Niger: LEDC Stage 2, rapid population growthMany desert areas, parts in sahara and sahelOne of the poorest countries in the world ($700 per cap.)Lots of sedentary farmers (farm to support their family)Grown from 1.7 million people in 1960 to 13 million in 2008The Population growth rate is 2.9%By 2050 if the rate keeps up the population will be 56 millionNiger has the highest fertility rate in the world (7.1 births perwoman)Nearly half the population is under 15 years oldDeath rates are falling in Niger due to:Decreased infant mortality rate, babies vaccinated against avoidablediseasesThere are better supplies of clean water, building more wellsMore medical equipment and facilities to help more peoplePeople eat more healthilyBetter living conditionsPlans to cut Natural Increase:Government wants to increase family planning to help 20% ofpopulation (5%at the moment) by 2015Educate about the importance of family planning and contraceptionLimit number of early marriages by raising legal age from 15 to 18CHINA: BIRTH CONTROL POLICIESIn 1960s-70s Mao encouraged large families, because it wouldstrengthen ChinaBy the 1970s he realised that he could not provide food, jobs andservices to everyone if the population kept growing so quicklyIn 1980 China introduced 1 child policy to limit population growthIn 1958-63 China introduced the Great leap forward policy to reformagriculture and modernise China, poorly implemented, 20 millionChinese people died of disease and starvationFrom 1963-70 large families encouraged to make up for loss, thefertility rate reached 5.8 births per woman, and birth rate soared to40 per 1000 people in 19651970s- China realises growth is unsustainable, Introduces ‘Later,Longer, Fewer’ policy encouraging people to wait to have their firstchild until they are older, Space out pregnancies more and havefewer kids1978-83- ‘One family, one child’ policy introduced. Rapid populationgrowth seen as barrier to development. China wants to modernise:Industry, agriculture, science and technology1984-2006- Population growth from 2.4% to 1%, by 2006 fertilityrate 1.7 births per woman. They have now relaxed some of thepolicies in rural areas- families can have 2 children
Still unbalanced population- boys viewed as more important becausein rural areas boys can help on farm; some areas allow a secondchild if 1stwas a girlCouples can be fined if they have a second child up to a years salary,child may not get into good state schoolsRUSSIA: FALLING BIRTHRATE AND HIGH HIV INFECTIONRussia is projected to decline from 143 million (2007) to 111 millionby 2050There is a high death rate and low birth rateLow level of immigrationLife expectancy is lowMany emigrants from Russia to Western EuropeIn 2004 Russia life expectancy was 65Russian women often do not want more childrenMale life expectancy is 59More than 1 million Russians have AIDS and 1.1% of adults (15-49)have HIV, Highest of G8 countriesFertility rate at 1.1 births per womanProblems with AlcoholismIndonesia Transmigration SchemeIndonesia consists of 17000 islands9000 inhabitedSome islands like Java and Bali have overpopulation problemsSome islands are underpopulated like Kalimantan and SumatraThe government offered incentives to families to move fromoverpopulated small islands to underpopulated larger ones (examplesabove)Transmigration was used to:Reduce poverty and overpopulation in Java, where Jakarta isProvide good job opportunities for hard working poor people on otherislandsProvide a workforce to use more of the natural resources on theunderpopulated islandsSingapore: Prenatal policiesPopulation is 4.7 million on a 620 km2island1957- fertility rate at 6.4Family planning offered in 19591965- fertility down to 4.8, government wanted to shrink populationbecause it could not support a growing population1970- Abortion, voluntary sterilisation legalised, ‘Stop at Two’ policyput in using disincentives like (extra tax for 3rdchild and only 2children could get into best schools)1980 Fertility rate at 2
