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Theme 4 part 2 Theme 4 part 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Theme 4. American Colonial Empires: France and England Part 2: The English in North America By Amanda Garibay History 140
  • American Colonies 6 - Virginia
    • 1570-1650
    • Pocahontas intercedes to save Captain John Smith from execution within the council house of her father, the paramount chief Powhatan. Pocahontas probably played a scripted part in an adoption ceremony that Smith misunderstood.
  • American Colonies 6 - Virginia
    • After retaking Florida, the Spanish established undermanned missions as far north as Chesapeake Bay (in Virginia), but native resistance compelled their retreat in 1572.
    • Success in Ireland emboldened English leaders to extend their colonial ambitions across the Atlantic to the region they called Virginia, named in honor of their queen, Elizabeth I, a supposed virgin.
    • 1616, the colonists belatedly discovered their prime commodity in tobacco, which permitted an explosive growth in population, territory, and wealth.
    • The expansion escalated to a crisis of confrontation between the English colonists and the Algonquian Indians, who defended their lands and culture against the intruders.
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  • American Colonies 6 - Virginia
    • Promoters- The English colonial promoters had insisted that the diverse attractions of colonization would all work together in perfect harmony.
    • Roanoke- He demonstrated that the distracting pursuit of immediate wealth worked against the laborious and patient development of plantation colony.
    • Powhatan- The broad coastal plain sustained about 24,000 Indians, divided into thirty tribes but united by an Algonquian language and the rule of a paramount chief named Powhatan.
    • He led the largest and most powerful chiefdom that the English found along the Atlantic seaboard during the seventeenth century.
    • 1607 he inherited power over six tribes, which he increase to thirty.
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  • American Colonies 6 - Virginia
    • Encounter- The challenge confronting Powhatan and his people in 1607 was to turn the English newcomers to advantage.
    • The Algonquians did not know that the initial few colonists were the opening wedge for thousands to follow, bent upon
    • transforming
    • the land and
    • destroying the
    • Indian world.
    • Violence- When seventeen colonists imposed themselves on one village, the natives killed them, stuffed their dead mouths with maize as a sign of contempt, and left the corpses for their countrymen to discover.
    • 1610 Captain George Percy surprised and attacked a Paspahegh village, killing at least sixty-five inhabitants and destroying with fire their homes and fields of growing corn.
    • The simmering conflict between the colonists and the Algonquians remained stalemated until 1613, when the English captured Powhatans favorite daughter, the teenage Pocahontas.
  • American Colonies 9 - Puritans and Indians
    • 1600-1750
    • The destruction of the Pequot village on the Mystic River in 1637 by the New English (armed with guns in the inner circle of the attackers) and their Mohegan and Narraganset allies (shooting their bows in the outer circle).
  • American Colonies 9 - Puritans and Indians
    • The pre-colonial landscape was described as “a hideous and desolate wilderness full of wild beast and wild men.”
    • The Puritans worked to subdue, convert, and transform the Indians into replicas of English Christians.
    • To benefit and to reassure themselves, the New English worked to dominate the external world of the forest, its wild animals, and its Indians.
  • American Colonies 9 - Puritans and Indians
    • Natives- the southern New England Indians possessed cultural, and especially linguistic, affinities, but lacked political unity.
    • The natives highly productive horticulture supplied most of their diet and belied the English insistence that all Indians were nothing more than hunters.
    • Compared with the colonists, the Indians demanded less from their nature, investing less labor in, and extracting less energy and matter form, their environment.
    • Puritans- Puritans insisted that the Christian god meant for them to enjoy the land, in reward for their godly industry and to punish the Indians for their pagan indolence.
    • They persuaded the Indians to give up their land and the Indians lashed out.
    • The Puritan colonies ran a protection racket that compelled native bands to purchase peace with wampum.
    • 1620s-1630s, the Puritan settlers did little to missionize the Indians, focusing instead on expanding their towns and farms.
  • American Colonies 9 - Puritans and Indians
    • Pequot war- The first major conflict between the New English and the Indians erupted in 1636. Based upon extending their authority into the Mystic River Valley of southeastern Connecticut.
    • The colonial leaders demanded that the resident Pequot pay a heavy tribute in wampum, give up several of their children as hostages, and surrender suspects accused of killing a trader.
    • King Philip’s war- The New English called the bloodiest Indian war in their history King Philips War, after the Wampanoag sachem named Metacom but known the New English as King Philip.
    • Victory and defeat- The Puritan victors executed the chiefs.
    • Some of the Defeated Indians escaped.
    • The puritans Indian allies persisted in southern New England as small minorities, dwelling on a few shrinking reservations surrounded by the colonial victors.
    • During the eighteenth century wars with the French and northern Indians, the new English pressured their Indians into service with colonial forces.
    • 1798 every native people along the Atlantic seaboard shared the Mohegan fate of living as a small minority on a changed land among invaders.