Designing and Developing Curriculum 1RUNNING HEAD: DESIGNING AND DEVELOPING CURRICULUM Designing and Developing Curriculum or Instructional Content for Adult Learners, Part 2 Tiffany A. Simmons Strayer University May 29, 2011
Designing and Developing Curriculum 2 The faculty at the local college has been asked to attend a workshop on Bloom’staxonomy. They may have heard of it before when undergoing teacher certification requirementsor they may have read about it in their instructor textbooks. Unfortunately, many of them maynot understand fully how to apply the taxonomy to their own classroom environments-thus, theoverreliance on lecturing and teaching for memorization. This course is designed to steer themaway from this sort of teaching and toward teaching that emphasizes “higher-level thinking.” The course itself emphasized higher-level thinking, as the facilitator will not expectparticipants to listen to a lecture and memorize certain pieces of information. Instead, thefacilitator will ask the faculty to complete a project-a re-design of their course syllabi to includean activity that is geared toward higher-level thinking skills. The challenge is getting the facultyto recognize that they are actually teaching the same way they have been taught or have beentaught to teach. The current thought in education no longer supports that teaching style; instead,the focus is shifted toward the learner and not the teacher-and certainly not the content. Withthat, faculty must be prepared to transform their learning environments from that of a teacher-centered classroom to that of a learner-centered classroom, and the first step to doing that is toteach them how to apply Bloom’s taxonomy to their instructional practices. Previously, a content analysis and learning objectives were submitted to prepare for theplanning and implementation of the lesson. Within the body of this submission, the learningobjectives with associated learning activities and the lesson plan are included. These documentsare more specific about what will go on in the learning environment and what the faculty areexpected to do to demonstrate their learning. In this class, learners will discuss the taxonomyand give their thoughts on what it could mean for their own instruction and what level they teachto at the current moment. This could be potentially powerful information, if used the right way,
Designing and Developing Curriculum 3as it could inform what the professors and instructors perceive their possibilities to be.Afterward, the professors and instructors will view a slideshow that offers helpful hints onwriting effective learning objectives and developing appropriate activities. The main focus willbe on key verbs, the action words that signal what level of thinking and learning the learner willengage in. Using these key verbs, the professors and instructors will then design a learningactivity (complete with learning objectives with the appropriate key verbs) that engages theirclassroom of learners and uses the higher-level thinking skills. The final draft of this activity isdue in to the dean’s office before the semester ends. The dean not only wants to be assured thatthe participants are learning, but also wants to see something in writing that commits theprofessors and teachers to using their learning. In selecting an appropriate learning environment for the participants, it was decided that aconference room equipped with smart technology (the overhead projector, Internet hook-ups forlaptop computers) would be most appropriate. That way, if multiple technologies (thePowerPoint slide, online video, an overhead projector) were needed, the environment had theequipment and means to support the technology. With regard to seating arrangements, thetables were positioned so that each participant could see the projector and the presentation, andhave space and opportunity to interact with other participants, where appropriate. Special carewas also taken to ensure that there was plenty of light and adequate temperature controls so thatparticipants could be comfortable as they learned. The learning environment must be conduciveto learning so that each participant could give his or her maximum attention to the materialsbeing presented. The Vice President of Academic Affairs and the new dean are committed to providing anenvironment conducive to learning. Part of that commitment is ensuring that its faculty is
Designing and Developing Curriculum 4properly trained and up-to-date on current educational thought in order to deliver a qualityexperience for the learner. This class (or workshop) is designed to accomplish the latterobjective, and in an indirect way, reinforce the former. As classroom environments change, andeducational theories evolve, the college must be prepared to meet the challenges and seek outinnovative ways to educate the faculty, as well as the learner.
Designing and Developing Curriculum 5 Attachment E Learning Objectives with Associate Learning Activities To Apply Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives Learning Objectives Teaching Strategies Media and Materials Student ActivitiesBased on your Discuss lower-level Transparency “Where am I teaching?”understanding of and higher-level skills graphic organizer.Bloom’s taxonomy, by showing a sample Graphic organizerdistinguish between pyramid of Bloom’s This organizer will ask thelower- and higher- level taxonomy with the professor or instructor:skills with 100% complete order listed what level am I teachingaccuracy my students? Why? How Ask professors and can I teach them at a instructors which set higher level? What do I of skills are currently need to know to get them being used in their there? own classrooms and what needs to be done Have them share their to use more of the perspectives and introduce higher-level skills the presentation on “Writing Instructional Objectives” and explain why it is important to their learning.After viewing the Present “Writing Laptop computer and/ Identify the key verbs aspresentation “Writing Instructional or television that is presented in theInstructional Objectives: Objectives: Beginning technology- presentation, focusing onBeginning with the End with the End in Mind.” compatible to present the higher-level skills inin Mind,” identify three slide show the taxonomy.key verbs for each level(higher-level only) with Graphic organizer “Teaching at a higher100% accuracy level” graphic organizer. This organizer will ask: “what key verbs should I use to signal that I am teaching at a high level? What can I expect out of my students when I use these verbs? Discuss expectations when teaching at the higher levels. What would be the difference between what is currently being taught and
Designing and Developing Curriculum 6 what could be taught if the focus is shifted from the lower-level skills to the higher-level ones?After discussion on The instructors will be Pen and paper. Activity design: professorshigher-level thinking asked to design their and instructors will designskills and key verbs, own classroom activity their own activity thatdesign an activity that that uses higher- emphasizes higher-orderedemphasizes higher- ordered thinking skills. thinking skills. They mustordered thinking skills have used any of the keyusing correct key verbs verbs that denote use of one or more of the skills. This activity will form the basic structure of a proposal to be submitted to the dean.After designing the With the activity that Proposal form. This This activity will takeactivity, compose a they have designed, should be completed place outside the learningproposal for the activity each professor or and submitted in environment. Eachto be included in the instructor may review electronic form. This professor or instructor willcourse syllabus to be and revise what they will be available on complete the proposal formsubmitted to the dean have done and submit the college’s intranet with their activity by thebefore the end of the the final proposal in under the instructor’s end of the semester forsemester. the time frame portal. evaluation by the dean. specified.
