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Flames summer school 2016 slides


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Flames summer school 2016 slides

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Flames summer school 2016 slides

  1. 1. LiteratureSearching Skills DemmyVerbeke
  2. 2. Structure The problem with information What makes information scientific? Where do I find scientific information?  How do I find scientific information?  How can I use scientific information? The problem with scholarly communication
  3. 3. The problem with information
  4. 4. The problem with information Information Overload
  5. 5. Every 60 seconds: • ca. 204 million emails • ca. 2,4 million Facebook posts • more than 4 million google searches • 72 hours extra audiovisual material on Youtube • 277.000 tweets • 216.000 instagram posts The problem with information
  6. 6. The problem with information Information pollution and/or falisification (consciously or unconsciously) bv.The Onion bv.The Daily Mash bv. De Speld
  7. 7. information overload, information pollution, information falsification  you need information literacy: (1) to find relevant information fast and efficiently (2) to be able to determine the reliability of the information found (3) to use the information found correctly and in an ethically acceptable manner Information literacy
  8. 8. Megan Stark, Information in Place: Integrating Sustainability into Information Literacy Instruction, 2011 Five standards for information literacy 1. The information literate student determines the nature and extent of the information needed 2. The information literate student accesses needed information effectively and efficiently 3. The information literate student evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system 4. The information literate student, individually or as a member of a group, uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose 5. The information literate student understands many of the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally Information literacy
  9. 9. Putting these standards into practice in research:  Identify research questions  Define search terms on the basis of a research question  Know and recognize various sources of information  Make a correct analysis of the differences between and the worth of each information source  Correctly determine the reliability and authority of each information source  Correctly interpret and use bibliographical references  Understand the social, ethical and legal implications of the distribution of information Information literacy
  10. 10.  Develop a search strategy that will get you reliable, scientific information as fast as possible and as complete as possible  Know what you are looking for, how you need to look for it and where to look for it  Searching without a strategy? => you waste time and get incomplete and/or unreliable results Information literacy
  11. 11. What makes information scientific?
  12. 12.  not dependent on one single criterion or label, but combination of  internal criteria  external criteria  the more criteria fulfilled, the more scientific/reliable the information Scientific nature of information
  13. 13. 1. structure 2. content 3. age 4. author’s profile Internal criteria
  14. 14.  title  author(s)  abstract and/or key words  introduction  corpus  conclusion  references/footnotes/endnotes  bibliography Internal criteria: structure
  15. 15. Internal criteria: structure
  16. 16. • Complete objectivity is an illusion: all information (i.c. publication) is coloured by he/she who provides that information (i.c. author) • Be wary of manipulation of facts: consciously twisting or hiding facts with the purpose of leading the reader to the conclusion(s) determined beforehand by the author Internal criteria: content
  17. 17. “giveaways”  Argumentation: use of personal or irrelevant arguments, ignoring or twisting the arguments of the opponent  Data: lack of factual data which can be checked  Language: frequent use of emotional style Internal criteria: content
  18. 18.  older publication? check if results have not been corrected or supplanted by more recent research  an older publication is not untrustworthy by definition  an older publication is less reliable if:  the topic it addresses is studied intensively and additional or corrective information is put forward on a regular basis  the topic itself is tied to a certain time/era Tip: look for recent publications, and supplement them with the most important older publications (check references) Internal criteria: age
  19. 19.  education (proof of training)  affiliation (proof of reliability + trust of peers) of course only an indication if the author stays within his/her field of expertise Internal criteria: profile of the author
  20. 20. 1. Judgment before publication 2. Judgment after publication External criteria
  21. 21. Peer review external check of a manuscript by specialists of the topic discussed; quite often anonymously in order to ensure objectivity e.g. “double blind peer review” External criteria: judgment before publication
  22. 22.  reviews  citations qualitative: repeat / confirm results => adds to the authority and the reliability of the work quoted quantitative: large number of citations indicates the impact of the work quoted ! NB: quotes can also be negative ! External criteria: judgment after publication
  23. 23. Basic questions  Was there a quality and reliability check before publication? (journal/publisher is an indication)  Does the author refer to sources?Which are his/her sources?  Does the author refer to sources in a correct and complete manner?
