Examples• Island Arc>>Aleutian Islands• Ocean trenches>>Marianna Trench• Fold Mountains>>The Andes (South America)• Submarine Volcanoes>>Surtsey Island (Iceland)• Continental Hotspot>>Yellow Stone NationalPark(North America)• Shield Volcanoes>>Hawaii• Sea Floor spreading>>Mid Atlantic Ridge(Eurasianplate and North American Plate )
Plate Boundaries• Conservative>>San Andreas Fault (NorthAmerican and Pacific Plate)• Constructive>>Iceland(North American andEurasian)• Destructive>>South American andNazca Plates• Collision>>India(Eurasian and Indianna plate)
Examples of Earthquake Impacts• Unconsolidated sediments>>Armenian(1988)earthquake 95% of the buildingswere destroyed in Leninakan• Landslides>> 1964 Alaskan Earthquakehad $1.26 billion worth of damage• Aftershock>>Indonesian Earthquake(2004) 9.3 magnitude had an aftershockof 6.1
Earthquake prediction examples• Park Field centre (America) hadmonitoring equipment to watch for anytell tale earthquake signs• Quake Finder is a device that measureselectromagnetic changes in the ground tosense if the earthquake is coming
Northridge Case StudyBackground:• Los Angeles sustains $1.07 billion damage peryear• MEDCPhysical aspects:• The Pacific Plate moves past the NorthAmerican Plate at 45mm• Happened along the San Andreas Fault• Conservative plate boundary• Depth of the focus 17.5 km• Occurred along a blind fault• Magnitude of 6.7 with aftershocks of 5.9 and5.6• 17th January 1994Social:• 57 people were killed• 11 hospitals suffered structural damage• 9,000 people were injured• 20,000 people were displaced from their homeEnvironmental• 50 fires broke out in the San Fernando Valley• 11,000 landslides were triggered• Landslides blocked roads and damaged waterlinesEconomical:• 12,500 buildings suffered• Roads were damaged up to 32km from the epicentre• 11 hospitals suffered structural damage• Three storeys of the Northridge Meadow apartment buildingcollapsed• 170 bridges were damaged• 2,500 multi-story car parks were damaged 3km from epicentre• 700,000 applications for financial help were made to FEMA• The football scoreboard at Anakeim Stadium collapsed overseveral 100s of seats• Olive View hospital withstood the earthquake after building worktook place after the ?1974? earthquake• 82,000 homes and businesses were without electricity• 50,000 without water• It cost the US $20 billion dollars to recover the damage caused• Only 20% of the businesses in Northridge carried earthquakeinsurance• Santa Monica freeway and Golden state freeway were bothdamaged•Management:• Larse is mapping out all hidden fault lines to allow buildings to notbe built along them• Larse uses sound waves travelling near the earth’s surface todetect fault lines• The ARC(American Red Cross) sheltered 22,000 people• The ARC spent $36 million looking after people after theearthquake
Japanese earthquakePhysical:• 9 on the Richter scale• Epicentre of the earthquake was 130km off thecoast of Japan• Northern Japan sits on the Eurasian plate and thePacific plate. The pacific plate moves westwardssinking underneath the Eurasian• The subduction caused the ocean to move by 40 Mcreating the massive waves• Highest wave was 30 m• 90/400 nuclear reactors are on plate boundariesSocial:• 15,400 people died• Half a million people lived in sheltersEconomical:• Damage was estimated at $120 billion -$230 billion>>2.5-4.0% of Japans GDP• Factories were damaged by the disaster meaningthere a was a direct decrease in supply exports• The draw back from nuclear power means anincrease dependence on fossil fuels• Increased government debt 225% of annual GDPEnvironmental:• A dam in the North East of Fukishimaburst its banks causing water tosweep away many homes• 400 millisieverts hour was theradiation level emitted by the nuclearreactorManagement:• Japan’s automated system managedto shut down the reactors• They get mobile alerts for varioustectonic activity• At Mikato they had a 10m high seawall• 70,000 people were forced to migrate35km away
Gujarat India earthquakePhysical:• 26th January 2001• 7.9 on the Richter scale• 17 km focusSocial:• Death toll 20,000• 160,000 people seriously injuredManagement:• 5,000 troops were deployed and 40 aircraft military to help clear rubble• A building regulation set up in 1998 to prepare was ignoredEconomical:• 800,000 buildings suffered damage• Bhuj Bhachau Anja lost 90% of the buildings• Cost of the earthquake is around $4-5 billion•
Sichuan Earthquake ChinaPhysical:• The earthquake happened on the 12 May2008• 7.9 magnitude• Shaking lasted 5 minutes• Shallow focus of 19 km• Several aftershocks exceeding 6.0• 315 million tonnes of water could haveweakened the fault increasing stressesSocial:• Over 5 million homeless• 70,000 death toll• Landslides caused 1,000 deaths• Heavy rainfall triggered a mudflow killing 158rescue people• Environmental:• A train in the Gansa area spilt 500 tonnes ofgasoline the fires it produced took 40 hoursto put out•Economical:• 80% of houses collapsed• $150 billion estimated cost of the damage• 5.4 million buildings collapsedManagement:• Authorities had to evacuate 250,000 people forfear of them drowning as a result of the waterescaping from damns• Earthquake building code set down in 1976 ismandatory in China however many have ignoredit• 1.3 billion dollars used to reconstruct 2,600schools• 169 new hospitals to be built and 860,000 newcity apartments will be built
Sichuan extra 2013• 90% of houses damaged as building regulations stillignored• 7 on the richter scale• Around 200 dead(figure debatable)• "100%" of houses in the 9 towns and townships and inthe county seat were damaged (Lushan area)• However, around 60 giant pandas in the WolongNational Nature Reserve in Yaan, were left unharmedby the devastating earthquake. (sorry this just mademe laugh as it was on a genuine news report)