In the 1980s university graduates were not getting married or havingchildrenSingapore reversed policies because population was too lowThey wrote the policies to encourage educated people to havechildrenFor example children of university graduates offered places at bestschools, whereas a grant of 10000SGD would be given to anuneducated woman to be sterilisedThis did not work in 2005 fertility rate had continued to decrease andreached 1.4There will be incentives for immigration and having more children totry and increase population.European Community: Polish Workers in UKPoland had the highest unemployment rate of A8 countries (joinedEU in ’04)With freedom of movement in EU now polish workers could freelytravel to Uk which had a high average income (33 630 USD) and lowunemployment (5%)62% of the 600000 EU migrants to Uk in 2004 were polishPositives for UK:Jobs filled that UK workers do not wantCan pay low wagesPolish workers will work for longer hoursIncreased population, more spent on local economyNegatives for UK:Fewer jobs for unskilled UK workersMay move back once they have earned money, leaving gap inworkforceAnti immigration issues and RacismServices like hospitals and schools cant cope with extra numbersPositives for Polish workers:Chance of jobBetter pay than in PolandSave money and return to improve life in PolandChance to move away from parentsNegatives for Polish Workers:May leave family in PolandMay encounter hostility in UKLanguage issuesMay struggle to find housing, may end up homelessAtlanta: Urban SprawlPopulation grown 3.7 million in last 40 yearsFastest growing metropolitan area in USAAtlanta Urban area doubled since 1973Because of Population growth
Problems:Agricultural land used to make houses and mallsImpermeable surfaces, Concrete and asphalt do not drain wateraway leading to flash floods and contamination of water.Loss of green space- 38% of green space has been built on forhousing projectsWater has become contaminated, not enough water to supportindustry and irrigationTraffic CongestionPoor air quality, increase in cars, 90% residents drive to workSocio economic divide- White middle class live in suburbs which havebeen developed. The undeveloped center is where the poorerpopulation stayedCairo: Pollution, Shanty towns, CongestionRapid growth of 16 million over 50 yearsGovernment could not support services like piped water, sewage andschools and electricityProblems with Traffic congestion, noise and air, pollutionShanty Towns:Lack of housingSelf built illegally built houses on farmland cover 80% of Cairo2-3 million people have set up homes in old Cairo near pyramidsSome people live in huts on roof space of flats and office buildingsCongestion:Over 1 million cars in CairoBadly paved roadsTravel to work is slowDrivers are aggressive causing danger for road usersPollution:Heavily polluted air with vehicle exhausts and fumes from fuelsGroundwater polluted by illegally dumped wasteLeaking sewers pollute water sourcesSolutions:Ring road buildPeople with donkey carts pick up rubbish and collect and recyclegarbageNew satellite towns on edge of cityPublic services upgradedMetro system builtSewage system repairedChaiten Volcano: Chile2 May 2008 Chaiten Volcano eruptedThought to be dormant1steruption in 9000 yearsFormed at a convergent boundary
Subducting plate melts and pressure builds up due to frictionbetween platesEruption explosive blowing off top of volcano forming caldera withsecondary cone in middle.Crater 3km wideWas not monitored by scientistsSits on edge of South American and Nazca plates (beneath becausesea plate)Magma tricked through plate boundary and built up huge chamberunder craterChaiten is a tourist area, because of natural buety, like volcano4000 people fled homesSeries of tremorsEvacuation was difficult because of terrainEvacuated by Naval shipAsh went 20km up and settled over Chile and ArgentinaTown coated in ash 15cm thickForests set on fireSchools used as shelters(see book for Haiti Earthquake Notes)Rainforest: MadagascarDeforestation people have used land for agricultureLots of animal species under threat because of deforestation (ieflying fox)Desertification in south72% rural population78% primary employmentRainforest on East side of Island because relief rainfall occursMountains in middle of islandThe prevailing wind from south east.Moist air forced to rise, causing condensation and cloudsHeavy rain in EastIt is dry on the West not enough rainfall for rainforest in westPeople are cutting down rainforests because countries exports rely onagriculture (70%) so need fast crops like rice in more areaTrees are burned to create farm landAsh supplies nutrient for a whileHeavy rainfall washes away nutrientsCrops grow well for number of yearsCrops no longer grow because all nutrients used upAnimals lose food and habitatPeople cut down more rainforest for crops
