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GEOGRAPHY IGCSE: WATER. It contains: the demand for water, water management, case studies: UK, NIGERIA, INDONESIA, MALAYSIA. Water for agriculture, industrial use, domestic water use, management of water usage in MDEC and LEDC.

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  2. 2. The amount of water used in the world every day is very uneven. MEDCs use more water than LEDCs - households, farming and industry all demand water.
  3. 3. What the water is used for depends on the country. In general, LEDCs (like Bangladesh and Malawi) will have most of their water used in agriculture (farming) and little in industry or domestic use. Bangladesh has farming as a large part of its economy so a large percentage of their water is used for that purpose. MEDCs (like the UK) have a more significant use of water for domestic reasons. MEDCs also tend to have a higher percentage for industrial use. There are exceptions. The USA is an MEDC, but it still has a high amount of water used for agriculture because there is also lot of farming across the country.
  4. 4. The amount of water used per person in each country changes dramatically. The bar chart shows the total amount of water used per person in selected countries.
  5. 5. In MEDCs irrigation is mechanised. Sprinklers or timed irrigation feeds are used. Where agriculture is common, vast amounts of water can be released at the touch of a button. In LEDCs irrigation channels are prone to losing water through evaporation.
  6. 6. Industries in MEDCs can be on a large scale, and so demand a lot of water. The steel industry is an example of an industry which needs a large water supply for manufacturing purposes. LEDCs have smaller scale cottage industries. They demand less water in the production of items. However as more multinational companies locate in LEDCs there will be more demand on water. For example, in India, drinks manufacturers use over a million litres of water a day to produce drinks.
  7. 7. In MEDCs there are a lot of facilities which demand water use. For example, showers, baths, washing machines and swimming pools. In LEDCs many people do not have access to piped water and so use it more sparingly. Water may be brought to the home from a well or stream. As a country becomes more wealthy, there will be an increase in its demand for water. Higher levels of industrialisation and more domestic goods such as washing machines all lead to an increase in demand for water. With greater wealth there is also more demand for spas, golf courses and even baths and showers.
  8. 8. There are problems in supplying water in MEDCs. These are: • the quality of available water • distribution • the seasonal changes in supply • broken pipes when transporting water Both water supply and the demand for water need to be managed.
  9. 9. In the UK there is a big issue with water supply. Areas which receive high amounts of rainfall tend to be sparsely populated. One third of the UK population live in south-east England. This is also the driest area in the UK.
  10. 10. Ways to manage the water supply include: • making sure the broken pipes are mended (as water loss from broken pipes can be as much as 30 per cent) • using reservoirs and dams in one area to pipe water into large urban areas • making sure that the water supply is of good quality - reducing fertiliser use on farms helps this In December 2010, over 40,000 people had water supply problems in Northern Ireland. One reason was because the water pipes were quite old - some over 60 years old. This meant that when there was a spell of very cold weather, many pipes could not cope and the pipelines failed.
  11. 11. The demand for domestic water can be monitored. Households with water meters in the UK use less water in general than those without. Households can also conserve water. Ways to do this are: • having a shower instead of a bath • collecting rainwater to use on the garden rather than tap water • recycling bath water to flush the toilets with • installing more efficient versions of appliances such as washing machines Industries can also look to recycle waste water. For example, when using water for cooling in steel-making, the water can be recycled again and again in the process. In agriculture, drip-feed irrigation systems could be used rather than sprinkler systems.
  12. 12. Much of Birmingham's tap water comes from over 100 km away. There are five dams in the Elan Valley which can supply Birmingham with 160 million litres of water a day.
  13. 13. Deep narrow valleys to hold the water in. Impermeable rock means the water wouldn't leak away. A high annual rainfall of 1,830 mm. The area is higher than Birmingham, so the water can flow using gravity rather than pumps.
  14. 14. Future expansion of the scheme raises problems. The local environment would be damaged. There would be increased traffic and noise from the construction of dams to provide extra capacity. The river flow downstream would be affected, along with the wildlife. Also more land would be affected when pipes are run across it.