Christ Church New Zealand and aftershockPhysical:• The earthquake struck on 4th September 2010• 7.1 on the Richter scale• 22nd February 2011 and after shock struck ChristChurch registering 6.3 on the Richter scale• The aftershock was 5km in depth of focus• It happened at12:51pm causing more deathsSocial:• Nobody died in the first instance• 181 people died as a result of the aftershockEnvironmental:• Canterbury plains are made up of alluvial sedimentshave a large water storage units so the earthquakecaused significant liquefactionEconomical:• $16 billion New Zealand dollars’ worth of damage• Six storey Canterbury television building collapsed• 100,000 damaged buildingsManagement:• Geonet detects and monitorsearthquakes can provideemergency services with info withina few minutes of an earthquake• Earthquake commission fundsGeonet it also funds programs forpeople Quakesafe their homes• The AMI stadium has beenreinforced by 10m stone columnswhich can stop liquefaction
Boxing day Tsunami 2004:Physical:• The earthquake occurred under the Indianocean• Measured 8.9 on the richter scale• Focus 10 km• The epicentre was 256km from Indonesia• The indian plate was pushed under theEurasian plate along a 1040km fault lineSocial:• 5,395 dead in Thailand• 120,000 people have been effected by damagecaused to the fishing industry• In India 9,000 people died• 12,500 people were displaced by the flooding• Environmental:• 20/199 of the Maldive islands were destroyedEconomical:In thailand• The hotels only managed to fill 10% oftheir rooms out 35,000• International passenger arrivals inPhuket airport were reduced by 88%• Effected tourist areas stood to loseabout 5 million tourists• 1 in 5 hotels had to close• In Somalia 1000 homes were destroyed• 240,000 fishing boats were lost
Kobe earthquake:Physical:• Epicentre Awaji Shima an island 20km from Kobe• 17th January 1995• Focus was 20km• Happened at 5:46 am meaning commuters were making their way to workSocial:• 4751 dead 59% of those people were old so more vulnerable• 236,899 people needed emergency shelterEconomical:• 85% of schools were damaged• Power failure lasting for 7 days• 25% of phone lines were damaged• 85% of gas was off for over 3 months causing more deaths to the elderly as the averagetemperature was 2˚CManagement:• 1.13 million volunteers arrived to help local communities giving $50 billion dollars in the first• few years alone•
Haiti Case studyBackground:• Damage was increased by widespread poverty ,badinfrastructure ,food insecurity• 80% live below the official poverty live• 86% people live in poorly built slums or concrete buildings• 80% are unemployed•Physical:• Magnitude 7 earthquake>>sedimentary shaking of rocks• Conservative plate boundary between the Caribbean andnorth American plates• Focus 10km below the earth’s surface• Predominant composition of sedimentary which is moreprone to shaking• Aftershocks ranged from 4.5-5.9• Slippage of 1.8m• Epicentre was 15km from the capitol Port Au PrinceSocial• 230,000 people killed• 3,889 people died from the cholera endemic• 3.5 million people were affected by the earthquake 2.8million of which in Port Au Prince• 60,000 people migrated from the capitol of Port Au Prince• ¼ of civil servants dead•Environmental• 20 million m³ of rubble on the ground less than 5% hasbeen clearedEconomical• $5.8 billion dollars’ worth of damage• A lot of corruption and lack of knowledge of whichpeople own land meaning no new houses can bebuilt• Port au prince is a very vulnerable capitol asbuilding regulations are inadequate and it is overcrowded• 4000 schools were damaged• 1/5 of jobs were lost due to the earthquake• The international airport was unusable as powercontrols were damaged•Management• In September 2011 one million people living intemporary housing• 87% of homeless people are still in the temporaryhousing• Within 24 hours a medical team from Iceland hadlanded• 50 Chinese people followed to act as anothermedical team• British search and rescue teams reached Haiti 5days after the earthquake
Volcanic Examples• Evacuation>>5,000 residents of Montserrat were evacuated 3 timesbetween December 1995-August 1996 (63% of the population)• Hazard resistance design>>People in Hawaii have timber houses• In Iceland during the Heimaey(1973) they used 6 million cubic metres ofwater to spray on the lava to avoid shutting the harbourExtrusive activity:• Geyser>>Strokkur geyser, Iceland• Hot Spring>>Beppu Japan• Fumaroles>>Four peaked Volcanoes Alaska• Boiling Muds>>Fountain paint pots (Yellowstone National Park)AmericaIntrusive activity:• Dykes>>Scottish isles of Mull and Skye• Batholiths>>Dartmoor and Isle of Arran• Metamorphic Aureole>>Henry Mountains in Utah America• Laccoliths>>Eildon Hills Scottish borders
Montserrat volcanoBackground:• LEDC• Part of the British Colony• Caribbean tourist hotspotPhysical:• Early activity like ash emissions, steam explosions and numerousearthquakes• The steam and ash reached heights of 2500m• March 1996 huge ash cloud and pyroclastic flow happened• The climax occurred on the 25th June 1996 4.5 million m³ of asherupted from the volcano• 11th February 2009 40 million m³ of rubble from the north easternportion of the lava dome collapsedSocial:• A lot of post-traumatic stress disorder• The pyroclastic flow killed 19 people• Between 1995-1999 the population decreased from 10,000 -3,000growing back to 5,000 after 2006• Silicosis a lung disease effected a lot of peopleEnvironmental:• Only 40km² out of 100km² was safe to live on• The southern island was completely destroyed• The eruption in 1995 effected 63km around the island• 1/3 of the tropical rainforests were damaged• The soil was enriched with volcanic ash• Feral farm animals like cows have caused problems in the exclusionszones destroying native speciesEconomical• Plymouth was eventually buried in over 10m of ash andmud and the airport and docking facilities were destroyed• The construction a new airport cost £11 million known asGerald’s 2005• 1,500 people flocked to the island looking for jobs as theywere construction workers• Enrolment in all schools dropped from 2,672-620 between1996-1998• 300 fulltime farmers lost their land as a result of theexplosions• Montserrat is now dependant on food imports• In 1997 annual tourists were at 4,000 when they shouldhave been 15,000• 400 students left the medical school (American Universityof the Caribbean)• Money has also been invested into attracting new sets oftourists to the Caribbean like families or travellers not justnewlyweds or nearly deadsManagement• They set up temporary shelters to the North• 7,000/01,000 inhabitants left for the UK or Antigua• A new observatory centre has been set up in Montserrat• UK government spent £100 million assisting migration• Stations with infra-red sensors which detect air pressurewhich are set of as a result of eruptions have been set up• 2004 a 5 million grant from the UK was given by aorganisation called international development to build morehotels to boost the tourist industry again• 2,000 new homes built as most of the population is still intemporary accommodation
Mount EtnaBackground:• Europe’s largest volcano• The mountain was 2368m high• One of the most active volcanoes in the world• Calderas surrounds Etna• Collision of the African and Eurasian >continental platesPhysical:• Eruption 14th December 1991Environmental:• Effusive lava flows lasted 473 days• Lava destroyed the springs which provided the water supply for ZafferanaEconomical:• Insurance claims ran into millions• Vineyards and chestnuts orchards were destroyed• Only one house was destroyed• Tourist industry boomed once the volcano was safe to visit• 25% of the population lived on the slopes of Mount Etna meaning they had to move• Ski station at Piano Provenzana was destroyed by lava flowsManagement:• They constricted earth barriers perpendicular to the flow direction diverting 30% of the lava flow they did by usingconcrete blocks to halt lava flow and then managed to dig a diversion channel• They sourced explosives to disrupt the lava flows away from Zafferana• The earth barrier built in 1992 was 400m long and 20m high managed to contain the lava for a month• US Marines operated the explosives
Mount PinatuboPhysical:• Typhoons created Lahars and flooding• 1991• Massive tropical storm of Yunya caused thelaharsEconomical:• 1,000,000+ farm animals died, manythrough starvation.• 650,000 workers lost their jobs.Social:• Disease spread quickly, Malaria, Chicken Poxand diarrhoea. Also heavy treatment forrespiratory and stomach disorders.• 700 deaths: 6 as a direct result, 600+ fromdisease and 70 from drowning in lahars.94% of the deaths were from the Aeta tribe.There were unaccustomed to beingsurrounded by modern day diseases andfood. It was mainly children that died as aresult of disease (Eg. Measles)Environmental:• Ash cloud and sulphur compounds shieldedthe Earth from the sun’s rays; the globaltemperature was reduced by 0.5ͦc.Management:• Some Indigenous Aeta tribe displaced. 58,000people evacuated.• Philippine Institute of volcanology and seismology(PHIVOLCS) was alerted when small steam eruptionswere seen. Also USGS (United States GeologicalSurvey) were called in to monitor the eruption andattempt to predict the activities.• 7 seismic stations set up surrounding the volcano byMay. (They were linked back to the PinatuboVolcano Observatory (PVO) which had been set upon Clark Air Base).• SOշ levels monitored every day. Closer to eruption,up to 5000 tonnes were emitted every day.Measured by a COSEC machine.• Deposit samples taken from previous eruptions. Treeremnants found showing only a previous 4/5eruption in 2000 years. (Few eruptions usually meanthey are more violent when they do happen).• Alert Level 1 Small scale evacuations, villageswithin 10km of summit were evacuated. Expensiveequipment removed from Clark Air Base.• Alert Level 3 Predicted within 24 hours. 120,000people evacuated from a 10 mile radius. By 10thJune, nearly all of Clark Air Base was evacuated.Evacuation radius now extended 30km.
NyiragongoBackground:• Located in the Virunga mountains within DemocraticRepublic of Congo.• Associated with the African rift valley.• 20km north Goma, just West of the Rwandan border.• 2002Physical:• Beneath Nyiragongo, the African plate is splitting apartcreating a rift valley.• Very fluid alkaline magma rises up through the gapcreated by the rifting.• The magma that erupts from Nyiragongo has a low silicacontent and can flow at speeds of up to 60mph.Social:• 120,000 homeless• 147 people were killed• Eye irritation, respiratory problems and diseases causedby contaminated water and fumes• Looting from abandoned homes and petrol store whichexploded, killing looters.Environmental:• 13km fissure opened in the south of the volcano• Lake Kivu, a major source of drinking water, was pollutedby sulphuric lava.• High temperatures caused fears of toxic gases releasingfrom the lake bed.Economical:• From this lava formed a 600m wide, 2m deepstream that reached Goma in a few hours, causingfires• This destroyed 4500 (15%) of Goma’s buildings• Infrastructure, including communications andtransport links, was destroyed• Goma airport was partially covered in lava• Unemployment due to destroyed businessesManagement:• UN bring in humanitarian aid 2 days after eruption.• Rations included high energy food e.g. biscuits.• UN also set up refugee camps at a cost of $15million (Repair cost was even higher)• Medical attention required – treatments for smokeand fume inhalation.• Because advanced warning systems from wealthiercountries meant the population was warned inadvance.• The city of Goma was damaged, but was farenough from Nyiragongo to allow evacuation.• If the eruption had happened 100 years ago,before organisations like the USGS, the death tollwould have been much higher.
