Designing and Developing Content 1RUNNING HEAD: DESIGNING AND DEVELOPING CONTENT Designing and Developing Curriculum or Instructional Content for Adult Learners Tiffany A. Simmons Strayer University June 5, 2011
Designing and Developing Content 2 Learning objectives are linked to student mastery of the material because theireffectiveness is dependent upon whether students can demonstrate their understanding. Iflearning objectives describe “what a learner will be able to do when they complete a unit ofinstruction” (Dick & Carey, 2009), then an assessment will confirm or “deny” that the student isable to do what the objectives state. The assessment serves as feedback to the student and theinstructor because it indicates how well the learner accomplished the objectives and determineswhat instructional strategies worked and did not work (Dick & Carey, 2009). To complete theinstructional chain for the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives, the instructor of thecourse designed and implemented assessment procedures as a record to show that learning tookplace, and the objectives for learning were implemented and met by the students. Theinstructor provided four learning objectives, the activities that supported the objectives, andassessments that supported the learning objectives and the activities that followed. Each of the four learning objectives had three test items to aid students’ understanding ofwhat was covered. The first objective was thus: Based on your understanding of Bloom’staxonomy, distinguish between lower-level and higher-level skills with 100% accuracy. Thestudents will be tested on the following: what is Bloom’s taxonomy? What are the lower-leveland higher-level skills? Explain the difference between the lower-level skills and higher-levelskills. These test items are designed to assess the students’ knowledge of the taxonomy, theirability to identify the lower- and higher-level skills, and to distinguish between the lower- andhigher-level skills. These three test items aid the students in completing the first objective with100% accuracy.
Designing and Developing Content 3 The second learning objective requires students to view a presentation on the taxonomyand identify three key verbs for the higher-level skills only with 100% accuracy. Not only willthe second objective help students further understand the difference between what is being taughtin their classrooms and what the current educational thought is, but it will get them thinkingabout ways and means to raise the level of instruction in their classrooms. The students will beasked to give an example of three key verbs in each of the higher-level skills on the taxonomy,write a learning objective that uses each verb, and explain how this objective will help theirlearners use higher-level thinking skills. The idea is to move them past the familiarlecture/memorization theme that runs in their classrooms (or at least see that this is going on) anddevise a way to include their learners in the learning process. The second objective will lead tothe third objective, a discussion on the higher-level skills and the key verbs that are used witheach. The third objective will have the learners designing their own learning objectives andlearning activities in support of the higher-level skills in the taxonomy. The students will thinkabout what activities would be appropriate for the classroom and their area of instruction, and atthe same time, are supportive of the higher-level skills on the taxonomy. The students willcompose a learning objective that is relevant to the activity and uses the key verbs that werediscussed in the presentation. Finally, the students will explain what skills their learners willachieve with the activity. This initial foray into the activity design will lead to a revision in thesyllabus. In the final objective, students will be asked to implement their activity of choice intotheir course syllabus. Each student will compose a proposal for the activity on the proposal form available inthe instructor portal on the college’s intranet system. On this proposal, they will describe the
Designing and Developing Content 4activity, how it supports the course’s learning objectives, how it supports the educationalmission of the college, and, finally, how will the activity be assessed? The finished proposal willbe submitted to the dean by the end of the semester. The Vice President of Academic Affairs has given the new dean the awesome task oftraining the faculty on new educational approaches. Although old habits are difficult to break,and the resistance level of the faculty will be high, the new dean remains optimistic. The newdean is confident that the level of instruction will help to overcome the resistance, create newhabits, and meet with the approval of the VP. With that, the dean looks forward to implementingthe instructional plan and is excited about what will be learned and how it will change theclimate for learning at the college.
Designing and Developing Content 5 Attachment G Learning Objective and Test Item Template Learning Objectives Test Items Test Item Test ItemBased on your A blank pyramid of On the same paper, On a separate piece ofunderstanding of the taxonomy. students will identify paper, students willBloom’s taxonomy, Students will be asked the lower- and higher- explain the differencedistinguish between to complete the level skills on the between the higher-lower- and higher- taxonomy in order taxonomy. and lower-level skillslevel skills with 100% and explain whichaccuracy level is being used in their classrooms.After viewing the On an electronic On a sample lesson How will this learningpresentation “Writing assessment to be plan, students will objective help learnersInstructional administered after the write a learning use higher-levelObjectives: Beginning presentation, students objective that skills? This should bewith the End in will correctly identify corresponds with one explained as part ofMind,” identify three the key verbs, as of the key verbs and the sample lessonkey verbs for each noted in the one of the higher- plan, as this questionlevel (higher-level presentation, for the level skills. will be listed on it.only) with 100% higher-level skills.accuracyAfter discussion on What activities would Compose a learning What skills will yourhigher-level thinking be appropriate for objective, using the learners achieve withskills and key verbs, higher-level skills? key verbs, that is this activity?design an activity that This activity will be appropriate for theemphasizes higher- recorded on a graphic higher-level skills.ordered thinking skills organizer supplied in This will also be onusing correct key their materials. the graphic organizer.verbsAfter designing the What activity have How does this activity How will you assessactivity, compose a you chosen for support your learning this activity? Shouldproposal for the inclusion in your objectives? How does be on the proposalactivity to be included course syllabus? this activity support form.in the course syllabus Students will record the institutionalto be submitted to the this on the proposal mission? This willdean before the end of form that they have to also be recorded onthe semester. submit to the dean. the proposal form.
Designing and Developing Content 6 ReferencesDick, W., Carey, L., and Carey, J. O. (2009). The Systematic Design of Instruction (7th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.