URBAN PROBLEMS Done by: Afif(leader) Ahsanudin Nazirul KhoKahIk jordan
Types of problems? Loss of public space. The majority of roads are publicly owned and free of access. Increased traffic has adverse impacts on public activities which once crowded the streets such as markets, agoras, parades and processions, games, and community interactions. These have gradually disappeared to be replaced by automobiles. I n many cases, these activities have shifted to shopping malls while in other cases, they have been abandoned altogether. traffic flows influence the life and interactions of residents and their usage of street space. More traffic impedes social interactions and street activities. People tend to walk and cycle less when traffic is high.
Environmental impacts and energy consumption. Pollution, including noise, generated by circulation has become a serious impediment to the quality of life and even the health of urban populations. Further, energy consumption by urban transportation has dramatically increased and so the dependency on petroleum.
Accidents and safety. Growing traffic in urban areas is linked with a growing number of accidents and fatalities, especially in developing countries. Accidents account for a significant share of recurring delays. As traffic increases, people feel less safe to use the streets.
Land consumption. The territorial imprint of transportation is significant, particularly for the automobile. Between 30 and 60% of a metropolitan area may be devoted to transportation, an outcome of the over-reliance on some forms of urban transportation. Yet, this land consumption also underlines the strategic importance of transportation in the economic and social welfare of cities.
Freight distribution. Globalization and the materialization of the economy have resulted in growing quantities of freight moving within cities. As freight traffic commonly shares infrastructures with the circulation of passengers, the mobility of freight in urban areas has become increasingly problematic. City logistics strategies can be established to mitigate the variety of challenges faced by urban freight distribution.
Urban Problems - Traffic Congestion There are two main problems that modern day cities face, namely urban decay when parts of the city become run down and undesirable to live in, and traffic congestion. Traffic congestion is caused by Many people working in the C.B.D. which may have narrow streets Shortage of off-street parking which means people park on the roads and so increase congestion People not using public transport - either because it is less convenient, too expensive or not available More people own and use cars
As an example of how bad traffic jams now are, a hundred years ago it took about one hour to travel from Paramatta to the centre of Sydney (Australia) by horse and cart. Today it takes longer by car. As well as causing aggravation stationary traffic cause severe air pollution from exhaust fumes. Various solutions to these problems have been tried. Ring roads and by-passes; these can be unpopular as countryside around towns and cities are lost when they are built Park and Ride - you park your car on the edge of the built up area and then ride a bus or train into the C.B.D. One way streets to speed up traffic flow Multi-storey car parks Banning cars from the from the C.B.D., either with pedestrianised streets (e.g. Renfield Street in Glasgow) or by stopping them coming into the city centre at all. Cars are banned from the centre of Milan (Italy) on Sundays. Charging car drivers when they enter the city centre
A complete solution to traffic congestion needs people to be able and willing to travel on public transport more. A multi-storey car park A bus lane to help speed up public transport
Empirical Estimation of Urban Effects on Climate: A Problem Analysis. Doubt exists among atmospheric scientists about current estimates of local and regional effects of urbanization on climate, but not generally about the existence of these urban effects. This paper presents a framework for discussion of various estimators, uses the framework to make the case for a particular estimator, and then uses the framework to examine possible shortcomings of other estimators which appear in the literature. The measure recommended consists of differences between observations, from urban and pre-urban periods, first stratified by synoptic weather type.
The measures whose shortcomings are examined are 1) contemporaneous urban-rural differences, 2) contemporaneous upwind-downwind differences, 3) contemporaneous urban-regional ratios, 4) time trends of differences and ratios and 5) contemporaneous weekday-weekend differences. The paper is designated as a `problem analysis' because its goal is general facilitation of discussion about the problem of empirical estimation of urban effects on climate.
What are these problems and how can they be solved? People moving from the rural area to the urban area causes problems. There is concrete evidence that overwhelming numbers of people are leaving rural areas in hope of finding better a job and enhancing their life. According to the annual statistics report, city population grows five percent each year as a result of migration of rural dwellers to cities.
The report of 2005 stated that although migration to cities may benefit the rural people in terms of job opportunity and improved life style, the problems of this migration cannot be overlooked. These problems can be classified as those which affect cities in short-term, such as air pollution, and those with their profound effect on the whole society, such as loss of rural cultures. This essay examines rural migration related issues and provides solution for each kind.
Nowadays, one of the most important issues in cities is air pollution. Without a doubt, the more densely populated a city is, the more air pollution would be brought about. Air pollution as a by product of human activities has left its fingerprints on all aspect of the human life. According to health experts, the rates of lung cancer and heart disease have increased rapidly in recent years. In a study performed on two populations of urban and rural area, with 300,000 participants, it was concluded that city-dwellers are two times more likely to suffer lung cancer.
The study also provided hard evidence on the causative role of air pollution for this cancer. This devastating issue of air pollution, which is a direct result of urban overpopulation due to rural shift to cities needs to be resolved. One solution could be providing rural areas with better facilities. Constructing well-equipped hospitals and creating job opportunities in these regions would encourage rural-dwellers to live in these areas.
A further problem that is hardly noticed is cultural negative effects which this kind of migration brings about. Each country is represented by its cultures, mostly originate from rural areas. Villager have their own customs and hold traditional ceremonies and rituals specific to their region. However, with more migration of rural residents to cities, we would be at the threshold of losing many old villages; therefore, valuable parts of our national culture would be forgotten gradually.
It is recommended that governments set limits on migration laws of rural people so that less people tend to leave villages. Moreover, rural people can be encouraged to hold their traditional ceremonies and rituals by inviting more tourists to this areas. This would partly keep rural cultures alive for years.