Puyehue-Cordón CaulleBackground:• Puyehue volcano has a 2.4 km wide summitcaldera• The Cordón Caulle geothermal area has a 6by 13 km wide depression and is the largestactive geothermal area in the AndesPhysical:• Eruption began on the 4th of June, 2011.• It was caused by the Cordon Caulle, notPuyehue• The ash cloud reached 12km high• 230 earthquake tremors occurred in onehour•Social:• 3,500 people were evacuatedEnvironmental:• Sulphur and other gases were emitted• An estimated one hundred million tons ofash, sand and pumice were ejected• The eruption produced lightning and strongstorms and some power cuts• The temperature of the Nilahue River rose to45 °C and killed an estimated 4.5 million fish• Economical:• Bariloche, Buenos Aires, Neuquén and Melbourneairports were closed due to ash• 4.5 million fish dead had a big impact on the fishingeconomy• The cattle economy was also damaged• The ash cloud led Argentina to declare a state ofemergency for farmers as the eruption continued toeffect the 2 million sheep that graze in Chubut• Macquarie Equities placed the cost of disruptions toairlines at $21 million for Qantas and $11 million forVirgin AustraliaManagement:• The ONEMI put Chile on “red alert• Evacuees were moved into temporary shelters but bythe 19th of June the ONEMI decided that all 4,200evacuees could return home, as the scale of theeruption continued to decrease• The Argentinian government supplied $2.41 billiondollars to 1,400 farmers and businesses in the areaaffected and planned to spend $7 million on thecleanup operation• 3,500 people were evacuated
Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia (5)Social:• Lahars killed 18,000 people in the town of Chinchina and 22,000 people inArmero (nearly 70% of the population of Armero)• Most of the housing was destroyed and 8000 people were made homelessEconomical:• Livestock and crops were destroyed - over 3400 hectares of agricultural land waslost• 60% of the regions livestock and 30% of sorghum’s rice crops were destroyed• Most roads, bridges, telephone lines and power supplies were destroyed and thewhole region was isolated• The cost of the eruption to the economy of Colombia was estimated at US$7.7billion (about 20% of GDP that yearManagement:• The hazards had already been mapped by scientists who had started gatheringdata since early 1985 and the hazard map was due to be presented the day afterthe disaster• In 1986 scienetists said people could return home however two days later therewas a mud flow in Armero
Examples of Types of Cities• Megacities:Delhi(India),Dhaka(Bangladesh), Lagos(Nigeria)• Metacities: Tokyo(Japan)World Cities:London(England),Chicago(America)
Mumbai:Back ground Problems:• 14,350,000 population• Indian Financial Centre and the centre ofBollywood• Population due to read 26 million by 2025Growth problems facing Mumbai• New migrants are coming in everyday wanting ashare of the new wealth• The port has enable India to become a exporter• Most of the migrants are uneducated andtherefore are not needed in a modern city• It has caused urban sprawl (cheap and poorlybuilt)• Massive overcrowding• Development of squatter settlements likeDharavi• The Mumbai Suburban Railway, created in 1853,links Mumbai to rest of India which is good forbusiness and trade making it the best way oftransport in Mumbai (7million/year). Meansmore people are being able to come to the areacausing a shortage in houses.Dharavi:• It is the biggest slum in Asia• Home to more than 600,000 people spreadover 175 hectaresEconomical:• Industries are estimated to make$700million dollars worth per year• There are 4,500 industrial units in Dharaviproducing leather,clothes,jewellry,food andsoap• Huge recycling industry employing 250,000people• Less than 10% is legal buisinessProblems:• Dharavi restricts the growth of Mumbai• Dharavi sits south of the Mithi River not farfrom Bandra Kurla Complex>Majorbuisiness hub• Huge hubs or typhoid and cholera
Mumbai continued:SRA Development:• The slum dwellers whose names wason the voters list of 1995 will beeligible for rehabilitation• Each family will be allotted 225square foot free of cost• The residents will have to pay fortheir own water and electricity• They gain widerroads,electricity,ample water,medicalcentres,and playgrounds/schools• Dharavi will be divided into 10sectors a developer responsible foreach one• Buildings will be 7 storeys high• The non polluting businesses inDharavi will be kept they will also beprovided with modern technology2004 Dharavi plan:• 1 million low cost homes will be built• Slum populations will fall to 10-12%instead of 60%• There will be 325 open green spaces• 300 public toilets• The land that Dharavi is built on isworth $10 billion dollars as it has aprime location• For every sqft of new affordablehousing built the developers will beallowed 30% commercial developmente.g for shops• By 2013 it is supposed to be a worldclass location
Examples of city areas• 1960-1981 1.6 million jobs were lost fromthe inner city areas• 1994 the inner cites had an unemploymentrate of 50% higher than the rest of thecountry• New Town>>Telford (west midlands)• Expanded Towns>>Bromsgrove andDroitwich
Suburbanisation: (7)Why people moved:• Home to TV and film industry, so workers havehigher paid jobs• Higher disposable incomes means that carownership increases so commute to work• Other services locate here as people can affordto use the service• Higher incomes means people want largerhouses with gardens and garages for family• Increased I.T technology allows people to workfrom home• Only 7.8% in Beverly Hills do not own cars• Certain races forced out due to migration ofanother race causes suburbanisation• E.g. Compton is a poorer district where 28% donot own cars, populated with Hispanics.• When the Hispanic people moved intoCompton, the previous race, of white ethnicbackground moved out. Causes LA to spreadfurther out = Urban sprawl•• Case Study: Los Angeles, USA:• Located south California, West USA• 3.8 million people in 2006• Young unskilled workers attracted to thearea due to Hollywood and Beverly Hills,film and TV industry• Effects: the movement of people andexcessive amounts of suburbanisationcauses urban sprawl.• Problems:• More congestion of cars travelling inner city• Pollution :air, noise, visual• Higher crime rates in poorer districts e.g.Compton• Shortage of houses• Urban sprawl, loss of rural areas, countryside and villages. Social segregation, allwealthy in suburbs and poor are trapped.
