Theme 4 part 2 The English in North America


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Theme 4 part 2 The English in North America

  1. 1. Theme 4Theme 4 English Colonies of NorthEnglish Colonies of North AmericaAmerica Kristi BeriaKristi Beria
  2. 2. American Colonies 6American Colonies 6 Virginia-RoanokeVirginia-Roanoke ► In 1585, Sir Walter Ralegh sent 100 colonists, all men, to settle on a small island on the coast of North Carolina. ► The soil was not fertile and capable of producing crops, but the colonists expected the Algonquin Indians that lived in the area. ► At first the Indians provided food, but soon tired of the demanding settlers. ► In the spring of 1586 Wingina, the local chief, refused to give more food. ► Wingina and his deputy chiefs were killed in a surprise attack hoping to intimidate the rest of the Indians into providing more food. ► Instead, this caused the surviving Indians to flee. ► When English ships stopped by, the starving settlers quickly abandoned the colony. ► Ralegh tried again in 1587 sending more colonists, including the first English families to settle in the Americas. ► The settlers were supposed to be taken north to the Chesapeake Bay, but instead they were dropped off Roanoke. ► The colony was found mysteriously abandoned in 1590 by a relief expedition sent by England. ► There were no signs of attack by Indians or Spanish. ► The colonists were assumed to have moved on to Croatoan, a nearby island. ► There were reports that some white refugees had taken shelter in and Indian village, but had been killed by Powhatan, a powerful chief.
  3. 3. American Colonies 6American Colonies 6 Virginia-JamestownVirginia-Jamestown ► On April 26, 1607, English ships reached Chesapeake Bay. ► They established a settlement beside the James River and called it Jamestown. ► The colonists died in large numbers due to disease and hunger. ► Nine months later, only 38 out of the original 104 were still living. ► New colonists were continually sent to Jamestown to keep up the numbers, but people continued to die. ► Between 1607 and 1622 10,000 people were sent to Jamestown but only 20% were still alive in 1622. ► The colonists were exposed to malaria and salt poisoning in the summer. ► Most of the colony consisted of vagrants that had been sent forcibly or adventurers looking to get rich quick. ► Neither group of men was used to the manual labor that was needed in order to produce enough food to survive. ► In there quest to find precious metals, the colonists gathered mica to load a ship to send to England, only to find out that it was worthless. ► The colony was not equipped from the beginning to produce hardworking people or exportable crops.
  4. 4. American Colonies 6American Colonies 6 Virginia-TobaccoVirginia-Tobacco ► In 1616 the colonists learned to raise tobacco. ► The tobacco plants grew best in hot and humid conditions, it thrived in Virginia. ► As the demand for tobacco grew, so did the need for land, which the colonists took at the expense of the natives. ► The chief of the local Indians, Opechancanough, convinced the colonists that he was willing to convert to Christianity and to settle any land not in use by Indians. ► In 1622, a surprise attack by the Indians killed 347 people, the settlers livestock, and burned the plantations. ► The Virginians vowed to exterminate the Indians. ► The colonists waited until right before the harvest to destroy the Indian villages and crops. ► In 1623, the starving Indians were tricked into attending peace talks where they were poisoned. ► The colonists were attacked again in 1644, and the colonists waged counterattacks and destroyed most of the surrounding Indian villages. ► The colonists numbers and prosperity grew during the mid 1600’s due to the export of tobacco. ► During the 1660’s tobacco accounted for 25 percents of the revenues by the English Crown.
  5. 5. American Colonies 8American Colonies 8 New England-The Great MigrationNew England-The Great Migration ► Puritans were seeking a place were they could practice their religion and get away from the “sinners” that plagued most of England. ► The first Puritan emigrants crossed the Atlantic Ocean in the Mayflower and landed in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620. ► The first settlement consisted of 102 colonists. ► By 1630, 1,500 people lived in the Plymouth colony. ► The colonists had an easier time getting themselves into a place where food was adequate than those that settled in other English colonies. ► The Puritans started having disagreements over rules and how to run the colony. ► During the 1630’s and 1640’s the colonists started to expand into the interior and started forming new colonies. ► Southeastern New England became home to radical Puritan’s who felt that the rules had become too strict. ► Puritan’s that found Massachusetts too easy on the rules founded Connecticut and New Haven. ► Most of the Puritans were of the middle class who were hard workers who hoped to purify their church and bring about law and order with rules from the bible.