  24. 24. Do the CRAP test Currency How recent is the information? How recently has the website been updated? Is it current enough for your topic? Reliabilty What kind of information is included in the resource? Is content of the resource primarily opinion? Is it balanced? Does the creator provide references or sources for data or quotations? Authority Who is the creator or author? What is the publisher’s interest (if any) in this information? Are there advertisements on the website? Point of view / Purpose Is this fact or opinion? Is it biased? Is the creator/author trying to sell you something? Reliability of websites
  25. 25. Wikipedia  crowd-sourced: quality/reliability is dependent on the competence/honesty of the contributors and the quality of (possible) editorial intervention  problems with Wikipedia: Undue weight policy (Chronicle of Higher Education, 12/02/2012) Philip Roth andWikipedia (The NewYorker, 07/09/2012) Sexism onWikipedia (Huffington Post, 26/08/2013)
  26. 26. & ResearchGate  “facebook” for scholars  no quality check of papers which are posted  quite often working papers  copyright issues: who owns uploaded content?
  27. 27. Where do I find scientific information?
  28. 28. The role of libraries Providers of information: libraries Gate keepers of information: librarians Not only physical, but also digital libraries Not only physical, but also digital services
  29. 29. Public libraries:  primarily social role  selection of fiction and non-fiction for the general public  diverse public  in principal accessible to all Types of libraries
  30. 30. National libraries:  collect and preserve all publications which appear in a specific country, quite often also all publications about that country published elsewhere  frequently work with legally binding depot  often also cultural role, e.g. by highlighting the heritage of a specific country Types of libraries
  31. 31. Research libraries:  collection is built with the specific intention to support scientific research and teaching  reserved to researchers and students Types of libraries
  32. 32. The role of libraries  Libraries acquire sources of information (purchase, exchange, donation)  Libraries preserve sources of information  Libraries provide access to sources of information (catalogues, lending services, etc.)
  33. 33. Bibliographic database Bibliography (i.e. list of publications concerning a certain topic) in digital form Three sorts of bibliographic databases: 1. Bibliographic databases in the strict sense of the word 2. Citation databases 3. Full-text databases Bibliographic databases
  34. 34. Bibliographic databases (s.s.): Only contain bibliographic information (i.e. information on author of the publication, title of the publication, year/place of publication), possibly together with an abstract and a link to the location or a digital copy of this publication on another platform Bibliographic databases
  35. 35. Citation databases: do not merely contain the bibliographic reference, but also information about citations (i.e. other publications which quote this particular source of information) e.g.Web of Science: Integration of three citation indexes of journals with a high impact factor (Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index) Bibliographic databases
  36. 36. Full-text databases: do not only contain bibliographical references, but also a full text digital version of the publications in question • the full text is often itself fully searchable • some full-text databases only offer an archival collection, other only the most recent years Bibliographic databases
  37. 37. You use a bibliographic database if - You want to make a survey of studies available concerning a particular topic You do NOT use a bibliographic database if - You want to find out whether a specific institution provides access to a particular item Bibliographic databases
  38. 38. • Know which type of bibliographic database you are using (full-text or not?) • Know what the database offers and what not • Know what you are looking at: only the reference? only a snippet? full text? • Use multiple bibliographic databases • Get acquainted with the functionalisties of the databases which are most important for your research Bibliographic databases
  39. 39. Catalogues Catalogue provides a description of a book, a journal and/or other materials, together with where you can find it
  40. 40. Two types of catalogue 1. General catalogue e.g. catalogue of an institution (for example of the holdings of a specific research library) 2. Specialised catalogue e.g. catalogue of a specific type of material (for example books printed in England between 1473 and 1640, together with their current location) Catalogues
  41. 41. Examples of general catalogues - UniCat: unified catalogue of Belgian research libraries - Copac: unified catalogue of about 90 research libraries in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including the British Library - WorldCat: unified catalogue of more than 10.000 libraries worldwide Catalogues
  42. 42. You use a general catalogue if - You know what you are looking for and want to know where exactly you can find it - You want to find out what a particular institution has “on offer” concerning a particular topic You do NOT use a general catalogue if - You want to make an exhaustive survey of studies available concerning a particular topic Catalogues
  43. 43. Transition from catalogue to a “Unified Resource Discovery & Delivery System” Catalogues Limo
  44. 44. Journal appears periodically (e.g. every 3 months) contains articles, i.e. several (shorter) studies you typicaly want to access a particular journal article, but sometimes need to remember to search for the overarching journal instead the journal in which an article appears is typically seen as an element determining the importance of that article Types of publications
  45. 45. Collections of essays book that unites various short studies by one or several authors, typically centered around a specific topic or at the occasion of a specific event e.g. proceedings of a conference e.g. Festschrift Types of publications
  46. 46. Monograph book-length study, typically by one signle author, of a well defined scientific topic e.g. “the application of statistical process control in healthcare improvement in the Netherlands between 1985 and 2000” Types of publications
  47. 47. How do I find scientific information?