Suburbanisation facts• In 2008 it was the plan to build 490,000 newhomes in the west midlandsLongbridge (brownfield) (4)• Birmingham City Council and BromsgroveDistrict Council• a regional transportation interchange with1,000 park and ride spaces, and the creation ofat least 10,000 jobs.• Birmingham CC lead on the project, andWorcestershire CC and Bromsgrove DC havebeen involved• Huge plot - 468 acres• £1 billion Longbridge scheme is one of thelargest regeneration projects in the WestMidlands• 2,000 new homesBrecon View housing – Gornal(greenfield):• There are four primary schoolsand four secondary schoolslocated nearby• Sainsburys Supermarket lessthan a mile away but Dudleytown centre, located less thantwo miles away, has high streetstores and boutiques.• Tandon, Greens and LowerGornal Medical Centres closeby
Case Study: Notting Hill GentrificationLondon borough of Kensington and ChelseaWest London• During the Victorian times the area was rough and full of working class people• In the 1950’s it became a slum area of inner city deprivation• 1958 was the race riots between Afro Caribbean and the ‘Teddy Boys’• 1959 The Notting Hill Carnival was started by Claudia Jones as a response to the riots and the stateof race relations in Britain at the time.• Area is famous for Portobello market and carnivalWhat?• Past 30 years it undergone gentrification e.g. primrose Hill• Property prices have rose to £4million• Secluded communal gardens = more desirable for wealthy families with children• ‘Notting Hill’ movie helped popularise the area although gentrification had already happened• Now has 21 screen cinema opened in 2001• Many services such as boutiques, restaurants e.g. Feng sushi, wine bars etc.
Counter Urbanisation:Copmanthorpe:• Few km south west of York• Become commuter villages• The A64 provides a fast link between York and LeedsImpacts:• The population increased from 1,261 (1961)-4,008(1991)• 50% of the population have two or more cars• And 32% of the population is between 35-65• Gained a hair dressers, cooperative, and a fish and chip shop• Also has an improved toddler play groupBayston Hill (48km from Shrewsbury):• Has a population of 5,500 in 2007• In 1971 1520 new homes were built• Before 1971 the population was 2000 it grew to5345• The Meole Brace retail park was built in the1980s to attract new shoppers• 97% of people still use local shopsSwardeston (7km south west of Norwich)• Has commuter services into Norwich(busesand park and ride)• Many of the new homes are very expensive7/9 of the houses are above the UK averageof 168,000• The village shop closed down as a result of aTesco extra opening 5km away
Examples or re-urbanisationprojects• English Partnerships>>Milton Keynes• Local Enterprisepartnerships>>Northampton,Hereford• UDCs>>London Thames Gateway• Gentrification>>Islington ,Battersea(London)
UDC Thames Gateway Case Study:• Starts on canary wharf>1988• 97 acres of pleasant working environment(open spaces, parks)• 14.1 million sqft of office and retail space• 90,000 people work in canary wharf• Businesses are attracted to it as it is close toHSBC, and Barclays which are internationalcompanies• Close to London City Airport• Stratford City has gained 35,000 new jobs outof the hoped 46,000• £1.5billion investment by DP World(LargestMarine Terminal Operator)Re-urbanisation Projects: Flagship project Cardiff Bay:• Ended in March 2000• 1250 new apartments were built• 5 star luxury hotel was built in2000(St David’s)• Welsh Millennium Centre(nationalopera centre)• 5780 new houses were built• 31,000 new jobs• £1.8 billion private finance wasinvested• £700 million international sportvillageAims:• To reunite Cardiff with it’swaterfront• To build a superb living andworking environment• Create a wide range of jobs
Re-Urbanisation continuedNDC Aston Pride :• Government funded operatingfrom 2001-2011• Designed to improve the lives of17,300 residents• £8m investment in a brand newhealth care with longer openinghours• Key stage 2 performance improvedfrom 49.1%(2002) of studentsgetting through secondary schoolto 73%(2010)• Key stage 4 performance wentfrom 34.2%(2002)-83% (2010)• 2,500 computers have beenintroduced into residents homes• 1328 local residents foundemployment• The areas has reached the 3rd safest inthe UK and has a burglar rate of 265per 1000• Local area is now a much cleaner placeas the number of residents reporting aproblem went from 56%-32%• £470,000 community chest projectsupported 4,100 residents,440volunteers in new projects• The project^ was supported by405/500 of the local businesses in theAston Pride area• Over 8,500 have received support inthe health service• Over 3,000 people have receivedsupport for domesticabuse,welfare,materniry or healthyeating programmes
Re-Urbanisation Continued ContinuedRDAs(Regional Development Agency)West Midlands:• 150,000 new businesses were assistedto help improve performance• 10,000 businesses set up• 1,200 hectares of brownfield site wasbuilt on• New Street Station (Birmingham) had£100million invested in it creating10,000 new jobs• 392 inward investment projects byinternational companies managing tosafe guard 12,161 jobsNDCs• £5.8 billion of funding pouredinto supporting 1,000 schemesacross england• The developed areas showedimprovements in 32 out of 36 ofthe core indicators
Out of town Shopping Centre RetailTrafford Centre Manchester:• 5.5million people live 45 minutes away from it this is because people can travel fromLiverpool in the west and lees and Stoke on Trent to the north• In 2005 29.4 million people visited the centre with a peak during December• It has a 16,000 seat food court• Has a bowling alley and an ODEON cinema• UKs busiest cinema, attracting more than 28,500 visitors each week• It has a large furniture department created in 2006• It is very accessible as it is close to m6,m61,m62• 11,000 free car parking spaces• Also a bus station which sees 120 buses an hour• It is made up of 4 floors and a leisure village• 280 stores/services• total space for:,Retail: 185,000 m2,Leisure: 16,258m2,Dining: 13,935m2• Construction took 27 months costing approximately £600 million, approximately £750M asof 2012• 35 million visitors annuallyEffects of the CBD:• Leads to discount and charity shops in CBD