Deserts: Sahara and The SahelThe Sahara is world’s biggest desertOne quarter is covered by sandy desert, ergsThe rest is gravel called reg and areas of barren rock called HamadaDESERTIFICATION: thousands of years ago the Sahara was wetterbut due to Climate change and human influence have slowly madethe Sahara more of a desertThe Sahara is still growing spreading south into West AfricaOvergrazing and deforestation is dragging it further and furtherSouth.The area on the edge of the desert that is that is on the fringe iscalled the Sahel (Arabic word for fringe)The Sahel is semi-arid belt of dry soil 300-500km wide from North toSouth and stretches across North Africa.Separates Sahara from SavannahAverage Rainfall in Sahel is 300-600mm per yearWhen it rains up to 90% of moisture evaporatesDrought is natural in the SahelDesertification and land degradation from overgrazing anddesertification moves the Sahel and the limit for growing crops andgrazing livestock further and further South every yearSee p 94 in textbook for diagramDesertification in Mali65% of Mali is Desert or Semi-DesertThe Sahel slowly moves south through Mali80% of Population work in Agriculture, many in sedentary agriculturePopulation growth 3% so need to supply for growing population,leads to overgrazing, excessive farming and deforestationWhich strips the soil of nutrientsThis makes it impossible for plants to grow thereThis causes desertification and the Sahara desert grows.Cyclone NargisWarm air from North meets warm air from South In tropicsSea temp. 27 celcius and sea 60 metres deep, winds begin to circleanticlockwise due to the Earth’s rotationLow pressure (intense) creates the eye of the storm as the spirallingair rises to create low pressure along the equator. Tropical stormsdevelop as depressions and wind speeds increase.The easterly winds at high levels move them east to west at first, asthey move further from the equator it loses power as the sea temp.decreases.
They die out over land as there is less heat and no water to keepthem going.Each hemisphere has a tropical storm season, North: May-November,South: November-April.Made landfall May 3rd2008Wind Speeds between 200-300 km/hFlooding & Mudslides due to heavy rainfall.3.6 meter storm surge flooded Irrawaddy Delta, 2.4 million peopleaffected, 140,000 people killed or missingDrought in AustraliaFor Murray River: Long term average 700 Gigalitres – 1800 Gigalitresper month, 2007-08: 200 Gigalitres – 400 GigalitresTemperatures can reach 50 CelsiusCrops can only grow properly in New South Wales and Victoria in theTemperate Maritime Climate, 400 km off South East coast.Worst drought in 100 yearsAverage rainfall in outback can be 336 mm per year, very lowDroughts have led to water restrictions, and it is prohibited to washyour car, fill swimming pools or sprinkle gardens (you canimprisoned) in MelbourneDry weather is causing bush firesWater rationing in Sidney after 4 years of drought, main reservoironly 40% fullCannot raise livestock in the droughts, and tap water is not safe forhuman consumption so bottled water must be bought.Mozambique Floods9thFebruary 2000Limpopo, Save and Zambezi river flooded27thFebruary more flashfloods180,000 people fled homeNavy evacuated peopleAbout 150000 km2of land affected (mostly farmland) destroyingcropsUsed canoes and walking to get to accommodation centreMany people live live on floodplain for fertile soil, transport, irrigation,food so many people affected.For Indian farming see Indian Farming sheet in Geog Book 2Commercial Agriculture in New ZealandLivestock: Mainly sheep, dairy and beef cattleWarm wet climate ideal for growing grassAnnual rainfall 1000-1500mm and temp above 6˚C, is optimum forgrass growth
In North Island, Beef is reared most land gets around 1000-2000 mmper year rainfall.Dairy farming in WestIn southern highlands sheep and some beef reared.Southern Island Merino sheep reared for wool where grass is poorLower land more intensive farmingHarwood’s Farm, North Canterbury has 270 hectares of irrigatedflatlandBreed Corriedales sheep good for meat and woolHI-TECH INDUSTRY IN BANGALOREFor Reading see A3 sheet in Book