  15. 15. There are problems in supplying water in LEDCs. These are: • lack of availability of clean water • diseases spread via the water supply • water pollution
  16. 16. One in eight people of the world population do not have access to safe water. 60 million children are born each year in LEDCs who do not have access to safe water. In LEDCs using appropriate technology is usually the best way to manage supply.
  17. 17. Women and children collecting drinking water from an artificial well in Senegal
  18. 18. Wells, dug by hand, are a common way of accessing water, but the supply can be unreliable and sometimes the well itself can be a source of disease. Gravity-fed schemes are used where there is a spring on a hillside. The water can be piped from the spring down to the villages. Boreholes can require more equipment to dig, but can be dug quickly and usually safely. They require a hand or diesel pump to bring the water to the surface.
  19. 19. In addition to locating new sources of water, some strategies help to reduce the need for water. These include: • harvesting (collecting) rainwater landing on buildings • recycling waste water to use on crops • improving irrigation techniques • growing crops less dependant on a high water supply • minimising evaporation of water
  20. 20. As LEDC cities grow, so does the demand for water. The problem doesn't end when water supplies have been improved and pipes put in place. The water has got to come from somewhere, and the source of supply may be scarce. It is LEDCs which have the lowest access to safe water.
  21. 21. Without safe water, people cannot lead healthy and productive lives. Areas which are in poverty are likely to remain in that way. One example where non-governmental charities have helped break this cycle is in Nigeria.
  22. 22. In Nigeria only 38% of people have access to sanitation. A community led total sanitation project (CLTS) was started by one non-governmental charity. In one year, the project helped 2.5 million people gain access to sanitation. Areas with poor infrastructure, high rates of illness and poverty were identified, and the charity worked with the local population in these areas. The teams worked with the people and educated them as to how poor hygiene and sanitation can make people ill. This included how it can also make others in the community ill. Toilets were built using local, affordable materials. Key people in the community led the work.
  23. 23. Jakarta in Indonesia has a rapidly growing population and water companies do not have the resources to supply reliable and safe water to everyone. This means that a large proportion of the population are drinking contaminated water and are vulnerable to disease. In addition, salt water is also contaminating groundwater, which is making the problem worse. This is a particular problem in shanty towns such as Marunda.
  24. 24. Like most shanty towns, Marunda lacks basic services such as water supply, sanitation and electricity. People there have a poor standard of living and a low quality of life. Conditions are crowded and disease spreads easily, contributing to low life expectancy and high infant mortality rates. In the past, people have relied on water from tankers or street sellers who charged high prices.
  25. 25. Child playing in polluted water in Jakarta, Indonesia
  26. 26. The Jakarta city authorities tried to invest in basic services but there was a lack of funding. They then sought investment from abroad. In 1999, Thames Water began a £60,000 project to bring piped water to Marunda. The project involved local people from the early stages to ensure that their needs would be met appropriately and that the project was sustainable.
  27. 27. By the year 2000, over 1,600 homes in Marunda had piped water. Water can now be obtained more cheaply, allowing money to be spent on food, clothes and education which is vital for the country's long-term prospects. There have also been health benefits because the risk of disease from contaminated water has been reduced.
  28. 28. This scheme was a success as it was sustainable and worked with the people to meet their needs. Not all schemes have been as successful as this one. The Pergau Dam in Malaysia, for example, was constructed in partnership with the British government with the aim of providing safe and reliable water and electricity. But it did not meet the needs of the poorest people and the scheme was an example of tied aid (this means that conditions were attached which did not benefit Malaysia's population).
  29. 29. A street vendor fills his containers with clean water at a pump station in Jakarta
  30. 30. appropriate technology Simple equipment and technology that the local people are able to use easily and without much cost. evaporation The process in which a liquid changes state and turns into a gas. irrigation When crops are artificially watered by sprinklers and irrigation canals due to a lack of rainfall. sparse Settled at widely-spaced intervals.