycled.
    • Rapid deployment: Often, accounts can be set up in minutes. More complicated pieces of software (CRM, accounting packages, donor management software) still require more set up and probably training.
    • Convenience: Staff and volunteers can access your applications from almost any Internet connection with their login information. No more setting up VPNs or systems to allow remote access to your servers.
    • Be on latest software vendor managed upgrades.
  • Green Benefits
    • Fewer servers are built and running:
      • fewer toxic materials and water used to build them
      • fewer toxic materials are dumped
      • less energy is consumed in the running of the servers
    • Less powerful client computers: all the processing is performed on the hosted server(s).
      • keep your older computers longer
      • reduces demand for new computers
    • Green Benefits
    Slide by David Deal of Community IT Innovators
  • Cloud Computing
    • “One of the biggest opportunities for decreasing an organization’s power and equipment usage is through the use of hosted software.… This offers significant environmental advantages, and typically also simplifies IT administration. ”
    • David Deal in Greening Your IT Through Your Software Choices
  • Some Helpful Reading
    • Comparing Online vs. Traditional Office Software
    • Why Should Nonprofits Care About Cloud Computing?
  • Types of Cloud Computing
    • IaaS: Infrastructure as a service
    • PaaS: Platform as a service
    • SaaS: Software as a Service
  •  
  • Examples of Cloud Providers
    • Amazon – EC2 and S3(IaaS)
    • Google – App Engine(PaaS)
    • Microsoft – Azure(IaaS & PaaS)|BPOS(SaaS)
    • Salesforce – NPO Starter Pack(SaaS)
    • Caution: Make IT Green: Cloud Computing and its Contribution to Climate Change
  • NIST: 4 Cloud Deployment Models
    • Private cloud
      • enterprise owned or leased
    • Community cloud
      • shared infrastructure for specific community
    • Public cloud
      • sold to the public, mega-scale infrastructure
    • Hybrid cloud
      • composition of two or more clouds
    From NIST: Presentation on Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26
  • NIST: 5 Essential Cloud Characteristics
    • On-demand self-service
    • Broad network access
    • Resource pooling
      • Location independence
    • Rapid elasticity
    • Measured service
    From NIST: Presentation on Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26
  • Discounted Offerings Free offerings Slide by Microsoft Business Productivity Online Suite
  • NIST: Three Features of Mature SaaS Applications
    • Scalable
      • Handle growing amounts of work in a graceful manner
    • Multi-tenancy
      • One application instance may be serving hundreds of companies
      • Opposite of multi-instance where each customer is provisioned their own server running one instance
    • Metadata driven configurability
      • Instead of customizing the application for a customer (requiring code changes), one allows the user to configure the application through metadata
    From NIST: Presentation on Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26
  • SaaS Common Examples
    • Software as a Service
      • Document Sharing - Google docs, Office Live, Zoho
      • CRM solutions – Salesforce, Blackbaud
      • Backup - Mozy
      • Collaboration/Training tools – ReadyTalk, WebEx, GoToMeeting, Unified Communication Tools
      • Social Networking: LinkedIn, Twitter, Flickr
      • HR Tools: Performance Reviews, Payroll
      • Project Management: Basecamp
  • Prize Give Away
    • What are the three types of Cloud Computing?
    • Hint: _aaS, _aaS, _aaS
    • How is the Cloud Impacting NPOs?
  • Slide by Microsoft
  • Impacting NPOs: More Complexity
    • More IT choices = IT decisions more complicated and more confusing
    • Some cloud based services like webhosting, HR services, and conferencing (like Skype) are already well developed in the cloud
    • Others like security and disaster recovery will take longer to develop .
    Info from Forresters
  • Impacting NPOs: Lower Barrier to Entry
    • Particular importance to smaller organizations: it lowers the “barrier to entry” for certain large-scale enterprise applications, that wouldn’t be cost-effective to install and run internally for a small staff; but can make sense, when available on a per-user subscription basis (Microsoft Sharepoint is a good example of this).
  • Impacting NPOs: Shifting Use
    • More staff and volunteers have access to more systems outside the office .
    • Fundraising, volunteer management and donor management all have solid offerings in the cloud.
