ccLearn and the Infrastructure of OER. In the original invitation, I was asked if I could discuss “the future of cc and its particular role in the area of education.” I’m pretty sure that I will cover that. I will also delve into some legal and technical details that are core elements of ccLearn’s overall strategy. Please feel free to interrupt me with questions, though given the nature of “keynotes”, it’s also fine to wait until the end.
ccLearn And The Infrastructure Of OER
The infrastructure of open educational resources Ahrash N Bissell
<ul><li>What are CC and ccLearn? </li></ul><ul><li>What are OER? And why build sharable repositories of educational content? </li></ul><ul><li>What barriers do we face? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/wwworks/440672445/ Woodley Wonderworks CC BY
Creative Commons <ul><li>What is Creative Commons (CC)? </li></ul>
Licensing Step 1: Choose Conditions Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivative Works Share Alike
Text What are Open Edu c ational Resour c es? Michael Reschke cba Digitized materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self-learners to use and re-use for teaching, learning and research.* *UNESCO. 2002. Forum on the impact of Open Courseware for higher education in developing countries. Final report. Paris: UNESCO.
available for anyone to use, share, and adapt to suit their educational needs. Michael Reschke cba Open education depends on a high-quality pool of freely licensed resources. OER give learners access to a broad array of knowledge materials...
What is different about OER? Most digital media = “stuff you can see online for free” fair-use and educational exceptions OER = “stuff you can adapt and then share for others to build on” license to innovate
Copyright terms can be used to restrict access, adaptation, and sharing, but OER help to open doors, protecting the right to education. Tebaxt Simon music http://flickr.com/photos/fruey/1368008974/
Teaching, Learning, and Sharing Most students begin their education highly motivated to learn ; Most teachers are highly motivated to share knowledge , not only with their students but with anyone who can benefit. CC BY-NC-ND by Lara Eller http://www.flickr.com/photos/99079793@N00/24786113/
<ul><li>Note that there are significant advantages to building an OER landscape with distinct silos of content…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorship and quality control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated focus on core users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More robust “ecosystem” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to manage and sustain </li></ul></ul>
So the question becomes: How do we tie these systems together, with an emphasis on findability, usability, and interoperability, to achieve a functional global educational commons… … and yet maintain the distinctiveness of the component parts?
Text First, a look at the Legal Barriers. Nan c y cbn http://flickr.com/photos/pugno_muliebriter/1384247192/
CC offers an easy way to share materials, versus the murky interpretations of fair use in c opyright law. openDemo c ra c y cba http://flickr.com/photos/opendemocracy/542303769/
CC-licensed “open” educational sites 75 different OER sites represented.
CC BY ... Text • Allows the most freedoms without giving up attribution, which is important for credibility in education • Is compatible with every other CC license, allowing the most room for innovation via collaboration b • Does not encroach on the freedom of potential users by enforcing a specified use: e.g., CC BY-SA requires you to share alike, even if the new work is best suited for another license ba
Text But what about Te c hni c al Barriers? http://flickr.com/photos/tantek/85610375/ Tantek Çelik cbn
CC over c omes Te c hni c al Barriers Text CC Licenses are also clear to search engines <ul><ul><li>• CC Licenses specify licensing permissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on works in metadata (RDFa) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The metadata are also available for other applications, such as search engines, Flickr, etc. </li></ul>
There is a significant gap between what computers “see” and what humans see. This is one of the fundamental barriers to the infrastructure of the semantic web, but is also solvable. Ben Adida, CC
distributed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/"> Creative Commons License </a> A Link without Flavor Ben Adida, CC
distributed under a <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/"> Creative Commons License </a> A Link with Flavor Ben Adida, CC
<h2>The Trouble with Bob</h2> <h3>Alice</h3> Text without Flavor Ben Adida, CC
<h2 property="dc:title" >The Trouble with Bob</h2> <h3 property="dc:creator" >Alice</h3> <ul><li>Why dc:title , why not just title ? </li></ul><ul><li>Which meaning of "title" ? Article title, job title, real estate title? </li></ul><ul><li>License is a reserved HTML keyword, but title is not. </li></ul><ul><li>We must "import" this concept from somewhere. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dublin Core vocabulary: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ concepts including: title , creator , copyright , etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note that it doesn’t actually matter which vocabulary is used, as long as the machine can interpret the intent. </li></ul></ul>Text with Flavor Ben Adida, CC
Content plus metadata (ontologies and specs) Permissions and semantic architecture
And finally, the So c ial Barriers to Open Edu c ation Judy Baxter cbna http://flickr.com/photos/judybaxter/501511984/
Text Social Barriers Standardized Curricula Tenure Standards n Developed World Developing World Mine vs Commons vs Noncommercial Term Resources Teacher Education Socioeconomic Factors Time Management Teacher Salary (Bissell and Boyle) Technical Unfamiliarity Workload Organizational Pressures Agency Cultural Awareness, Misconceptions
learn.creativecommons.org Send comments to: email@example.com Tebdxt Jeffrey Beall http://flickr.com/photos/denverjeffrey/301014978/