  6. 6. American Colonies 8American Colonies 8 New England-Family LifeNew England-Family Life ► The English expected all adults to marry and divide the various duties into male and female responsibilities. ► The men did the hardest work-clearing lands, construction, tending to the crops- while women kept the home running- gardening, childrearing, preserving food. ► The New English had a better understanding of marriage than back in the home country. ► People were allowed to court and then ask their parents to approve to their marriage. ► Parents didn’t dictate who their children should marry, but they did have the power to veto if they felt that it wasn’t a good arrangement. ► In New England as in England, women were weren’t able to own land, vote, or hold office (unless an unmarried widow) ► New English law expected the men to be kind and generous to their partner. ► Compared to the old country women could obtain a divorce easier. ► Puritanism considered men and women to be equal in spirituality, with women enjoying a little superiority to men. ► The men weren’t allowed to be in the birthing chamber with their wives-instead the neighboring women and friends were there to help. ► Women had an informal influence on the reputations of men in the community, with women often being called to testify in court.
  7. 7. American Colonies 8American Colonies 8 New England-Bible CommonwealthNew England-Bible Commonwealth ► The Puritans believed that it was their duty to build a model society in America that properly worshipped God. ► Any struggle was considered to be a punishment from God for somehow disappointing him. ► They stressed that all people were literate and therefore were able to read the bible and other religious texts. ► In 1650, there was one minister to every 415 persons compared to one per every 3,239 in Virginia. ► In order to educate orthodox Puritan ministers, Harvard College was founded in Massachusetts in 1636. ► The Puritans felt that it was the job of the government to punish sinners. ► Unfortunately, they were not able to keep their community free from “sinners” that came from the outside. ► Religious heretics were convicted and exiled. ► Colonists started to have disagreements over the interpretation of the bible and the way New England should be run. ► The Puritans continued to prosecute witches past 1650 when the practice had mostly stopped in England. ► Up until 1692, New England prosecuted 92 people of witchcraft and executed sixteen. ► The Salem Witch Trials in 1692 saw the accusation of hundreds of people and the execution of 19 people.
  8. 8. American Colonies 9American Colonies 9 Puritans and Indians-PropertyPuritans and Indians-Property ► The colonists were shocked about the amount of land and food supply in New England. ► They felt like God had given them this land as a reward for their pious behavior. ► The New English felt that it was their duty to punish the “lazy” natives. ► They decided that it was their right to decide the amount of land that the Indians needed, which got smaller in every passing year. ► The colonists offered goods in trade for tracts of land from the Indians…the colonists felt they then owned the land, the natives thought they were sharing the land. ► The colonists often punished the natives for trespassing. ► When the Indians retaliated, the colonists felt that they were the victims. ► The natives couldn’t believe how fast the colonists cleared the land to provide area for their livestock. ► The livestock often ate the crops of the Indians. ► As the colonists built permanent buildings, they made it less recognizable to the Indians. ► The habitat for the wild animals and plants became smaller and smaller.
  9. 9. American Colonies 9American Colonies 9 Puritans and Indians-Pequot WarPuritans and Indians-Pequot War ► The first skirmish that occurred between the Puritans and Indians happened in 1636. ► Colonials leaders told the Pequot they had to pay a tribute in wampum, give up several kids as hostages, and surrender captured colonists. ► The Pequot’s refused, which caused the colonies of Connecticut, Plymouth, and Massachusetts to declare war. ► The colonies were able to persuade the tribes of Narragansett and Mohegan to fight against the Pequot also. ► In May of 1637 a Pequot village in the Mystic River Valley was attacked. ► The village contained mostly women, children, and old men which the colonists and other Indians set on fire, killing all but five of the 400 inhabitants. ► The Indian allies of the colonists were shocked at the brutality of the attack. ► The New English felt justified in the killings despite criticism from Puritans in England. ► The victory was seen as proof that God had found them worthy. ► The rest of 1637 saw the killing or capture of the rest of the Pequot tribe. ► An attempt at uniting all of the area tribes by chief of the Narragansett failed and ended in his capture and death.
  10. 10. American Colonies 9American Colonies 9 Puritans and Indians-King Philip’s WarPuritans and Indians-King Philip’s War ► The bloodiest war between the Indians and Puritans happened in 1675. ► It was named after the Wampanoag chief known to the New English as King Philip. ► The Wampanoag attacked the colonists after the executions of three Indians that had killed a praying town Indian. ► The Indian victories over small colonial homesteads caused other bands of Indians with their own problems with the colonists to attack. ► The Puritans then attacked neutral bands, such as the Narragansett, who were the largest and most powerful Indians in the regions. ► Both sides used muskets as the primary weapons. ► Using the lessons the natives had learned from the Puritans, they decimated entire families and completely destroyed all symbols of the English civilization. ► The colonists felt it was their duty to God to kill all Indians, including ones that converted and lived in praying towns. ► The colonists were able to ally with the Pequot and Mohegan making this a civil war. ► The allied Indians turned the tide in the war, teaching the colonists how to attack on the Indians terms. ► In 1676, the rebellion collapsed as a result of starvation and lack of ammunition on the Indians part. ► The war devastated both the settlements and Indian villages. ► The English lost about 1,000 colonists, while the Indians lost 3,000 people, almost a third of their population.