Follow WHO Guidelines
1. Treat/prevent hypoglycaemia
2. Treat/prevent hypothermia
3. Treat/prevent dehydration
4. Correct electrolyte imbalance
5. Treat/prevent infection
6. Correct micronutrient deficiencies
7. Initiate re feeding
8. Facilitate catch-up growth
9. Provide sensory stimulation and emotional
– 10. Prepare for follow-up after recovery
– Imp cause of death in first 2 days of treatment
– To prevent, child should be feed every 2 or 3 hours day
– Signs: hypothermia,lethargy,limpness, LOC.
• If conscious: give 50 ml of 10% D/W or F-75 diet by mouth
(whichever is available)
• If not conscious: 5ml/kg of 10% D/W I/V then 50 ml 10 %
D/W by NG tube.
• When gains consciousness then immediately start F-75 diet or
glucose in water (60g/l)
• Continue frequent diets to prevent recurrence
• Should also be treated with broad spectrum antibiotics.
– Rectal temp. <35.5 C (95.5 F) or axillary temp 35 C (95
– Temp should be measured ½ hrly during rewarming
– All hypothermic should also be treated for
Dehydration and septic shock
– Difficult to differentiate in severely malnourished
– Dehydration tends to be over diagnosed and its severity
– Some :5% wt loss
– Severe : 10 % wt loss
Incipient septic shock
– Limp, apathic,
History of diarrhoea
Recent sunken eyes
– Engorged superficial
Weak or absent radial
– Engorged lung vein
– Cold hands and feet
leading to resp. distress
– Urine flow
Not reliable points
– Mental status
– Liver, kidney, cardiac
– Mouth tongue tears
– Skin elasticity
– Hemet emesis, blood in
stool, abd distension.
Treatment of dehydration
Whenever possible should
be rehydrated orally. IV
infusion easily causes
overhydration and heart
failure should only be
used when definite signs
solution for severely
How to prepare
– Commercially available
– One pack of standard ORS in 2 litre of water +50 gm
sucrose + 40 ml mineral mix solution.
– 70-100 ml/kg in 12 hour
– 5 ml/kg every 30min in first 2 hours orally or NG then
5-10ml/kg per hour
– Add acc. to loss in stool, vomiting. Add 50-100ml after
every stool for under 2 years of age and 100-200ml for
– Immediately stop if signs of overhydration
appears( Resp rate & pulse rate increase, engorged
jugular veins, puffy eyelids)
– Rehydration completed : if no thist, urine passed, signs
of dehydration disappeared.
How to give
– Sip by sip or spoon every few minutes.
– If exhausted then NG
– NG should be used in all children who are exhausted, weak
enough, who vomit, have fast breathing, stomatitis.
– Only indication in circulatory collapse
– Use in preference
• 1- Half strength Darrow’s solution with 5%glucose
• 2- R/Lactate with 5% glucose
• 3- 0.45% ( Half normal) saline with 5%glucose
– Give 15ml/kg over 1 hr monitor for overhydration
– Meanwhile continue NG RESOMAL (10ml/kg per hr)
– If still severely dehydrated afer 1st bolus then repeat IV 15ml/kg
over 1 hr and switch to RESOMAL.
– If still no improvement then consider septic shock and treat
– Continue feeding during rehydration. Start F-75 diet orally or NG
as possible within 2-3 hrs after starting rehydration.
– Diet and RESOMAL are given in alternate hrs.
Treatment of septic shock
Who should be treated as septic shock
– Signs of dehydration without history of diarrhoea
– Hypothermia, hypoglycemia
– Edema and signs of dehydration
Immediately give broad spectrum antibiotics, treat
Incipient septic shock
– Fed promptly, use F-75 with mineral mix.
– As these children are anorexic, so use NG.
Developed septic shock
– Begin IV rehydration immediately 15ml/kg in 1 hr.
continously observe for overhydration. As soon as radial
pulse become palpable start orally or NG.
If signs of congestive heart failure develop or does not
improve after 1st hr, give blood transfusion(10ml/kg) iover at
least 3 hrs.
If blood is not available, give plasma.
If there are signs of liver failure ( purpura, jaundice, tender
hepatomegaly), give a single ose of 1 mgVit K IM.
During the blood transfusion, nothing should else be given,
to minimize risk of congestive heart failure. If there is any
sign of congestive heart failure( distension of jugular veins,
increasing resp rate or resp distress), give a diuretic and slow
rate of transfusion.