  48. 48. Looking for information The problem with general search engines (like Google):  search results are not checked for quality or reliability  commercial, statistic and nationalistic parameters determine the ranking of results; not their relevance or reliability  not all scientific information is available online  general search engines index only part of the internet
  49. 49. Side step: Googlization  Who’s in charge? “we are Google's products, not its users” (HaroldThimbleby)  Storing of personal data: “The problem is that we may like Google today, but it could go bad. Google knows too much about everyone for us to risk that.” (HaroldThimbleby)  Role of big companies in the distribution of information: “when business interest conflicts with the public interest, the public interest suffers” (cf. SteveWasserman, The Amazon Effect)
  50. 50. Side step: Googlization  Google: expansion of search engine to include many other services: e-mail, maps, pictures, google drive, ... Compare amazon: now also take-away (Metro 08/09/2016)  Googlization: domination of Google over all forms of the distribution of knowledge over the internet Cf. SivaVaidhyanathan, The Googlization of Everything – and WhyWe ShouldWorry (University of California Press, 2011)
  51. 51.  site: limit search to a specific domain or website  filetype: limit search to a specific document format  discussions: limit search to discussion fora Side step: extra tips and tricks for Google
  52. 52. research question → formulation of the problem formulation of the problem → key words key words → search terms Looking for information
  53. 53.  How much time did you get?  Realistic assessment of time you want/can spend on your search  How exhaustive does the result of your search need to be?  Sometimes you only need one piece of information or one article, sometimes you need a whole bibliography; sometimes you only need the most recent literature, sometimes you need to have a more complete view of the literature  What is the specific task?  Sometime syou only need to gather some literature, sometimes you need to study and compare it thoroughly Looking for information
  54. 54. From formulating the problem to keywords Key words = central notions in the formulation of the problem which form the basis of a query Looking for information
  55. 55. Example: Make a bibliography of scientific publications about the use of place names in the novels of the Brontë sisters Key words: place names, Brontë sisters Looking for information
  56. 56. From key words to search terms  Morfological variant (singular/plural, substantive/adjective, …)  Synonym  Translation  Narrower term  Broader term  Related term Looking for information
  57. 57. Example: Key words: place names, Brontë sisters  search term: bv. Brontë sister (morfological variant) bv. toponym (synonym) bv. Les Sœurs Brontë (translation) bv. Emily Brontë (narrower term) bv. nineteenth-century English novelists (broader term) bv.TheTenant ofWildfell Hall (related term) Looking for information
  58. 58. A good query = get a lot of relevant results and no irrelevant results with as few search terms as possible Looking for information
  59. 59. Four important ways to combining search terms: 1. Boolean operators 2. Truncation / wildcards 3. Exact word combination 4. Advanced search with specification of search fields See also the database search tips by MITLibraries Combining search terms
  60. 60. Boolean operator AND only information which contains both search terms !most search machines combine multiple search terms automatically with the Boolean AND-operator! use AND in a search to:  narrow your results  tell the database that ALL search terms must be present in the resulting records  example: cloning AND humans Combining search terms: Boolean operators
  61. 61. Boolean operator OR results which contain at least one of the search terms use OR in a search to:  connect two or more similar concepts  broaden your results, telling the database that ANY of your search terms can be present in the resulting records  example: cloningOR genetics Combining search terms: Boolean operators
  62. 62. Boolean operator NOT results that contain the first but not the second search term use NOT in a search to:  exclude words from your search  narrow your search, telling the database to ignore concepts that may be implied by your search terms  example: cloning NOT sheep Combining search terms: Boolean operators
  63. 63. Search order Be aware of the logical order in which words are connected when using Boolean operators:  Databases usually recognize AND as the primary operator, and will connect concepts with AND together first.  Use brackets to determine the priority of combining search terms Examples: ethicsAND (cloningOR reproductive techniques) (ethic* OR moral*) AND (bioengineeringOR cloning) Combining search terms: Boolean operators
  64. 64. Remember ‘And’ in colloquial language = Boolean OR-operator Combining search terms: Boolean operators
