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Entrepreneurial Learning - David Rae


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David Rae's Presentation from Inspiring Enterprise 2011

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Entrepreneurial Learning - David Rae

  1. 1. Inspiring entrepreneurial learning in the new era <ul><li>Glynd ŵ r University </li></ul><ul><li>2 June 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Professor David Rae </li></ul><ul><li>ISBE Vice-president, education </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Entrepreneurial Learning
  2. 2. Professor David Rae Entrepreneurial Learning <ul><li>Career in small business, government & higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship researcher, educator & writer </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial learning: PhD & publications 1999-2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Enterprise & Innovation, Lincoln Business School, </li></ul><ul><li>University of Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>Vice-president, Institute of Small Business & Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Optimist , based on human creativity & potential for learning </li></ul>[email_address] ‘ Warycat’ on Twitter
  3. 3. Session topics…. <ul><li>What is entrepreneurial learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity-centred entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Creative learning </li></ul><ul><li>New era entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>What does this mean for educators? </li></ul><ul><li>Momentary perspectives on entrepreneurial learning </li></ul><ul><li>Towards sustainable entrepreneurship education </li></ul>
  4. 4. If only there was a better way… Why does it matter? Acknowledgements to the work of E.H Shepard The icons of ‘Pooh’, ‘Piglet’, ‘ Eeyore’, ‘Wol’ and ‘ Christopher Robin’ may (or may not) represent entrepreneurial identities at a subliminal level…
  5. 5. ‘ Big picture’ questions …..? <ul><li>From your experience, do you think the recession is over? </li></ul><ul><li>Have the recession and related events in 2008-10 permanently changed the economy and society, or will things ‘get back to normal’? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we in a ‘new era’ for entrepreneurs, with different norms? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, what does this ‘new era’ look & feel like? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of entrepreneurship education in the new era? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we, as educators, need to adapt and work differently? </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is entrepreneurial learning?
  7. 7. What is Enterprising or Entrepreneurial Learning? <ul><li>Learning and acting in innovative, opportunistic ways </li></ul><ul><li>Moving between ideas and activities: applied creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising, creating and acting on opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Social interactions for self & social learning </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginative use of technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Creating multiple forms of value </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating and managing organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Transformative, social, imaginal, emotional & experiential </li></ul><ul><li>Applies in a range of contexts…. </li></ul>Entrepreneurial Learning
  8. 8. Why does entrepreneurial learning matter? <ul><li>Regenerate societies & economies: innovation & wealth creation </li></ul><ul><li>Creative thinking to stimulate vision, ambition and action </li></ul><ul><li>Enable participation in society from exclusion & disadvantage (e.g. entrepreneurship for ex-offenders) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop students confidence to act in uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong learning for people to learn how to survive & grow </li></ul><ul><li>Find and enact opportunities which create value from latent resources </li></ul>
  9. 9. A model of entrepreneurial learning <ul><li>A conceptual model of entrepreneurial learning based on narratives & social constructionism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal and social emergence - entrepreneurial identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- opportunity & practice through social participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- creating the venture in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concert with others </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Triadic model of entrepreneurial learning: with sub-themes
  11. 11. Enterprise Education Entrepreneurship Leading to Innovation and The Creation of New Value In a Subject Context Development of Personal / Social Skills Self Awareness Action Orientation Strategic Thinking Opportunity Awareness Practical Creativity Collaborative Working Employment Volunteering The Teacher as a facilitator Students given the autonomy to tackle self directed projects and take responsibility for their learning Enterprise embedded across the curricula Pathways of Enterprise Skills A Pedagogical Model Of Enterprise Education
  12. 13. With work from Professor David Rae – Lincoln University Learning Outcomes: Entrepreneurial teaching and learning should encourage the development of following skills: 1. Self Awareness: practitioners are able to understand their own values, experiences, motivations and emotional behaviours and use this knowledge to make changes in themselves. 2. Collaborative Working: Working as part of team sharing knowledge and ideas and networking with others. 3. Practical Creativity: The application of creative techniques to solving problems and generate new value (in a situational context). 4. Opportunity Awareness: The ability to explore opportunities in a range of contexts and react to them. 5. Strategic Thinking: The planning of projects / resources and evaluation of these against outcomes. 6. Action Orientation: The disposition to do; engaging with people and environments to create new value.
