Ch 3


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Ch 3

  2. 2. 3.1 Two Revolutions That Changed the Earth The Agricultural Revolution  Began in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago The Industrial Revolution  Began in 18th Century Europe
  3. 3. 3.1.1 Hunting and Gathering Hunters and Gatherers  Our ancestors lived by foraging until 10,000 years ago  Stayed in small, family-based groups  Nomads who wandered from place to place to take advantage of changing opportunities on the landscape  Because of this movement, they had a relatively limited impact on the natural environment An ecologically dominant species  Competed more successfully than other organisms for nutrition and other essentials of life; Exerted a greater influence than other species on the environment  Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis  Hunted many species to extinction
  4. 4. Rock Art from Egypt’s Sinai PeninsulaThis artifact depicts Neolithic-period hunting of ibex, later uses of camels and horses, and writing from the Nabatean
  5. 5. 3.1.2 Farming: Welcome to the Anthropocene Domestication brought about the Agricultural Revolution Explanation for shift from hunt-and-gather to production?  Change in Climate  Growing populations compelled people to find new food sources Abandonment of nomadic lifestyles  Shift from extensive land use to intensive land use  People settled into small villages with fixed dwellings  Through dry farming, population densities could be 10-20x higher than they were in hunting and gathering mode Irrigation along the Tigris, Euphrates, and Nile Rivers  Bringing water to land artificially through levers and channels  Raised carrying capacity and set stage for civilization Domesticated plants and animals proliferated at the expense of wild species
  6. 6. 3.1.2 Farming: Welcome to the Anthropocene Civilization was enabled by increased food production  Complex culture of urban life characterized by writing, economic specialization, social stratification, and high population concentrations  Several Culture Hearths emerged between 8000 and 2500 B.C.E. in China, SE Asia, Indus River Valley, Egypt, West Africa, Mesoamerica, and the Andes Carrying Capacity  Expanding food surpluses of the Agricultural Revolution raised the size of the human population that the Earth’s ecosystem could support  Upon early plant and animal domestication (about 10,000 years ago), Earth’s population was fewer than 5 million  Today, there are more than 7 billion people on Earth
  7. 7. Irrigation Along the Tigris River in Turkey
  8. 8. 3.1.3 The Industrial Revolution Began in Europe around 1750 C.E. Based on technological breakthroughs made possible by:  Western Europe had economic capital necessary for experimentation, innovation, and risk  Significant improvements in agricultural productivity took place in Europe prior to 1500  Population Growth  Greater number of people to devote their talents and labor to experimentation and innovation
  9. 9. 3.1.4 Industrialization, Colonization & Environmental Change Age of Discovery (Age of Exploration – 15th Cent)  As local supplies of resources needed for industrial production were depleted, Europeans looked abroad Exploration Resulted in Colonization  European political and economic control over foreign areas Industrial Revolution’s Impact on Environment  Since 1750, total forested area on earth has declined by more than 20%  Total cropland has grown by 500% during same period  Human use of energy increased 100-fold since 1750
  10. 10. 3.2 The Geography of Development Large disparity between wealthy and poor people  Evident both within and between countries “Haves” vs. “Have-Nots”  More Developed Countries (MDCs)  Less Developed Countries (LDCs)  Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs)
  11. 11. Wealth and Poverty By Country Note the concentration of wealth in themiddle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere
  12. 12. 3.2.1 Measuring Development There is no universally accepted standard for measuring wealth and poverty on the global scale However, these are some common indices:  Gross Domestic Product (GDP)  Total output of goods and services that a country produces for home use in a year  Gross National Product (GNP)  Also includes foreign output by domestically owned producers  Gross National Income (GNI)  Includes GDP plus income from abroad from sources such as rents, profits, and labors  Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)  Considers differences in relative prices of goods and services  Measured in current “international dollars”  Human Development Index (HDI)  Scale that considers attributes of quality of life
  13. 13. 3.2.2 Why Are Some Countries Rich & Others Poor? Dependency Theory  Argues that the worldwide economic pattern established by both the Industrial Revolution and colonialism persists today Advantageous & Disadvantageous Location  Location can influence a country’s economic fortunes Resource Wealth or Poverty Cultural and Historical Factors
