Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on


Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment


  2. 2. WHAT IS TOWN PLANNING ?  “PLANNING" - scientific, aesthetic, & orderly disposition of land, resources, facilities & services with a view to securing the physical, economic & social efficiency, health & well-being of urban and rural communities.  • Planning – a continuous, time-oriented and cyclic process of identification and achievement of goals – eg. Chandigarh in India.  TOWN PLANNING –method of development that contributes to the organization, development & evolution of urban areas & their urbanizing environs, based on economic, social, legal & aesthetic concepts & conditions in order to promote the welfare of public & quality of environment.  GOAL OF PLANNING - to guide the development of a city or town so that it furthers the welfare of its current and future residents by creating convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient and attractive environments – “Sustainable development”.  • Three key aspects of Urban / City Planning: a) physical environment b) social environment c) economic environment  URBAN PLANNING ISSUES a) Physical environment- A city's physical environment includes its location, its climate and its proximity to sources of food and water. b) Social environment- The social environment includes the groups to which a city's residents belong, the neighbourhoods in which they live, the organization of its workplaces. One of the biggest issues in most cities is the inequitable distribution of resources. c) Economic environment- Primary employers, such as manufacturing as well as research and development companies, retail businesses, universities, federal labs, local government, cultural institutions, & departments of tourism all play strong roles in a city's economy.
  3. 3. URBAN PLANNING DISCIPLINES Regional Planning –  It is a specific type of planning, based on a specific planning structure (regional system), for inducing public action aimed at societal well being. It implies that regional planning is concerned fundamentally with the society in the context of space Environmental Planning –  Environmental planning is a tool for environmental protection and sustainable development of any area from environmental point of view. Transport Planning –  The process of analysis of travel demand in a city or region having regard to socio-economic, land-use, and other factors and formulation of policies, programs, plans and projects for its efficient management. Infrastructure –  The basic components of a human settlement that make it functional and improve its quality of life and include network of water supply, sewerage, drainage, electricity, communication, transportation and facilities and services  Facility – in urban planning a premises where health-care, educational, socio-cultural and recreational activities take place  Services - include transportation by rail, road, air, waterways, telecommunication, police protection, fire fighting, postal etc  Utilities – basic public services like water supply, sewerage, drainage and electricity supply.
  4. 4. ISSUES IN TOWN PLANNING  Infrastructural challenges  Housing  Housing provision for the growing urban population is be the biggest challenge before the government.  The growing cost of houses comparison to the income of the urban middle class, has made it impossible for majority of lower income groups and are residing in congested accommodation and many of those are devoid of proper ventilation, lighting, water supply, sewage system, etc.  For instance in Delhi, the current estimate is of a shortage of 5,00,000 dwelling units the coming decades  Safe Drinking Water  The safe drinking water sources are also found to be contaminated because of water in the cities are inadequate and in the future, the expected population cannot be accommodated without a drastic improvement in the availability of water.  The expenses on water treatment and reuse will grow manifold.  Sanitation  The poor sanitation condition is another gloomy feature in urban areas and particularly in slums and unauthorized colonies of urban areas.  The drainage system in many unorganized colonies and slums are either not existing and if existing are in a bad shape and in bits resulting in blockage of waste water.  This unsanitary conditions lead to many sanitation related diseases such as diahorrea and malaria.  Unsafe garbage disposal is one of the critical problem in urban areas and garbage management always remained a major challenge.
