Momentary perspectives on entrepreneurial learning
Towards sustainable entrepreneurship education
If only there was a better way… Why does it matter? Acknowledgements to the work of E.H Shepard The icons of ‘Pooh’, ‘Piglet’, ‘ Eeyore’, ‘Wol’ and ‘ Christopher Robin’ may (or may not) represent entrepreneurial identities at a subliminal level…
‘ Big picture’ questions …..?
From your experience, do you think the recession is over?
Have the recession and related events in 2008-10 permanently changed the economy and society, or will things ‘get back to normal’?
Are we in a ‘new era’ for entrepreneurs, with different norms?
If so, what does this ‘new era’ look & feel like?
What is the purpose of entrepreneurship education in the new era?
How do we, as educators, need to adapt and work differently?
What is entrepreneurial learning?
What is Enterprising or Entrepreneurial Learning?
Learning and acting in innovative, opportunistic ways
Moving between ideas and activities: applied creativity
Creative thinking to stimulate vision, ambition and action
Enable participation in society from exclusion & disadvantage (e.g. entrepreneurship for ex-offenders)
Develop students confidence to act in uncertainty
Lifelong learning for people to learn how to survive & grow
Find and enact opportunities which create value from latent resources
A model of entrepreneurial learning
A conceptual model of entrepreneurial learning based on narratives & social constructionism:
Personal and social emergence - entrepreneurial identity
- opportunity & practice through social participation
- creating the venture in
concert with others
Triadic model of entrepreneurial learning: with sub-themes
Enterprise Education Entrepreneurship Leading to Innovation and The Creation of New Value In a Subject Context Development of Personal / Social Skills Self Awareness Action Orientation Strategic Thinking Opportunity Awareness Practical Creativity Collaborative Working Employment Volunteering The Teacher as a facilitator Students given the autonomy to tackle self directed projects and take responsibility for their learning Enterprise embedded across the curricula Pathways of Enterprise Skills A Pedagogical Model Of Enterprise Education
With work from Professor David Rae – Lincoln University Learning Outcomes: Entrepreneurial teaching and learning should encourage the development of following skills: 1. Self Awareness: practitioners are able to understand their own values, experiences, motivations and emotional behaviours and use this knowledge to make changes in themselves. 2. Collaborative Working: Working as part of team sharing knowledge and ideas and networking with others. 3. Practical Creativity: The application of creative techniques to solving problems and generate new value (in a situational context). 4. Opportunity Awareness: The ability to explore opportunities in a range of contexts and react to them. 5. Strategic Thinking: The planning of projects / resources and evaluation of these against outcomes. 6. Action Orientation: The disposition to do; engaging with people and environments to create new value.
How do students learn most effectively?
Creative groupwork & social learning
Emotional engagement: feel the enterprise experience
From real entrepreneurs & business owners
Practical situations & problems outside the classroom: organisations & communities
By discovery, failure, iteration, competition
Projects with real responsibilities
Realistic assignments with ambiguity & uncertainty
Critical reflection & constructive feedback
‘ Pull’ self-learning to address their questions
Least effective: didactic lecture-theatre teaching
Entrepreneurial learning: questions for discussion
How are entrepreneurial learning and enterprise education connected?
How is the purpose & nature of entrepreneurship education changing?
How useful is the value-laden ideology of ‘entrepreneur’
e.g. in ‘not-for-profit’, public & health sectors?
How is the role of educators changing?
How do we achieve sustainability?
Provides a methodology for entrepreneurial
learning through exploring and working on opportunities.
It includes four clusters of activities:
Personal enterprise - connecting opportunities with goals and identity
Creating & exploring opportunities
Planning to realise opportunities
Acting on opportunities
Opportunity-centred entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial Learning What do I want? Personal goals Skills & strengths Confidence & self efficacy Values & motivations Creative thinking Exploring ideas Seeing needs as opportunities Taking initiative Planning: Goals & activities Aiming for success How-to? Who with? Resources Networking Creating & using contacts Communicating effectively Self marketing Learning from experience Reflection Generative curiosity Prospective imagination Active & social engagement
Entrepreneurial Learning Every one of us is a creative person! We can have ideas and do things with them!
The creative learning process
Making creative connections
Turning ideas into opportunities
Designing & communicating your innovation
Reflecting on ‘special moments’
Winning ideas > opportunities Entrepreneurial Learning 1. Problems & needs 3. Innovations & solutions 2. Who is it for? 4. How to make it happen
Entrepreneurial Learning See article in JSBED, 17.4
Entrepreneurial education in the new era Entrepreneurial Learning Dynamic learning relationships (active, social, connected) Global economic change Learner expectations: Personal, social, active Volatile markets Gov’t policy Changing technology Cultural change Ethics Constrained resources FORMATIVE INFLUENCES CHANGING THEORIES Outcomes: Applying learning Purpose: education economic ideology Content: What is learned Experience: how learning occurs Educators role Green thinking & environmental change
The student & graduate career perspective
New era requires an enterprising mindset & skills:
Increasing competition for graduate jobs: ‘how am I different?’