In town Shopping CentresBullring(Birmingham) :• In 2004 on it’s first year it had 36.5 millionvisitors• 125,300 square metres or retail space• 4 floors• More than 160 stores and 25 restaurants• 37 million visitors are attracted to theBullring each year• Has attracted shops like Zara, Next,TopShop• The 15,000 aluminium discs on the exteriormake for a tourist spot• Open 11-5 on Sundays• 350,000 flocked to the Bullring boxing day2012 for the sales• It has 1 of the 4 Selfridges stores in the UK• Attracts customers from New York• 4th largest Debenhams and the onlyForever 21 in EuropeTouchwood ( Solihull):• Created over 2,000 retail jobs• Close partnerships have beendeveloped with John Lewis and theJob Centre• 20 restaurants and a Cine World• 265,000 sqft John Lewisdepartment store• There are 104 stores and servicesOther small points• establishing theme areas, such asthe gay area in Manchester and• the cultural quarters in Sheffieldand Stoke• developing flagship attractions, forexample the photographic museumin Bradford• promoting street entertainment,such as at Covent Garden in London
Sustainability Curitiba Brazil and Mumbai• South West of Sao Paulo• Jamie Lerner was elected mayor in 1971and wanted it to become ‘a city of peoplenot cars’• It has 5 structural arteries that run east towest and are encouraged to havedeveloped Areas along them• This ^ diverts traffic from the city centre• In 1970 there was 0.5 km² of green spaceper person now there is 5km²• There are 26 parks in the city and 1.5million trees• There are 40 special features for feedingstreet childrenTransport:• There is a bus and sub way system• The transport is cheap and reliable as75% of commuters us them• 25% less congestion and 30% lower fuelconsumption• The buses have three compartments eachbus can hold 270 people• 10% of your wage goes to transportThe green swap programme:• Citizens are asked to sort rubbish into organicand inorganic the rubbish is then collectedand taken to plants• The plants employ recovering Alcoholics andHomeless people• Recovered materials are sold to localindustries• The programme is voluntary and 70% ofhouseholds are involved• Highest recycling rate 70%• At collection point in Favelas dwellers receivein exchange for their rubbish basic food bagsfrom farmers of the stateMumbai recycling Industry:• Dharavi turns round waste from 19 million residents• They recycle plastic, ball point pens, vats of waste ofsoap• 15,000 single room factories processing 400 tins aday• Dharavi’s recycling industry employs 250,000 people• 805 of Mumbai’s plastic waste is recycled• The plastic recycling industry employs 10,000 peoplealone
London Congestion Charge:• London has a congestion charge to raise funds for London’stransport system• £8 charge each day and £10 for a vehicle travelling 7am-6pmMonday to Friday• Fine of £60-£180 for non-payment• Congestion was costing £2million a week for business• It has increased bus usage• 26% reduction in congestion since 2006• £137 million raised in 2007-2008 spent to improve London’stransport system• Reduction in road accidents by 40%-70%
Examples of Urban heat Island• Precipitation>>5-15% more in urban areas• Temperature>>can be up to 5 degreeswarmer in urban areas• Thunderstorms>>25% greater chance ofthunder storms
Kuching Indonesia:• It has nearly 1 million inhabitants most of the city is 27mabove sea levelWeather:• it has daily temperatures in the shade ranging from 25degrees in the morning and 33 in the afternoon• It is the wettest city in the world with an annual rain fall of4,000mm• Ambient day temperatures can range from 28-40 degrees• Evaporation rates are high and lead to violent storms• The citys tarmac and buildings plus the heat from the outletsair conditioning units can lead to torrential rainfall in theCBD whilst the suburbs 2-10km away stay dryUrban heat island Case Study
Pollution control examples• Land use planning>>Curitiba (Brazil) separated zonesfor heavy industry and housing• Acts>>in 1960s the USA introduced a series of clean airacts and particulate emissions fell by 80%• Bad pollution>>Britain suffered 4,000 deaths in 1952from high incidence of coal particles in the air• Pollution reduction policies>>1956 (London)introduced smoke free zones• In Athens they created a traffic free zone 2km²•
• Hurricane Sandy (2012)• Physical:• Category 3 hurricane• Largest Atlantic hurricane on record• 1,100 miles in diameter• On October 25, Sandy hit Cuba as a Category 3hurricane• then weakened to a Category 1 hurricane. Early onOctober 26, Sandy moved through the BahamasEconomic• Damage was $75 billion• In Jamaica, winds left 70% of residents withoutelectricity, blew roofs off buildings• $100 million dollars’ worth of damage in Jamaica• Cuba sustained $2 billion dollars’ worth of damageEnvironmental• As a result of the flooding Haiti experience serious foodshortages• In Cuba, there was extensive coastal flooding and winddamage inland, destroying some 15,000 homes• The remnants of Sandy produced high winds alongLake Huron and Georgian Bay, where gusts weremeasured at (63 mph). A (72 mph) gust was measuredon top of the Bluewater BridgeSocial• 285 people were killed• Killed one person in Jamaica• In Haiti, Sandys outer bands brought flooding thatkilled at least 54• 200,000 homeless in Haiti• 11 people died in CubaManagement:• Disney–ABC Television Group held a "Day ofGiving" on Monday, November 5, raising $17million on their television stations for theAmerican Red Cross• The United Nations and World FoodProgramme said they will send humanitarianaid to at least 500,000 people in Santiago deCuba• NBC raised $23 million during their HurricaneSandy: Coming Together telethon.• News Corporation donated $1 million to reliefefforts in the New York metropolitan area.
Cyclone Orissa, North East India,Physical:• 29th October 1999• Water reached 30km inland and theheavy rains continued for 36 hours• 270 km/hr. wind speeds. Storm Surgein Bay of Bengal, sea level rose by 9m.• 10 districts in Orissa were affectedSocial:• People ignored evacuation warnings,10,000 people died. However withdisease and injury the total was muchhigher than this.Economical:• 1,800,000 hectares of agricultural landwere damaged.• Several fishing villages on the coastwere washed away.• 1/3 of the state’s 2 million houses weredamaged and only well-built buildingsremained.•Environmental:• Food shortages and lack of clean water. 40,000wells were affected (Contaminated and broken).• 1,800,000 hectares of agricultural land weredamaged.Management• Central Indian government allocated 96,000tonnes of rice by March 2000. 50,000 tonnes ofwheat was supplied to the state government forconversion to flour.• 9000 cases of diarrhoea and over 160,000ailments Ministry of health supplied medicines.• Normal water supply has been restored in all theurban areas by early 2000.• Mid 2000- power restoration varied between 4%and 85%. It was proving difficult because ofmassive damage to transmission lines.• The United Nations prepared a long term actionplan to undertake various measure in Orissa. Theseincluded programmes to develop several sectorsincluding forestry, health and the environment.