Designing and Developing Curriculum 7 Attachment F Lesson Plan Cover PageTitle of the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive ObjectivesLesson:Target Professors/Instructors in a Post-Secondary/Adult Education EnvironmentPopulation:Length of 4 hoursInstruction:Textbooks and “Writing Instructional Objectives: Beginning with the End in Mind”ReferencesMaterials Pen, paper, graphic organizersNeeded:Media Needed: PowerPoint 2007 or compatible version, laptop computer or technology-ready televisionEquipment andToolsLearning Professors and instructors will integrate the principles of Bloom’s taxonomy inOutcomes: their classroom instruction.Evaluation Activity design, submission of final product to department dean, online surveyMethodologies: to assess course effectiveness.Approved by:Date:
Designing and Developing Curriculum 8 Lesson Plan for Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives INSTRUCTIONAL INSTRUCTOR ACTIVITIES STUDENT ACTIVITIES CONTENT (Instructional methods and strategies, questions to prompt students, instructional materials, and media)Based on your The facilitator will discuss Professors and instructors will beunderstanding of Bloom’s lower-level and higher-level asked to complete the graphictaxonomy, distinguish thinking skills by showing a organizer (supplied withbetween lower-level and sample pyramid of Bloom’s workshop materials), entitledhigher-level thinking skills taxonomy on an overhead “Where am I teaching?”with 100 % accuracy. transparency. The complete Professors and instructors use ten order will be listed on the minutes to complete the graphic transparency. The question will organizer and, afterward, will be asked “which skills are volunteer to share responses. currently being used in your The purpose of this activity is to classrooms? What needs to be bridge the gap between what they done so that the higher-level want their learners to learn and skills are being used more what the learners are actually often?” learning. This activity is designed to help professors and instructors see what they can do to improve the learning in their classrooms.After viewing the Before the presentation, the Another graphic organizer,presentation “Writing facilitator will render a brief entitled “Teaching at a higherInstructional Objectives: overview of the presentation level,” will focus on the keyBeginning with the End in and the purpose, so that the verbs and how to incorporateMind,” identify three key relevance of the material can be them into instruction. Theverbs for each level established immediately. following questions will be(higher-level only) with Show the presentation, using a listed: What key verbs should I100% accuracy. laptop computer or a use to signal that I am teaching at technology-ready television. a higher level? What can I Post-presentation, ask question: expect out of my students when I what main points were covered use these verbs? in the slide presentation? How can professors and instructors write better instructional objectives, targeting the higher- level thinking skills? What were the key verbs that were highlighted in the presentation? How can professors and instructors use them to improve the quality of their instruction?
Designing and Developing Curriculum 9After discussion on The facilitator will sum up what Professors and instructors willhigher-level thinking skills was discussed and learned, and need a pen or pencil and paper toand key verbs, design an ask professors to think of an complete this activity. They willactivity that emphasizes activity that is relevant to their design an activity that ishigher-level thinking skills course(s) and requires higher- appropriate for higher-levelusing the correct key level thinking skills. Each thinking skills. This activityverbs. professor or instructor will should be done collaboratively, design an activity (complete as input from other professors with learning objectives) that and instructors lends balance and utilizes higher-ordered thinking perspective to planning. skills, using the appropriate verbs.After designing the The facilitator will advise each Proposal forms will be availableactivity, compose a professor and instructor to on the college’s intranet, underproposal for the activity to continue work on the activity the instructor’s portal. Thebe included in the course outside the classroom activity that was initially begunsyllabus to be submitted to environment. A final proposal in the class should be finalized onthe dean before the end of for the activity will be due to the form.the semester. the dean by the end of the semester.
Designing and Developing Curriculum 10 References Winegarden, B. J. (2003). Writing Instructional Objectives. Retrieved May 19, 2011, from http://meded.ucsd.edu/faculty/writing_instructional_objectives.pdf.Writing Learning Objectives (2011). Retrieved May 19, 2011, from http://www.oucom.ohiou.edu/fd/writingobjectives.pdf.