Declining ’traditional’ career opportunities in professions, large & public organisations
Career as personal enterprise:
‘ Individual capitalists’ in a connected economy:
Return on intellectual investment?
Rise of social & new era entrepreneurship
Positive thinking to see opportunities
Confidence & self-efficacy to act on them
Economic & financial literacy (debt & credit)
Need to develop self/employable attitudes, behaviours & skills within the degree and extracurricular activities
Entrepreneurial Learning Student journey to entrepreneurship Key phases in venture creation – may not be completed sequentially
Learning ‘why’ triggers
Response to problem or opportunity
Recognition of emergent or current need
Perception of information, knowledge or resource gap
Managing multiple priorities
Marketing & selling
Planning & managing finance
Computing & digital media
Intellectual property & law
Mentors & advisors
Customers & suppliers
Peers & entrepreneurs
Events & workshops
Experiential & discovery learning
‘ Pull’ learning Idea generation Opportunity investigation Planning Resource gathering Product/ Service development Customer acquisition Early trading
New contributions to entrepreneurial learning
Social, ethical & green enterprise
Public & corporate entrepreneurship
Multiculturalism & internationalism
New technologies & ways of learning
New methodological perspectives…..
Momentary perspectives: Living & learning in the moment Entrepreneurial Learning
‘ Everything that you do creatively has a moment – moments of coherence and comprehension and great communion – and then things don’t. It just changes.’ Robert Plant, singer, interview in Mojo magazine July 2010.
Recall a ‘special moment’ for you
Think back to a significant moment in your experience
May be from work, family, personal, education….?
What makes it special/memorable?
How did it affect you?
What could you do as a result?
Share your story...
Living in the moment
‘ Now’ is an important time
Moment: ‘a point in time, an instant’; ‘a turning point in a series of events’.
We live in the moment: authentic experience & self-actualisation situated in consciousness between past experience and future anticipation
Creative entrepreneurs make sense and act in the moment, connecting subjective experience with wider context
Momentary perspectives offer new understandings of entrepreneurial learning & behaviour: creativity, transformation, action.
Entrepreneurial Learning Perceiving Generating meaning Acting ‘ Being’ in the moment
Entrepreneurial Learning Generating meaning in ‘the moment’ Experience in the moment Past recollections Future anticipations Narrative or Kairotic time How do past experiences help make sense of the moment? What is likely to happen? What future possibilities & opportunities are there? What action can I take? Awareness through Sensory perceptions* Presence in physical environment Social interactions Behaviours Talk Insights Creativity Intuition Learning Meaning * Sensory perceptions: Visual, hearing, touch taste, smell Experiential memory Prospective imagination Emotions
Entrepreneurial Learning Types of entrepreneurial moments Incident! Creative Idea Inspiration Opportunity Problem Future possibility Innovation Encounter Social interaction Meeting Discovery New knowledge Learning
Entrepreneurial Learning Responding in the moment Judgement! Creative Idea Inspiration Opportunity Problem Future possibility Innovation Encounter Social interaction Meeting Discovery New knowledge Learning Emotion Feelings Positive: liking, pleasure, trust Negative: fear, dislike Cognition Add to/draw on memory New knowledge Learning Identity Being: who you are & aspire to be Narrative: story you tell Action Knowing what & how to act Behaviour Impact & self-awareness
Learning in the moment
How do we create ‘special moments’?
How to capture, share, learn within & from special moments as educators?
How to enable learners to perceive, judge & act effectively in the moment?
Use technology to share moments – twitter
Build understanding of entrepreneurial behaviour through momentary perspectives
You can help:
Recall a ‘special moment’ from your experience
Share your ‘special moment’ through online anonymous questionnaire:
Questions – Impact, influence, investment
What are the likely effects of WAG & UK govt. & budget policies?
How can we influence local & institutional policies:
New enterprises & small firms?
Universities & enterprise education?
What is the purpose of entrepreneurship education in the new era?
How can we demonstrate its impact at educational, economic, and business levels?
How can we create sustainable business models for entrepreneurship education?
What is the case for investing resources in it?
How can we enable new jobs to be created? e.g.
Public sector downsizing?
Social enterprises & new form organisations?
Extend working lives?
Entrepreneurial Learning if you get stuck….firstname.lastname@example.org Thank you!