Hurricane Mitch(1998)Physical:• winds reaching 180 mph.• Category 5 Hurricane.Environmental:• Heavy rainfall, some areasreceived as much as 18 inches inone day.• Rivers overflowed causingflooding.Social:• 19,325 deaths• 2.7 million people were lefthomeless• The contaminated flood waterresulted in an increased numberof malaria and cholera cases, 34people died of cholera out of the2328 people who caught it.Economical:• Farm land was destroyed which affected 29% of Honduras’arable land.• 70% of Honduras’ crops were destroyed by flooding.• An estimated 50,000 cattle were also killed.• 33,000 houses in Honduras alone were destroyed.• 50,000 houses in Honduras were damaged.• 25 small villages were thought to have been entirelydestroyedManagement:• The hurricane was predicted through the use of satelliteimages from space while it was still at sea.• Predictions of heavy rainfall and flooding were also made• Countries from around the world donated a total of $6.3billion (1998 USD)• US administration donated only $2 million which was ashock to many; this was later increased to $70 million. Themoney was used in the long run to help the economyrecover and so that houses could be rebuilt to withstandother hurricanes.
Cyclone nargisBackground:• Since 1962 the country has been ruled by amilitary junta with poor human right records theyhave a refusal to accept the scale of the problemand a reluctance to accept outside aidPhysical:• The tropical system developed from a lowpressure system in the Bay of Bengal• Winds reached 215 km• Storm surge of 7.6mSocial:• 2 million people were left with very little foodand water sources were contaminated by sewage,bodies and animal carcasses• Death toll 140,000• 5 million people made homeless• 75% of hospitals were badly damaged• In Sri Lanka 3,000 families were displaced and35,000 people were affected in all• 70% of the population had no acess to cleanwaterEnvironmental:• Five coastal regions-Yangon, Ayeyarwardy,Bago,Mon and Kayin were declared disaster zonesby the gouvernment• 600mm of rain destroyed low lying rice paddies ofthe Irrawaddy deltaEconomic:• The cost was estimated at $10 billion worth of damage• 450,000 homes were destroyed• 600,000 hectares of agricultural land was damaged• 60% of farming implements were lost• 95% of houses in low lying lands were washed away• Cyclone destroyed 42% of Burma’s food suppliesManagement:• Association of South East Asian Nations intervened tohelp facilitate exchanges of foreign aid into the country• UN planes carrying emergency supplies were firstallowed into the country on Sunday after days ofnegotiation and a consignment of high energy biscuitsfrom the World Food Programme• The UN and red cross declared that some 2.5 millionpeople were in urgent need of assistance• After international pressure the government eventuallyallowed aid into the country towards on the 23rd ofMay 2008• Thailand sent US$100,000 in supplies includingthirty tonnes of medical supplies• Indian weather stations warned the cyclone wasgoing to hit Burma 48 hours before it did• French Navy ship carrying 1,500 tonnes of supplieswas refused entry as they thought it was a war ship• Aid was sometimes seized by the military before itreached the vulnerable people
Hurricane Katrina: (4),(1),(4),(3),(7)Background:• One of the poorest cities in America 1/3 of people arebelow the poverty line• 1927 hurricane the levees broke and 246 people died• The city is surrounded by 350 miles of leveesPhysical:• New Orleans is 6-10ft below sea level• 80% of the town lies below sea level• The national hurricane centre had been monitoringKatrina for 3 days• August 2005 Katrina made landfall in New Orleans• Category 5 hurricane• Winds 280km/h• Storm surges were 8.2m highSocial:• 1,836 deaths due to flooding• Rumours of looting and rape of homesEnvironment:• The storm surge made it 20km inland• Mississippi levees broke in over 50 place 80%in the NewOrleans area• 5,300km² of forest was destroyed in Mississippi• Dauphin Island was breached by the storm and much ofthe sand was transported into the Mississippi Sound• 20% of marshlands were inundated with seawater sobreeding grounds for turtles were lostEconomic:• Cost of damage estimated at $150 billion US dollars• 3 million people had no electricity• Thirty oil platforms were damaged in the Gulf and 9refineries closed reducing production by 25%Management:• In 2004 Hurricane Pam simulation was tested out andthe levees were seen to be breached• They predicted that 70% would migrate but 127,000have no vehicles• At the Superdome there was food and water for15,000 people but 26,000 people turned up• They would need to spend $20 billion on the levees toprotect against a category 5• Of the 60,000 people stranded in new Orleans 33,500people were rescued by the Coast Guard• 58,000 of the national guard were activated to dealwith aftermaths of the storm• 60,000 people moved over 1,200km away and werestill there one month after the storm• FEMA paid for temporary hotel costs of 12,000individuals but by July 2006 10,000 people still lived intrailer parks• FEMA under Micheal Brown’s orders delayed aidagencies to go into the city• Aid didn’t arrive until 3 days after the hurricane struckmeaning people were suffering from dehydration
Hurricane examples• Lower Florida Key is 100 km long and has only one wayto the mainland would take 31 hours to evacuate• Hazard resilient design>>Galveston Texas was elevatedby 3.5m• Land Use Planning>>US Growth Management(1985)asked local councils to monitor thedevelopments on the coasts• The National Hurricane centre in Miami useGeostationary satellites• Bangladesh has concrete cyclone shelters designed toprovide refuge for people during cyclones
Global warming examples1. The UN estimate that average temperatures will rise by 3.5˚by21002. Over 650,000 years CO2 levels have never reached 300 partsper million3. More precipitation in fewer days>>37 inches of rain in 24 hoursMumbai India 20054. Artic ice cap diminished by 40% in 40 years5. If Greenland melted it would raise the sea levels by 20ft6. Himalayas provides water for 40% of the world but if it meltsthere will be major water shortages7. February 2000 the Japanese paid the government of NewSouth Wales in Australia £50 million to plant over 40,000hectares of trees in 20 years