    • Many SaaS providers offer free or discounted services for NPOs: Salesforce, GrantStation, VolunteerMatters, Google Docs, Office Live
  • Impacting NPOs: Shifting Use
    • Next 6 to 8 years we’ll be in a state of hybrid cloud adoption
    • More people will be using both ‘on premises’ and cloud versions of MS Office
    • Use of computers will change toward easier collaboration/sharing and better access to the office anywhere you are.
  • Impacting NPOs: Software Costs
    • In the next 6 to 8 years, nonprofits will probably not be reducing software and IT staffing costs very much.
    • Migration to cloud software and services will be gradual and costs will be shifting, but not going down dramatically.
    • You’ll probably being paying more in monthly fees, and less on buying software packages.
  • Impacting NPOs: Hardware Costs
    • IT hardware costs will gradually go down for nonprofits over the next 6 to 8 years.
    • You will probably need fewer on premises server computers, and less robust and expensive desktop or laptop computers as more of your work is online.
    • Telecom costs may increase as more bandwidth and stability is needed.
  • Summary: Cloud Economics
    • Decreased captial costs
    • Usually, increased operating costs
    • Example 1: Preferred Hotel
      • Traditional: $210k server refresh and $10k/month
      • Cloud: $10k implementation and $16k/month
    • Example 2: Nevada Crisis Call Center
      • Trimmed technology management work by $20,000 annually
      • Eliminated a recurring capital expense of $15,000
      • More reliable IT services
  • Prize Give Away
    • Name 2 impacts the cloud is having on nonprofits
    • Some Criteria for Use
  • Usage Compute Time Average Inactivity Period Compute Time Average Usage Average Usage Compute Time Compute Time Average Usage
  • Criteria for Use: Questions for Vendors
    • When selecting a service & provider, consider these items:
    • Costs: upfront, ongoing, utility model
    • Security & Compliance
    • Reliability & SLAs
    • Connectivity: stability & bandwidth
    • Features
    • Ease of startup
  • NIST: Service Level Agreements (SLAs)
    • Contract between customers and service providers of the level of service to be provided
    • Contains performance metrics (e.g., uptime, throughput, response time)
    • Problem management details
    • Documented security capabilities
    • Contains penalties for non-performance
    From NIST: Presentation on Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26
  • Some Easy Targets
    • Virtual PBX
    • VoIP – potentially eliminate your phone
    • Electronic fax services like MyFax and eFax
    • Email systems
    • Green Host for Websites
  • Questions for Green Website Hosting Providers
    • When selecting a provider, consider these items:
    • $$: most are comparable or better than traditional hosts
    • Ease of startup
    • Features
    • Reliability
    • How green are they? Do they buy carbon off-sets or power their operations with their own solar panels? Do they virtualize their servers? Are they certified by anyone?
    • Lists of Green Web Hosts
      • webhostinggeeks.com
      • TreeHugger
      • WebHostingReport.com
      • http:// twitter.com/greenwebsites
    • Travel Reduction
    • Reduce commuter and business travel
    • Travel contributes to 50% of CITI’s total emissions
      • (even with 75% of travel done via public transit, biking, and walking!)
    • Ingredients: Remote & mobile access to ICT resources - data, voice, video
    • Numerous studies confirming moderate to significant positive environmental impact
    Slide by David Deal of Community IT Innovators
    • Video
    • Peer-to-peer, small groups:
      • Skype
      • VuRoom add-on allows for group video
      • Quality?
    • Hosted, better for groups:
      • WebEx (for up to 6 people)
    Slide by David Deal of Community IT Innovators
    • Working with Distributed Teams
    • Web conferencing:
      • GoToMeeting, WebEx, Ready Talk
    • File sharing:
      • Box.net, Dropbox, Jungle Disk, Google Docs, BPOS/SharePoint
    • Comprehensive hosted apps:
      • Zoho, Google Apps, MS BPOS+Office Web Apps
    • Extranets/project collaboration:
      • Basecamp, SharePoint
    Slide by David Deal of Community IT Innovators
    • Some Challenges
  • Challenges with Cloud Computing
  • Risks of Cloud Computing
    • Loss of connectivity: If you have a slow or unreliable connection, cloud computing isn't right for your mission-critical needs.
