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What we’ll do todayHow to do researchHow to use library resources to do researchWhat resources to use when doing research
BibliographyAllows you to see what is out thereHelps you narrow your topic and discard any irrelevant materialsAids in developing the thesisMakes you a better scholar
How to do researchSTEP 1: IDENTIFY AND DEVELOP YOUR TOPICSTEP 2: FIND BACKGROUND INFORMATIONSTEP 3: FIND INTERNET RESOURCES*STEP 4: USE DATABASES TO FIND PERIODICAL ARTICLESSTEP 5: EVALUATE WHAT YOU FINDSTEP 6: PULLING IT ALL TOGETHERSTEP 7: CITE WHAT YOU FIND Seven Steps of the Research Process Amended with permission by the Librarians at the Olin and Uris Libraries of Cornell University
HOW TO DO RESEARCH IDENTIFY AND DEVELOP YOUR TOPIC •State your topic as a question •Identify main concepts or keywords •Test the topic -- Look for keywords and synonyms and related terms for the information sought Subject headings in catalogs Built-in thesauri in many databases Reference sources Textbooks, lecture notes, readingsSTEP Internet 1 Librarians, Instructors
•Highly structured information environment Way individual records are arranged Subject headings Catalog software optimized for above Deal with material in many formats•Implies heavy human involvement•Preparation relatively labor-intensiveEmphasis on precision•Implies a learning curve to use successfully
Libraries at ONU•Taggert Law Heterick MemorialLibrary Library•Library for Lawschool, Undergraduateaccessible to all Library, accessible to all
ONU ID is Library card EVA Eva Maglott 00021559801 Eva Maglott Please use all digits in your student ID number.
POLARThink of the call number asthe street address of thebook on the library shelves
FIND A BOOK∞POLAR •Looks in several locations (usually subject, article title, abstracts or contents) •Does not require an exact match •Generates comparatively large number of hits (not precise) •Good if you are not familiar with terminology •Look for the same or similar words which keep appearing
FIND ABOOK∞POLARItems” Click on the “Find Similar link found on each item record•Looks in one place – subject•Usually requires an exactmatch between your term anda pre-set list of terms•Precise•Can be used after keywordsearch has identified specificsubjects
Find a Book∞OhioLink Materials owned by all Ohio colleges, universities, several public libraries Ca. 10 million items Link from POLAR permits you to submit requests. Available from Heterick home page Most requests arrive in 2-3 working days No charge Limited to 100 items at a time MAY RENEW UP TO 4 TIMES
INTERNET TOOLS Does the information located satisfy the research need? Is the information factual and unbiased? See handout “Critically Analyzing Information Sources” the WritingSTEP Seminar Research Guide 3
Internet ToolsGoogle and Wikipedia aren’t intrinsically evil, just use them for the correct purpose in your research.
Internet Tools Google ScholarNote: Ifworking ONU buysoff Full-text database Google askscampus to link toplease see contentthe OhioLINK Permits“google Google to Run Googlescholar” link to full-text Scholartab at the SearchResearchGuide for ONU user sees licensed full-textWriting articlesSeminar
RESEARCH EVALUATE WHAT YOU FIND How to interpret the basics 1. Accuracy of Web Documents 2. Authority of Web Documents 3. Objectivity of Web Documents 4. Currency of Web DocumentsSTEP 5. Coverage of the Web Documents 5 Kapoun, Jim. "Teaching undergrads WEB evaluation: A guide for library instruction." C&RL News (July/August 1998): 522-523.
Critically analyzing web sources What? is the page/site about Who? created and maintains this site Where? Is the information coming from Why? Is the information presented on the web When? Was the page created or last updated How? Accurate or credible is the pageFrom the University of Wisconsin Library, worksheet for evaluating web sites
Often tools for locating journal and newspaper articles Most are subject-specific – some multi-disciplinary Many give access to full text of articlesSTEP Heterick has 240+ 4
Academic Search Premier Lexis-NexisJSTOR : the Scholarly Journal Archive Search by Subject/Discipline for subject specific databases
Find an Article Over 20,000 journals indexed, most are full text Divided by subject area offered at ONU Begin with a general database, Academic Search Premier
Find an Article Periodical means the same as MagazineUsually magazines are more “popular” Journals Scholarly or Professional Peer reviewed
Find an Article Reserve means the periodical/journal is held at the front desk. Current means the issue is new and is available on the open shelves beside the computer lab. All others are upstairs and arranged alphabetically by title. Bound means it’s out of the building Arrived means it’s on the open shelves Expected means it’s not here yet
HOW TO DO RESEARCH Pulling it all together Accuracy. If your page lists the author and institution that published the page and provides a way of contacting him/her and… Authority. If your page lists the author credentials and its domain is preferred (.edu, .gov, .org, or .net), and, … Objectivity. If your page provides accurate information with limited advertising and it is objective in presentingSTEP the information, and… 6
RESEARCH Pulling it all together cont… Currency. If your page is current and updated regularly (as stated on the page) and the links (if any) are also up-to-date, and… Coverage. If you can view the information properly--not limited to fees, browser technology, or software requirement, then… You may have a Web page that could be of value to yourSTEP research! 6
RESEARCH Cite what you find using standard formats There are 3 citation styles that are in frequent used at ONU. They are: •MLA (Modern Language Association) •APA (American Psychological Association) •CMS (Chicago Manual of Style)STEP 7
Research Ethics Copyright - intended to promote the arts and the sciences. It does this by providing authors of original literary, dramatic, musical, arti stic, and certain other intellectual works the ability to control how their work is used
Research Ethics Plagiarism - “...the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one’s own, the ideas or the expression of the ideas (literary, artistic, musical, mecha nical, etc.) of an other.” – see Heterick Help Page and
Research Ethics In other words, to plagiarize is to copy someone else’s work without giving him/her credit. Plagiarism is not always intentional. You can do it by accident, but it is still 1 against the law. If you ever have a question about whether something is plagiarized, please ask!1. How not to plagiarize your report -- Shannon Hosier Mersand
Research Ethics 2 How may I avoid plagiarizing? Identify any information that would not be considered common knowledge Unless in direct quotes, make sure you paraphrase what the original author said Use a quote if you can’t think of a way to paraphrase the information always, Always, ALWAYS cite the source of any information in your paper which is not considered common knowledge. If you are unsure if something is common knowledge, cite it! 2 How not to plagiarize your report -- Shannon Hosier Mersand
HELP Traci Welch Moritz, MLS Public Services Librarian Assistant Professor Heterick Memorial LibraryReference email@example.comLibrarians on 419-772-2473duty 419-772-21858a-4:30p Mon-Fri6p-9p Mon-Thur