  13. 14. How do students learn most effectively? <ul><li>Creative groupwork & social learning </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional engagement: feel the enterprise experience </li></ul><ul><li>From real entrepreneurs & business owners </li></ul><ul><li>Practical situations & problems outside the classroom: organisations & communities </li></ul><ul><li>By discovery, failure, iteration, competition </li></ul><ul><li>Projects with real responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic assignments with ambiguity & uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Critical reflection & constructive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Pull’ self-learning to address their questions </li></ul><ul><li>Least effective: didactic lecture-theatre teaching </li></ul>Entrepreneurial Learning
  14. 15. Entrepreneurial learning: questions for discussion <ul><li>How are entrepreneurial learning and enterprise education connected? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the purpose & nature of entrepreneurship education changing? </li></ul><ul><li>How useful is the value-laden ideology of ‘entrepreneur’ </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. in ‘not-for-profit’, public & health sectors? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the role of educators changing? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we achieve sustainability? </li></ul>
  15. 16. Opportunity-centred entrepreneurship <ul><li>Provides a methodology for entrepreneurial </li></ul><ul><li>learning through exploring and working on opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes four clusters of activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal enterprise - connecting opportunities with goals and identity </li></ul><ul><li>Creating & exploring opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Planning to realise opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Acting on opportunities </li></ul>
  16. 17. Opportunity-centred entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial Learning What do I want? Personal goals Skills & strengths Confidence & self efficacy Values & motivations Creative thinking Exploring ideas Seeing needs as opportunities Taking initiative Planning: Goals & activities Aiming for success How-to? Who with? Resources Networking Creating & using contacts Communicating effectively Self marketing Learning from experience Reflection Generative curiosity Prospective imagination Active & social engagement
  17. 18. Entrepreneurial Learning Every one of us is a creative person! We can have ideas and do things with them!
  18. 19. The creative learning process <ul><li>Creative teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Problem definition </li></ul><ul><li>Making creative connections </li></ul><ul><li>Turning ideas into opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Designing & communicating your innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting on ‘special moments’ </li></ul>Entrepreneurial Learning
  19. 20. Winning ideas > opportunities Entrepreneurial Learning 1. Problems & needs 3. Innovations & solutions 2. Who is it for? 4. How to make it happen
  20. 21. Inputs to creating opportunities Entrepreneurial Learning OPPORTUNITIES Problems & needs Resources Capabilities Contextual factors Technologies Constraints Creative ideas
  21. 22. New era: new directions for entrepreneurial learning?
  22. 23. The new enterprise economy <ul><li>Credit crunch & recession changed all the rules </li></ul><ul><li>Massive risks & costs in public policy & finance </li></ul><ul><li>Economic & social uncertainty & change </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Small government’, localism & ‘Big Society’ </li></ul><ul><li>UK economic growth lags behind competitors </li></ul><ul><li>City-region focus in economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Winners & losers? E.g. rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in funding for HE, students, business support </li></ul><ul><li>Local Enterprise Partnerships (England) </li></ul><ul><li>Constrained & risk-averse bank lending for businesses </li></ul>
  23. 24. A new paradigm for entrepreneurship and learning? <ul><li>Old e-ship </li></ul><ul><li>Individualist </li></ul><ul><li>Neoliberal capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity pursuit regardless of consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Business driven: short term profitability & growth </li></ul><ul><li>Value creation solely financial </li></ul><ul><li>Exploits & wastes resources </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive role models </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine attributes: aggression, power, conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Fuelled by debt </li></ul><ul><li>New e-ship </li></ul><ul><li>Individual-team leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Networked & collectivist </li></ul><ul><li>Socially connected & inclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Ethically responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to resource conservation & re-use </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple forms of value creation </li></ul><ul><li>Economically & environmentally sustainable </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine values: relational, collaborative, intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Grassroots enterprise & resourcing </li></ul>Entrepreneurial Learning See article in JSBED, 17.4
  24. 25. Entrepreneurial education in the new era Entrepreneurial Learning Dynamic learning relationships (active, social, connected) Global economic change Learner expectations: Personal, social, active Volatile markets Gov’t policy Changing technology Cultural change Ethics Constrained resources FORMATIVE INFLUENCES CHANGING THEORIES Outcomes: Applying learning Purpose: education economic ideology Content: What is learned Experience: how learning occurs Educators role Green thinking & environmental change
  25. 26. The student & graduate career perspective <ul><li>New era requires an enterprising mindset & skills: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing competition for graduate jobs: ‘how am I different?’ </li></ul><ul><li>Declining ’traditional’ career opportunities in professions, large & public organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Career as personal enterprise: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Individual capitalists’ in a connected economy: </li></ul><ul><li>Return on intellectual investment? </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of social & new era entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Positive thinking to see opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence & self-efficacy to act on them </li></ul><ul><li>Economic & financial literacy (debt & credit) </li></ul><ul><li>Need to develop self/employable attitudes, behaviours & skills within the degree and extracurricular activities </li></ul>Entrepreneurial Learning
  26. 27. Entrepreneurial Learning Student journey to entrepreneurship Key phases in venture creation – may not be completed sequentially <ul><li>Learning ‘why’ triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Interest, curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Planned learning </li></ul><ul><li>Response to problem or opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of emergent or current need </li></ul><ul><li>Perception of information, knowledge or resource gap </li></ul><ul><li>Learning what </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Managing multiple priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing & selling </li></ul><ul><li>Planning & managing finance </li></ul><ul><li>Computing & digital media </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property & law </li></ul><ul><li>Learning sources </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors & advisors </li></ul><ul><li>Customers & suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Peers & entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><li>Course based </li></ul><ul><li>Events & workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential & discovery learning </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning, Internet </li></ul><ul><li>TV, books </li></ul>‘ Pull’ learning Idea generation Opportunity investigation Planning Resource gathering Product/ Service development Customer acquisition Early trading
  27. 28. New contributions to entrepreneurial learning <ul><li>New economics </li></ul><ul><li>Social, ethical & green enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Public & corporate entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Female entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism & internationalism </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies & ways of learning </li></ul><ul><li>New methodological perspectives….. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Momentary perspectives: Living & learning in the moment Entrepreneurial Learning
  29. 30. ‘ Everything that you do creatively has a moment – moments of coherence and comprehension and great communion – and then things don’t. It just changes.’ Robert Plant, singer, interview in Mojo magazine July 2010.