  14. 14. 3.2.3 Environmental Impacts of Underdevelopment LDCs have to borrow money from MDCs to fund development  Many LDCs are unable to pay even the interest on these loans  When lender institutions threaten to cut off assistance, borrowing countries often try to raise money quickly using these methods:  Dedication of high-quality land to production of cash crops, which are exported to MDCs as luxury items  Sale of Natural Assets  Methods have a drastic long-term effect on the environment  Humans using resources faster than nature can replace it  Ecological Bankruptcy  Occurs when countries exhaust their environmental capital
  15. 15. Thu Bon River in Vietnam
  16. 16. 3.3 The Geography of Population The study of population is known as demography Population may be the most critical issue in geography; Welfare of humanity and Earth’s other species and natural habitats is tied to:  The number of people  The rate at which people consume resources Human Population Explosion since 1800  Will it lead to a crisis? Migration  Spread of cultures, ideas, and opportunities  Can spark tension and violence
  17. 17. 3.3.1 How Many People Have Lived on Earth? Homo Sapiens ancestors came out of Africa around 100,000 years ago to populate Eurasia Population Explosion  1 Billion in 1800  2 Billion in 1930  4 Billion in 1975  6 Billion in 1999 Humans now are by far the most populous large mammal on earth
  18. 18. Global Human Population
  19. 19. 3.3.2 How Can We Measure Population Changes? Birth Rate  Annual number of live births per 1,000 people in a population Death Rate  Annual number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population Population Change Rate  Birth Rate minus the Death Rate  May represent either a growth or a loss
  20. 20. 3.3.3 What Determines Family Size? Better-educated and wealthier people, understanding the economic cost of raising and educating a child, tend to have fewer children Less educated and poorer people generally have more children, sometimes to have additional workers to bring in more family income People in cities tend to have fewer children than those in rural areas Those who marry earlier tend to have more children Couples with access to and understanding of contraception generally have fewer children Value systems and cultural norms play critical roles
  21. 21. 3.3.4 What Determines Death Rates? Death rates correlate mainly with health factors Death rates can be reduced by:  Better sanitation  Better hygiene  Cleaner drinking water  Availability of antibiotics and immunizations  Availability of insecticides  Improvements in medical and public health technologies Death rates rise with epidemics  HIV/AIDS, Black Death, etc. Life Expectancy  Number of years a person may expect to live in an environment  United States Life Expectancy in 2011  80 years for Women  75 years for Men
  22. 22. Life Expectancy at BirthLife expectancy is closely tied to economic well-being.People live longer where they can afford the medicinesand other amenities and technologies that prolong life.
  23. 23. 3.3.5 What Determines the Population Change Rate? Rate of population change has been affected throughout history by natural disasters, diseases, and wars With birth rates higher than death rates, the trend has been one of growth Doubling Time  Number of years required for human population to double  Computed by dividing 70 by the growth rate  As of 2011, the global population change rate of 1.2% means a doubling time of 58 years
  24. 24. Natural Rate of Population ChangePopulation change rates are highest in the countriesof Africa and other regions of the developing world and lowest in the more affluent countries.
  25. 25. 3.3.6 Why Has the Human Population “Exploded”? If the birth rate is high and the death rate is low, the population surges  This scenario has been occurring since around 1800  This result has not been caused by a rise in birth rates, but because the death rate has fallen  Improvements in agricultural and medical technologies Demographic Transition Model  Stage 1: Preindustrial  Stage 2: Transitional  Stage 3: Industrial  Stage 4: Postindustrial
  26. 26. Demographic Transition ModelNote how the population surged in the wake of the Industrial Revolutionas death rates fell while birth rates remained high but then leveled out
  27. 27. 3.3.7 The Age Structure Diagram Population Pyramid  Classifies a population by gender and by 5-year age increments  Diagram Shapes  LDCs are more bottom-heavy and pyramid-shaped  MDCs are more chimney-shaped Population Under Age 15  29% of population of the poorer countries  16% of population of the wealthier countries
  28. 28. Age Structure Diagrams A poor country, Niger has a relatively highbirth rate, with about 48% of the populationunder age 15. The United States’ populationis growing slowly, while Germany and some other industrialized nations are losing populations.