The African SavannahStatistics:• Savannah lands are likely toexperience and increase intemperature of 1.5˚by 2025• Sea temperatures are due to rise by0.8˚• Precipitation due to increase by 15%near the equator• Precipitation may decrease by 10%to the north and south of theequator>>Horn of Africa• During the rainy season 25-50%more rainfall expected• A rise in sea level by 25cm ispredicted by 2050Climate:• The tropical wet/dry savannah climateis experienced over a huge area ofwestern Africa ,the rainforests andequator• an increase of variable rainfall couldlead to floods and droughts• With more frequent droughts therecould be an increase in desertification• Coral reefs along the east coast ofAfrica may be lost• Higher rainfall in the savannah landsnear the equator may lead to anincrease in trees• Increased rate of evapotranspirationmay result in lower annual discharge inrivers like Nile and Zambezi
International Protocols• 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de janero thedeveloped countries agreed to try and reduceemissions by 60%• In 1997 in Kyoto (Japan) 100 governmentssigned a climate change protocolAfter the protocol:• In July 2005 the G8 world leaders anddelegates from China,India,Brazil,south Africaand Mexico attended a conference in Glengles• The G8 countries are home to 13.5% of thetotal world population and 39% of thegreenhouses emission per year• UN Climate Change convention in Bali wasattended by 180 countries• When the G8 leaders met in 2008 in Japanthey promised to halve their greenhouse gasesby 2050The 1997 the protocol:• Most governments agreed that by2010 they should reduce theiremissions so they were less thanthey were 1990• The USA produces 15% more co2than it did at the start of the 20thcentury• President Bush failed to carry outthe protocol as he said it wasflawed• In 1996 the USA released 21% ofthe global co2 even though it has4% of the world population
National ResponsesClimate Change Programme(2006):• Building regulations tightened somore insulation• Vehicle exercise duty and company cartax changed so finical benefits comewith low carbon cars• The Carbon Trust was granted£65million from the government tohelp get small energy efficientbusinesses off the ground• In Scotland woodland creationschemes were sponsored as they weredesigned to reduce the amount ofnitrous oxideClimate Change Bill(2008):• By 2020 the country hopes to have 26%reduction in CO2 emissions from the1990 records• By 2050 they hope to decrease it by 60%• An annual review of targets by theindependent committee on climatechange• The creation of 5 year carbon budgetswhich set binding limits on CO2emissions• Expansion of the renewable transportfuels operation which will increase theproportion of biofuels used in transport• Assisting local authorities to improvetheir household waste reduction andrecycling scheme• The UK has not reached it’s currenttarget but has managed to meet theprotocol target!:P
The Great Storm: The depression began over the Bay of Biscay as aresult of south westerly winds carrying warm,wet air from the NorthAtlantic met with north easterly winds carrying cold air from the pole1. The depression deepened rapidly as a result of warm sea surfacetemperature and a steep temperature gradient of the two airmasses2. The Polar Front jet stream was located further south then normalso the depression formed over northern France and southernEngland3. On the 15th October pressure in the centre of the storm reached953 mb4. The storm hit the south coast of Cornwall and Devon shortly aftermidnight and moved over the midlands and reached the Humberestuary at 5:30 am on the 16th of October5. The depression began to weaken and moved over the North Sea
Impacts:Social:• 18 people died in England and 4 inNorthern France• 150,000 homes lost their telephoneconnections• Several hundred thousand peoplewere without power for 24 hoursEconomic :• Shanklin pier in the Isle of Wight wasdestroyed• Insurance claims totalled £1.4 billion• Gatwick airport closed and thousandsof boats were wreckedEnvironmental:• 15 million trees were blown down• Some areas lost 97% of their treesaffecting ecosystemsResponses and Management:• Phone companies and electricity boardsworked round the clock to resume normalservice• Highway agencies began to clear roads andrailways• Forestry workers collected fallen trees as 4million m³ of timber needed to be recovered• The Forestry Commission established theForest Windblown Action Committee tohelp advise people on how to recover fallentrees• The Met Office were criticised as severeweather warnings were only given 3 hoursbefore the storm hit• The government has now established anational severe weather warnings system• There was no prior warning given to the CGBthe current power suppliers at the time• The UK only had 8 stations for aerialmonitoring which was not enough
British Climate• March 2013 coldest march since recordsbegan more than 3 degrees lower thanaverage due to polar continental air• December 2010 was 4 degrees below theaverage it was caused by very highpressure blocking mild westerly winds sowe received artic air masses
Tropical Climate (West Africa)Climate:• There is a distinct wet season (May-September) which is a result of the Inter Tropical ConvergenceZone(ITCZ) moving northward• During the dry season (October- April) the overhead sun migrates south and the ITCZ rain belt moveswith it leaving Kano dryTemperature:• Temperatures are generally high and fluctuate slightly due to the fact that the sun remains high in thesky most of the year round• During December temperatures do dip slightly as the sun is at a lower angle• Cloud covering from the wet season can reduce the temperature and is blocks incoming radiation• During the dry season the lack of cloud means that heat escapes during the night• The wet season brings a very small range in temperaturePrecipitation:• During the wet season rain falls as heavy showers with thunder• Huge downpours are caused by high temperatures causing air to rise and meet the low pressure of theITCZWinds:• During the Dry season strong winds blows from the North knows as the west African trade wind or theHarmattan• The Harmattan brings dusty conditions to Northern Nigeria as it has travelled over a lot of desert regions