  65. 65. Combining search terms: truncation / wildcards Use truncation or wildcards  If you are using a root word as your search term, i.e. a word with multiple possible endings Example: sun, but also suns, sunshine, sunny, sunlight, sunscreen, etc.  If you want to use one search term to look for several search terms which only slightly differ in spelling Example: woman, women  If you know that there are several ways to spell a word, or you are uncertain of the spelling Example: color, colour
  66. 66. Truncation/wildcard symbols vary by database Common symbols include: *, !, ?, or # Check the help screens to find out which symbols are used. Combining search terms: truncation / wildcards
  67. 67. Combining search terms: truncation Truncation Truncation broadens your search to include various word endings and spellings (symbol used at the end of a word)  To use truncation, enter the root of a word and put the truncation symbol at the end  The database will return results that include any ending of that root word Examples: child* = child, childs, children, childrens, childhood genetic* = genetic, genetics, genetically
  68. 68. The trick is not to truncate to fast E.g. hum* will search for results containing humour, but it will also retrieve unrelated terms like human, humbug, humerus, hummus, etc. Combining search terms: truncation
  69. 69. Combining search terms: wildcards Wildcards Wildcards substitute a symbol for one letter of a word (symbol used within a word) This is particularly useful if you want to search for singulars as wel as plurals; and if a word is spelled in different ways, but still has the same meaning Examples: wom!n = woman, women colo?r = color, colour
  70. 70. Exact word combination (string search) Search terms between double quotes (“...”) => only results which contain these search terms in exactly the same order Combining search terms: string search
  71. 71. Records in databases (e.g. library catalogues) are comprised of fields containing specific pieces of (e.g.bibliographic) information Common fields include:  author  title  journal title  abstract  publisher  date/year of publication This structure allows you to perform an advanced search with specification of search fields Combining search terms: advanced search
  72. 72. Combining search terms: advanced search Search with more aim by filtering: e.g. if you are looking for books by Adam Smith instead of about him, it is more efficient to limit your search to the author field. Combine search terms smartly: e.g. author = “Tippett”, title = “statistics”
  73. 73. Tip: Use the Boolean AND-operator and avoid the Boolean OR- operator Tip:Truncate as late as possible Tip: Use advanced search to combine search terms smartly Tip: Use advanced search to search with more aim, using filters Help! I have too many results
  74. 74. Tip: Use synonyms, translations and morfological variants of your search terms and combine these with the Boolean OR- operator Tip: Use related terms and broader terms of your search terms and combine these with the Boolean OR-operator Tip: Use truncation or wild cards Help! I do not get enough results
  75. 75. A lot of databases / catalogues / platforms offer the possibility to repeat searches automatically and alert you when there are any new results Often two possibilities: 1. alert by e-mail 2. alert by RSS Types of alerts: 1. search alerts 2. TOC alerts 3. citation alerts Alerts
  76. 76. Search alerts = alert when there are new results for a specific query previously defined Alerts
  77. 77. TOC alerts = alert when a new volume of a specified joural (or specified cluster of journals) appears often with the table of contents of the new volume, hence the name (TOC = Table ofContents) Example: JournalTOCs Alerts
  78. 78. Citation alerts = alert to new citations, i.e. when a new publications quotes another, previously specified publication Alerts
  79. 79. How can I use scientific information? Scientific fraud and plagiarism
  80. 80. Scientific integrity Violations against scientific integrity (cf. KNAW advies Zorgvuldig en integer omgaan met wetenschappelijke onderzoeksgegevens, 2012) a) plagiarising (part of) publications or studies by others b) unrightfully take credit as author or co-author c) ignore or not sufficiently acknowledge the contribution of others d) falsify research results e) invent research results f) ignore reserach results which negate your thesis g) deliberately misuse (statistical) methods h) deliberately misinterpret research results i) make avoidable mistakes whilst conducting research
  81. 81. The “Stapel affair” (2011) negative spiral from manipulating to faking data
  82. 82. Other examples of scientific fraud  overview article in The Guardian, discussing a.o. the case of Dirk Smeesters  German minister of education quits amidst plagiarism scandal