  30. 31. Recall a ‘special moment’ for you <ul><li>Think back to a significant moment in your experience </li></ul><ul><li>May be from work, family, personal, education….? </li></ul><ul><li>What happened? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes it special/memorable? </li></ul><ul><li>How did it affect you? </li></ul><ul><li>What could you do as a result? </li></ul><ul><li>Share your story... </li></ul>
  31. 32. Living in the moment <ul><li>‘ Now’ is an important time </li></ul><ul><li>Moment: ‘a point in time, an instant’; ‘a turning point in a series of events’. </li></ul><ul><li>We live in the moment: authentic experience & self-actualisation situated in consciousness between past experience and future anticipation </li></ul><ul><li>Creative entrepreneurs make sense and act in the moment, connecting subjective experience with wider context </li></ul><ul><li>Momentary perspectives offer new understandings of entrepreneurial learning & behaviour: creativity, transformation, action. </li></ul>Entrepreneurial Learning
  32. 33. Entrepreneurial Learning Perceiving Generating meaning Acting ‘ Being’ in the moment
  33. 34. Entrepreneurial Learning Generating meaning in ‘the moment’ Experience in the moment Past recollections Future anticipations Narrative or Kairotic time How do past experiences help make sense of the moment? What is likely to happen? What future possibilities & opportunities are there? What action can I take? Awareness through Sensory perceptions* Presence in physical environment Social interactions Behaviours Talk Insights Creativity Intuition Learning Meaning * Sensory perceptions: Visual, hearing, touch taste, smell Experiential memory Prospective imagination Emotions
  34. 35. Entrepreneurial Learning Types of entrepreneurial moments Incident! Creative Idea Inspiration Opportunity Problem Future possibility Innovation Encounter Social interaction Meeting Discovery New knowledge Learning
  35. 36. Entrepreneurial Learning Responding in the moment Judgement! Creative Idea Inspiration Opportunity Problem Future possibility Innovation Encounter Social interaction Meeting Discovery New knowledge Learning Emotion Feelings Positive: liking, pleasure, trust Negative: fear, dislike Cognition Add to/draw on memory New knowledge Learning Identity Being: who you are & aspire to be Narrative: story you tell Action Knowing what & how to act Behaviour Impact & self-awareness
  36. 37. Learning in the moment <ul><li>How do we create ‘special moments’? </li></ul><ul><li>How to capture, share, learn within & from special moments as educators? </li></ul><ul><li>How to enable learners to perceive, judge & act effectively in the moment? </li></ul><ul><li>Use technology to share moments – twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Build understanding of entrepreneurial behaviour through momentary perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>You can help: </li></ul><ul><li>Recall a ‘special moment’ from your experience </li></ul><ul><li>Share your ‘special moment’ through online anonymous questionnaire: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Entrepreneurial Learning
  37. 38. Questions – Impact, influence, investment <ul><li>What are the likely effects of WAG & UK govt. & budget policies? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we influence local & institutional policies: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New enterprises & small firms? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universities & enterprise education? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of entrepreneurship education in the new era? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we demonstrate its impact at educational, economic, and business levels? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we create sustainable business models for entrepreneurship education? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the case for investing resources in it? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we enable new jobs to be created? e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graduates? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small firms? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public sector downsizing? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social enterprises & new form organisations? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extend working lives? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Entrepreneurial Learning if you get stuck… Thank you!