After transfusion begin F-75 diet by NG. If child develops
increasing abd. Distension or vomit repeatedly give the diet
slowly if problem does not resolvr, stop feeding the child
give fluid at rate of 2-4ml/kg per hour.
Also give 2ml of 50% Mg sulphate IM.
– Two formula diets, F-75 and F-100.
– F-75 (75kcal/100ml) is used during initial phase of
– F-100 (100kcal/100ml) is used during rehabilitation phase,
after the appetite has returned
How to prepare
Dried skimmed milk
Water to make
Mineral mix solution
Amount per lt
of liquid diet
Ascorbic acid( Vit C)
Pantothenic acid (B5)
Water to make
Retinol( vit A)
Calciferol (vit D)
Tocopherol (vit E)
Amount per 100 ml
Percentage of energy from
How to give feed
– To avoid avoid overloading intestine, liver, kidneys;
frequent and small feeds should be given. Every 2,3 or
4 hourly, day and night.
If can’t take orally, then use NG.
If vomiting occurs, then amount and interval should
F-75 diet should be given during initial phase.
Child should be given at least 80kcal/kg but not more
If <80kcal/kg per day are given, tissue will continue to
break and child will deteriorate.
And if >100kcal/kg per day are given, then child may
develop serious metabolic imbalance.
Amount of diet to give at each feed to achieve a daily
intake of 100kcal/kg.
Weight of child
Volume of F-75 per feed (ml)
Every 2 hr
Every 3 hrs
Every 4 hrs
Child should be fed with cup and spoon, not by feeder as
it is an important source of infection.
Very weak may be fed using a dropper and syringe.
– Many children will not take sufficient diet by mouth during first
few days of treatment due to poor appetite, weakness,
stomatitis.such patients should be given thru NG tube.
At each feed,the child should first be offered the diet orally.
After the child has taken as much he or she can, the remainder
should be given thru NG.
NG should be removed when child is taking ¾ of day’s diet
orally, or takes 2 consecutive feeds fully by mouth.
If next 24 hrs child fails to take 80kcal/kg then reinsert tube.
And if child develops abd distension during NG feed, give 2 ml
of Mg sulfate IM.
NG should be always aspirated before feeds Are administered.
Should be passed by trained staff to avoid aspiration
THE INITIAL PHASE OF TREATMENT ENDS
WHEN THE CHILD BECOMES HUNGRY.
This indicates that
Infections are under control
Liver is able to metabolize diet
Other metabolic abnormalities are improving.
Child is now ready to begin rehabilitation phase.
This usually occurs after 2-7 days of treatment.
While children with complication takes longer time while
some are hungry from the start and can be shifted to F100.
Replace the equal amount of F-75 diet with F-100 for 2
days before increasing the volume.
Type of feed given, amount offered and taken date time
must be recorded accurately after each feed. If child
vomits, the amount lost should be noted in terms of whole
feed, half of feed etc.
Treatment of infection
Nearly all severely malnourished children have bacterial infections
when first admitted. LRTI is especially common. Unlike well
nourished children, who respond like fever and inflammation,
malnourished children with serious infection may only be drowsy
Early anti microbial treatment improves nutritional response, prevent
septic shock, reduce mortality.
These are divided into
– First line treatment.
Which is given empirically to all.
Co-trimoxazole BD 5 Days
Ampicillin 2 days then amoxicillin for 5 days
Gentamycin 7 days
– Second line treatment
• If no response, add chloramphenicol for 5 days.
• If specific infection is detected like dysentery, candidiasis, malaria, intestinal
helminthiasis, then treat accordingly
• Tuberculosis is also very common, ATT should be given only when TB is
– Measles and other viral infections
• All should be given measles vaccine on admission and on discharge
Vitamin A deficiency
– Signs of vit A def
Repeat same dose
2 weeks later
Repeat same dose
Other vitamin def
– Folic acid should be given to all ( 5mg on day 1and
then 1mg daily.
– While other vit are added in vitamin mix solution.
Treatment of severe anemia
If Hb is less than 4gm/dl or packed cell volume is less
than 12 %, the child has severe anemia which can cause
Needs immediate blood transfusion. Give 10ml/kg of
packed red cell or whole blood slowly over 3 hrs
Don’t give iron during initial phase, as it can have toxic
effects and may reduce resistance to infection.