  83. 83. Plagiarism “Plagiarism is a means of examination fraud consisting of every form of copying the work of others (ideas, texts, structures, images, plans etc.) without using adequate source references.This includes making identical copies as well as copying with slight differences.To apply these regulations, copying own work without a reference will also be counted as examination fraud.” (as defined at KU Leuven)
  84. 84. Plagiarism Plagiarism thus appears in different forms:  Copying another person’s text (almost) literally without indicating that the text is a quote and/or without an aduequate reference;  Paraphrasing another person’s ideas without an adequate reference;  Translating a text without an adequate reference;  Copying an image, scheme, graph, figure, audio or video fragment without an adequate reference;  Auto-plagiarism: re-using your own work without properly indicating that you re-used it.
  85. 85. Plagiarism Unintentional plagiarism can be avoided by: • Citing the source if you use the words of another literally, and correctly indicating this • Completely and correctly referring to the author whose words or ideas you are summarizing or paraphrasing You can distinguish between citation and paraphrase by following this flow chart (T. Frich, How to recognize plagiarism):
  86. 86. Plagiarism Plagiarism sometimes happens because of “laziness”, esp. in the internet age, since it has become very easy to find some information on the net and copy-paste it E.g. you find an earlier study which treats the topic you want to discuss very well, so you copy its structure => large dependence on the argumentation and structure of the original work, no new thesis or approach (so why write your piece in the first place?) E.g. you find an earlier study which treats the topic you want to discuss very well, so you copy whole passages, but to avoid just copying the whole work, you alternate these quotes with paraphrases => you create an inferior and derivative work and why write your piece in the first place? E.g. you find snippets of information which fit into your argument and copy/paste these (perhaps making small changes to “glue” these snippets together) and thus create a combination of original text with copied material => reader does not know who is responsible for what and this approach rarely leads to a tekst which reads as a whole
  87. 87. Plagiarism Method to avoid plagiarism: - Get acquainted with your topic based on a wide reading of available sources - Create your own mind map of what you want to say and the structure of your argument, defining your research problem and the proof you need to make and maintain your argument - Based on this structure, read more sources in detail and take careful notes (so that you always know what is in the sources and what are your own words/thoughts) - Write a draft version without your sources at hand, indicating in your draft where you will need to insert references and quotes - Only then flesh it out with quotes and paraphrases that support your own argument (structured by yourself), using complete and correcte references
  88. 88. Plagiarism A lot of unconscious plagiarism is the result of bad writing habits, such as not being careful and attentive whilst preparing a text (e.g. sloppy note taking)
  89. 89. References  balance needed between referencing too much (no plagiarism, but also not a readworthy text) and referencing too little (plagiarism)  no reference needed:  when you state a common known fact  when you provide information of your own (not published before)  reference wisely if you base a part of your tekst on one or a few sources  but of course: you ALWAYS need a reference when you are quoting or paraphrasing
  90. 90. References to copy references without having checked them yourself is also a form of academic fraud “academic urban legends”
  91. 91. References Referring to sources consulted can be done in several ways: references in the text references in footnotes references in endnotes bibliography
  92. 92. references in the text
  93. 93. references in footnotes
  94. 94. references in endnotes
  95. 95. different use for notes: extra explanation
  96. 96. References Several citation styles, but they all have the same 3 commands 1. Reference correctly 2. Reference completely 3. Reference consequently
  97. 97. How can I use scientific information? Copyright
  98. 98. Copyright Copyright right of the author/maker (or the potential beneficiaries, e.g. the heirs of the author/maker) to determine how, where and when a work of literature, science or art is made or reproduced
  99. 99. Copyright Public domain status of works (texts, images, etc.) which are completely free of copyright N.B.: often only 70 years after the demise of the maker
  100. 100. Open content  initiatives to make knowledge, information or art more freely available than what would be the case according to traditional copyright  e.g. Creative Commons: maker decides which type of license he/she gives
  101. 101. Creative Commons What are the Creative Commons?