  29. 29. LDCs vs. MDCs: Population by Age and Sex
  30. 30. 3.3.8 Where Do We Live? The natural setting is the most important factor China and India are most populous countries  China has a population of 1.4 billion  India has a population of 1.3 billion  1/3 of people on earth today are Chinese or Indian United States ranks as 3rd most populated  Migration the most important factor in increasing population
  31. 31. World Population Cartogram The demographic heavyweights of China and India stand outin the world population cartogram. The United States and Indonesia, the world’s third and fourth most populous countries, are prominent too.
  32. 32. Population Density
  33. 33. 3.3.9 Geography of Migration Migration refers to the movement of people  Within a community, within a country or between countries  Emigrant One who moves FROM a place  Immigrant One who moves TO a place Migration is driven by Push and Pull Factors  Examples of Push Factors  When hunger or lack of land “pushes” people from rural areas into cities, or when warfare or natural disasters push people from one place to another  Examples of Pull Factors  Moving to a new area to take advantage of a job or educational opportunity
  34. 34. Global Migration TrendsThe global picture of people on the move. The major trends are of migrants in search of work in more affluent countriesand of refugees driven by warfare or environmental
  35. 35. 3.3.10 How Many People Will Live on Earth? Although it has been possible to calculate how many people have lived on the earth in the past with some confidence, projecting future numbers is difficult  Will birth rates fall faster than anticipated in developing world?  Will death rates surge due to disease or other epidemics? Predictions by the United Nations  In 2050, the global population will be 9.3 billion  The maximum number of people that will ever live on the earth at one time will be 10 billion in 2100
  36. 36. Family Planning Billboard in Cairo, Egypt This sign on the main square in Cairo, Egypt, urges parentsto have no more than two children “for the sake of a better
  37. 37. UN Projections for World Population Growth
  38. 38. 3.3.11 The Malthusian Scenario Thomas Malthus  English clergyman who lived during Industrial Revolution  He postulated that human populations, growing geometrically or exponentially, would exceed food supplies, which grow only arithmetically or linearly  He predicted a catastrophic human die-off as a result of this irreconcilable equation Neo-Malthusians vs. Technocentrists  Neo-Malthusians insist that birth rates must be brought down or humans will suffer nature’s solution, a catastrophic increase in death rates  Technocentrists are optimists who believe people can raise the earth’s carrying capacity
  39. 39. Malthusian Scenario of People vs. Resources
  40. 40. Technocentric View of People vs. Resources
  41. 41. 3.3.12 What Is “Overpopulation”? People Overpopulation  Characteristic of the LDCs  Many persons, with each using a small quantity of natural resources daily to sustain life Consumption Overpopulation  Characteristic of the MDCs  Fewer persons, but each uses a large quantity of natural resources from ecosystems around the world
  42. 42. Overpopulation Models: People & Consumption
  43. 43. 3.4 An Action Plan for Global Problems Death Rate Solution & Lifeboat Ethics Birth Rate Solution & Sustainable Development
  44. 44. 3.4.1 Death Rate Solution & Lifeboat Ethics “Let nature take its course”  Allow people imperiled by famine or other catastrophe to perish Lifeboat Ethics  Introduced by ecologist Garrett Hardin  Instead of seeing earth as a “global village” with a single carrying capacity, views the world as a number of distinct “lifeboats,” each occupied by the citizens of single countries  Each wealthy nation is a lifeboat comfortably seating a few people  Each poor nation is a lifeboat so overcrowded that many fall overboard  While the occupants of the rich lifeboats can choose to take on the overboard refugees, Hardin suggests not, instead preserving their own standard of living and ensuring the world’s safety for themselves and their future generations
  45. 45. Lifeboat Ethics
  46. 46. 3.4.2 Birth Rate Solution & Sustainable Development People must change their worldviews and value systems, recognizing finiteness of resources and reducing their expectations to a level sustainable by earth’s capabilities People should recognize that development and environmental protection are compatible People should consider the needs of future generations more Communities and countries should strive for self-reliance, particularly through the use of appropriate technologies LDCs need to limit population growth as a means of avoiding the destructive impacts of people overpopulation Governments need to practice land reform, particularly in LDCs Economic growth in MDCs should be slowed to reduce effects of consumption overpopulation Wealth should be redistributed between MDCs and LDCs