  5. 5.  Health conditions  The important indicators of human development are education and health.  The health condition of urban poor in some areas are even more adverse compared to rural areas.  As many as 20 million children in the developing countries are dying consequent to drinking water.  Providing health care services to the growing urban population is major challenge before the government health care delivery system.  They have to take the help of private players as public health facilities are poor. In case of migrants, they cannot take the benefit of government policies, so they have to pay very high charges, which keep them in the vicious cycle of poverty.  Urban education system also is becoming elite in private institution due to limited seats and high charged fee.  The condition of public educational institution is dismal.  Urban public transport  As high income individual are buying more private vehicle and use less public transport.  Such huge number of vehicles in cities is causing more traffic jam, which in turn decreases the efficiency of public transport.  Also the penetration of public transport is less, which make people use private vehicle.  Public transport is less disabled friendly.  There is also lack of infrastructure and poor maintenance of existing public transport infrastructure.  Poverty  Roughly a third of the urban population today lives below the poverty line.  There are glaring disparities between haves and have-nots in urban areas.  The most demanding of the urban challenges, unquestionably is the challenge posed by poverty; the challenge of reducing exploitation, relieving misery and creating more human condition for urban poor. ISSUES IN TOWN PLANNING
  6. 6. ISSUES IN TOWN PLANNING  Sewerage Problems  Urban areas in India are almost invariably plagued with insufficient and inefficient sewage facilities.  Not a single city in India is fully sewered.  Resource crunch faced by the municipalities and unauthorised growth of the cities are two major causes of this pathetic state of affairs.  According to latest estimates, only 35-40 per cent of the urban population has the privilege of sewage system.  Most of the cities have old sewerage lines which are not looked after properly. Often sewerage lines break down or they are overflowing.  Most cities do not have proper arrangements for treating the sewerage waste and it is drained into a nearly river (as in Delhi) or in sea (as in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai), thereby polluting the water bodies.  In most Indian cities, water pipes run in close proximity to sewer lines. Any leakage leads to contamination of water which results in the spread of several water borne diseases.  Trash Disposal  As Indian cities grow in number and size the problem of trash disposal is assuming alarming proportions.  Huge quantities of garbage produced by our cities pose a serious health problem.  Most cites do not have proper arrangements for garbage disposal. Image Courtesy : 5ebfac5162/images/jw_syringe011-2.jpg Image Courtesy : T9uOVsPXY1w/TDBuICdLHvI//PIC145.jpg
  7. 7. Problem of Urban Pollution  With rapid pace of urbanisation, industries and transport systems grow rather out of proportion.  These developments are primarily responsible for pollution of environment, particularly the urban environment.  We cannot think of strong India, economically, socially and culturally, when our cities remain squalor, quality of urban life declines and the urban environment is damaged beyond repair.  As a matter of fact, cities comprise the backbone of economic expansion and urbanization is being seen in a positive light as an engine of economic growth and agent of socio-political transformation Image Courtesy : wikipedia/commons/2/24/Trafficjamdelhi.jpg Slums and Squatter Settlements  The natural sequel of unchecked, unplanned and haphazard growth of urban areas is the growth and spread of slums and squatter settlements which present a striking feature in the ecological structure of Indian cities, especially of metropolitan centres.  The rapid urbanisation in conjunction with industrialisation has resulted in the growth of slums. The proliferation of slums occurs due to many factors, such as, the shortage of developed land for housing, the high prices of land beyond the reach of urban poor, a large influx of rural migrants to the cities in search of jobs etc. Image Courtesy : ISSUES IN TOWN PLANNING
  8. 8. ISSUES  Uneven & Chaotic development – contrasting urban scenario  Mixed Landuse – Industries springing up in residential zones  Congested Transportation Network – overflowing traffic than expected  ROLE OF PLANNERS  • Consider – “human communities are always in the process of changing”  • Recognize – “the complexity of communities  • Concern – about the future AIMS & OBJECTIVES OF TOWN PLANNING  to create and promote healthy conditions and environments for all the people –  to make right use of the land for the right purpose by zoning  to ensure orderly development  to avoid encroachment of one zone over the other • To preserve the individualit y of the town • To preserve the aesthetics in the design of all elements of town or city plan, • social, economic, cultural and recreational amenities etc. • Recreational amenities – open spaces, parks, gardens & playgrounds, town halls stadiums, community centers, cinema houses, and theatres