    • Service levels: Ensure reputable provider & provides an acceptable level of uptime & rapid response to issues.
    • Regulatory compliance: If you need to be HIPAA - or PCI-compliant or conform to other regulations, make sure your service provider is certified.
    • Backups: Make sure you have copies of and access to your data, especially if your service should fail.
    • Security: There are a variety of concerns about storing sensitive client data in the cloud due to privacy and security standards, that include data security for phishing, spamming, and hacking concerns. The jury is still out on some of these issues, so for the time-being, we recommend caution when storing sensitive financial or personal information about your supporters and clients online.
  • NIST: Analyzing Cloud Security
    • Some key issues:
      • trust, multi-tenancy, encryption, compliance
    • Clouds are massively complex systems that can be reduced to simple primitives that are replicated thousands of times and common functional units
    • Cloud security is a tractable problem
      • There are both advantages and challenges
    From NIST: Presentation on Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26
  • NIST: General Security Advantages
    • Shifting public data to a external cloud reduces the exposure of the internal sensitive data
    • Cloud homogeneity makes security auditing/testing simpler
    • Clouds enable automated security management
    • Redundancy / Disaster Recovery
    From NIST: Presentation on Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26
  • NIST: General Security Challenges
    • Trusting vendor’s security model
    • Customer inability to respond to audit findings
    • Obtaining support for investigations
    • Indirect administrator accountability
    • Proprietary implementations can’t be examined
    • Loss of physical control
    From NIST: Presentation on Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26
  • NIST: Cloud Security Advantages Part 1
    • Data Fragmentation and Dispersal
    • Dedicated Security Team
    • Greater Investment in Security Infrastructure
    • Fault Tolerance and Reliability
    • Greater Resiliency
    • Hypervisor Protection Against Network Attacks
    • Possible Reduction of C&A Activities (Access to Pre-Accredited Clouds)
    From NIST: Presentation on Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26
    • Simplification of Compliance Analysis
    • Data Held by Unbiased Party (cloud vendor assertion)
    • Low-Cost Disaster Recovery and Data Storage Solutions
    • On-Demand Security Controls
    • Real-Time Detection of System Tampering
    • Rapid Re-Constitution of Services
    • Advanced Honeynet Capabilities
    NIST: Cloud Security Advantages Part 2 From NIST: Presentation on Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26
  • NIST: Cloud Security Challenges Part 1
    • Data dispersal & international privacy laws
      • EU Data Protection Directive and U.S. Safe Harbor program
      • Exposure of data to foreign government and data subpoenas
      • Data retention issues
    • Need for isolation management
    • Multi-tenancy
    • Logging challenges
    • Data ownership issues
    • Quality of service guarantees
    From NIST: Presentation on Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26
  • NIST: Cloud Security Challenges Part 2
    • Dependence on secure hypervisors
    • Attraction to hackers (high value target)
    • Security of virtual OSs in the cloud
    • Possibility for massive outages
    • Encryption needs for cloud computing
      • Encrypting access to the cloud resource control interface
      • Encrypting administrative access to OS instances
      • Encrypting access to applications
      • Encrypting application data at rest
    • Public cloud vs internal cloud security
    • Lack of public SaaS version control
    From NIST: Presentation on Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26
    • Security & Privacy
      • Customizability
        • Visibility & Control
          • Data Accessibility
    • Global Reach
      • Ease of Provisioning
        • Business Agility
          • Deployability & Manageability
    Slide by Microsoft
    • Questions on Challenges?
  • Prize Give Away!
    • Name a benefit, a green benefit, and a risk of Cloud Computing
    • Extra credit: Why should you care?
  • Conclusion
    • Cloud has a lot to offer, esp. small nonprofits.
    • Cloud solutions are often greener, easier to implement, and more secure.
    • Cloud solutions are not right for every need or every organization.
    • Talk with your board, staff, volunteers and/or consultants. Decide which is the best first step for your organization.
  • Thank you!
    • More Info:
    • Come to www.techsoup.org/greentech to find other tips and suggestions.
    Anna S. Jaeger TechSoup Global [email_address] www.techsoup.org @TSGreenTech