  102. 102. Creative Commons Attribution (by) Others who use your work in any way must give you credit the way you request, but not in a way that suggests you endorse them or their use. If they want to use your work without giving you credit or for endorsement purposes, they must get your permission first. NonCommercial (nc) Others may copy, distribute, display, perform, and (unless you have chosen NoDerivatives) modify and use your work for any purpose other than commercially unless they get your permission first.
  103. 103. Creative Commons NoDerivatives (nd) Others may copy, distribute, display and perform only original copies of your work. If they want to modify your work, they must get your permission first. ShareAlike (sa) Others may copy, distribute, display, perform, and modify your work, as long as they distribute any modified work on the same terms. If they want to distribute modified works under other terms, they must get your permission first.
  104. 104. Creative Commons
  105. 105. Copyright Be careful when you sign an author’s contract (in other words READTHE CONTRACT): Sometimes you sign away part of your copyright to the publisher, so that you are no longer free to share your work as you may like
  106. 106. Copyright
  107. 107. The problem with scholarly communication
  108. 108. The problem with scholarly communication researchers often paid with tax money researchers produce manuscripts (often without extra payment) researchers do the intellectual part of the editing (often without extra payment): recruiting authors, filtering manuscripts, textual editing, peer review, read proofs, … publishers (sometimes) provide support for this editorial work, and handle the operational aspects of publication and distribution (although they also often enlist researchers to play a role in the distribution and pr)
  109. 109. The problem with scholarly communication however: large parts of the copyright are typically signed over to the publisher, esp. the right to make money on the finished product  what was produced (by researchers) thanks to tax money, consequently needs to bought (by libraries or individual researchers) with tax money  extreme example, which is unfortunately not rare: a researcher needs to pay in order to accesss the end result of his/her own efforts
  110. 110. difference between commercial scientific publishers (e.g. Elsevier) and non-commercial scientific publishers (e.g. certain university presses): trying to make profit vs. trying to be sustainable whilst serving science The problem with scholarly communication
  111. 111. “The amount of money paid by UK universities to subscribe to some large publishers’ journals has risen by almost 50 per cent since 2010” (‘Spending on subscriptions to journals rises by up to 50%’, 2014) The problem with scholarly communication
  112. 112. “The opposite of open isn’t closed but broken” Cristobal Cobo The problem with scholarly communication
  113. 113. “open access is good for article citations and, especially, online visibility” (‘OpenAccess papers gain more traffic and citations’, 2014) Scholarly communication
  114. 114. OpenAccess EBM What is Open Access?
  115. 115. Research results (publications, data, ...) (paid with public money) are made avilabe to everyone for free For free ≠ without restrictions (e.g. plagiarism) ≠ immediately (e.g. embargo) ≠ identical to the commercial version (e.g. preprint) OpenAccess
  116. 116. OpenAccess Green OA: Author archives version in a digital archive (‘repository’, e.g. Lirias) Gold OA: Author publishes in a OA publication (and sometimes pays for this – APC or BPC)
  117. 117. OpenAccess Danger of Gold OA: in the hands of commercial publishers, this is just another way to make profit  “double dipping”  excessiveAPC’s or BPC’s
  118. 118. Fair Gold OA (e.g. see LingOA) • The editorial board owns the title of the journals. • The author owns the copyright of his articles, and a CC-BY license applies. • All articles are published in Full Open Access (no subscriptions, no “double dipping”). • Article processing charges (APCs) are low (around 400 euros), transparent, and in proportion to the work carried out by the publisher. OpenAccess
  119. 119. OpenAccess
  120. 120. OpenAccess Challenges for non-commercialOA publishers:  researchers publish for reputation  developing a reputation takes time  predatory OA