About• All of us generate waste everyday.Waste comes from our homes, schools,colleges, markets, industries, agricultureand commercial places.2
• Where do we throw all the garbage?It is thrown into the garbage bins kept atdifferent places by the municipalauthorities. Garbage from the bins iscollected and carried by trucks to a distantplace for disposal.3
Waste• Any material which cannot be used inthe form in which it is producedis called a Waste.4
• It is no longer needed by us because it haslost its value. If it is thrown around, it cancause soil, air or water pollution. It alsoposes a serious threat to normal life, plants,animals and human beings.5Contd.
Any material which is not needed by the owner,producer or processor.6
Classification of Waste• Domestic waste• Factory waste• E-waste• Construction waste• Agricultural waste• Food processing waste• Bio-medical waste• Nuclear waste7
Classification of Waste• Solid waste- vegetable waste, kitchen waste,household waste etc.• E-waste- discarded electronic devices likecomputer, TV, music systems etc.• Liquid waste- water used for differentindustries e.g. tanneries, distilleries, thermalpower plants8
• Plastic waste- plastic bags, bottles, bucketsetc.• Metal waste- unused metal sheet, metalscraps etc.• Nuclear waste- unused materials fromnuclear power plants9Contd.
Types of waste on thebasis of their physicalstate1) Solid waste2) Liquid waste3) Gaseous waste10
Garbage• Solid waste is commonly called Garbage. Itincludes only non-liquid wastes generatedfrom households and other commercialplaces.• Waste includes all the three types of wasteswhereas garbage includes only solid wastes.11
Types of waste on thebasis of degradability• Biodegradable wastes• Non–Biodegradable wastes12
Biodegradable wastes are those waste whichcan be decomposed by the microorganismsinto simpler substances. If it is handled in theproper way it causes no harm.• Some examples are:1. Peel and cutting of fruits and vegetables2. Cow dung3. Plant residue and agriculture wasteThis type of waste can be recycled by makingvermi compost or for preparing biogas. 13Biodegradable Wastes
Non- biodegradableWastes• Non-biodegradable wastes are those whichcannot be decomposed by themicroorganisms into simpler substances.Such types of waste is a matter of seriousconcern for all of us & if it is not handledproperly, causes pollution.Some examples are:1. Plastic bags2. Buckets3. Plates4. Glass5. Metal scrap 14
Recycling Waste• One method of reducing the amount ofwaste to be thrown away is to recycle it.• It involves the collection and thenprocessing of the waste to make new usefulproducts15
Types of wastes on thebasis of their effects onHuman Health• Hazardous wastesSubstances unsafe to use commercially,industrially, agriculturally, or economicallythat are shipped, transported to or broughtfrom the country of origin for dumping ordisposal16
Non-hazardous• Substances safe to use commercially,industrially, agriculturally, or economicallythat are shipped, transported or broughtfrom the country of origin for dumping ordisposal17
Managing WasteRecycling: Processing of a waste item intousable forms.22
Benefits of recycling:- Reduce environmental degradation- Making money out of waste- Save energy that would have gone into wastehandling & product manufacture23
Saving through recycling:- When all is melted- considerable saving incost- Making paper from waste saves 50% energy- Every tone of recycled glass saves energyequivalent to 100 litters of oil24
Recycling is not a solution to managing everykind of waste materialFor many items recycling technologies areunavailable or unsafeIn some cases, cost of recycling is too high.Recycling not a solutionto all problems!25
• Reduce Waste- Reduce office paper waste by implementing aformal policy to duplex all draft reports and bymaking training manuals and personnelinformation available electronically.- Improve product design to use less materials.26
- Redesign packaging to eliminate excess materialwhile maintaining strength- Work with customers to design and implement apackaging return program- Switch to reusable transport containers- Purchase products in bulk27Contd.
-Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins,dishes, cups, and glasses-Use incoming packaging materials foroutgoing shipments-Encourage employees to reuse officematerials rather than purchase new ones29Contd.
Donate/Exchange- Old books- Old clothes- Old computers- Excess building materials- Old equipment to local organizations30
Employee Education-Develop an “office recycling procedures”packet-Send out recycling reminders to allemployees including environmental articles31
- Train employees on recycling practicesprior to implementing recycling programs- Conduct an ongoing training process as newtechnologies are introduced and newemployees join the institution32Contd.
- Education campaign on waste managementthat includes an extensive internal web site,quarterly newsletters, daily bulletins,promotional signs and helpful referencelabels within the campus of an institution33Contd.
Preventing Waste- Packaging waste reductions and changes inthe manufacturing process- Use biodegradable materials34
Solution: More ProfitWith Zero Waste• Exchanging output that are consideredwaste• Waste of one could be input or raw materialfor others• Evolving a closed system- matter & energycirculate within35
EFFECTS OF WASTE…• GHGs are accumulating in Earth’satmosphere as a result of human activities,causing global mean surface airtemperature and subsurface oceantemperature to rise• Rising global temperatures are expected toraise sea levels and change precipitationand other local climate conditions37
• Changing regional climates could alterforests, crop yields, and water supplies• This could also affect human health,animals, and many types of ecosystems• Deserts might expand into existingrangelands, and features of some of ournational parks might be permanentlyaltered38Contd.
• Some countries are expected to becomewarmer, although sulphates might limitwarming in some areas.• Whether rainfall increases or decreasescannot be reliably projected for specificareas.39Contd.
Management ofHazardous Wastes• Prevention and minimization of HazardousWastes• Promoting Institutional capacities inmanaging• Promoting International Cooperation intrans boundary shipment40
Basal Convention• Underworld trade in the export ofhazardous wastes in late 1980’sDeveloped Developing41
• UN’s decision to intervene and device atreaty:-To set global rules for control of trade onHazardous wastes• Convention requires environmentally sounddisposal42Contd.
Basel Convention failed to give way toBamako convention43
After Basel, Africans realized that we wouldhave to take the responsibility forprotecting our own continent as it was clearthat many industrialized nations wereunwilling to help us do so.44