Atlanta smart grid presentatin 8 30 2011 r3
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Atlanta smart grid presentatin 8 30 2011 r3 Atlanta smart grid presentatin 8 30 2011 r3 Presentation Transcript

  • Electric Energy StorageTechnology Options for theElectric Enterprise Overview of Status, Application Value and U.S. ActivitiesDan RastlerElectric Power Research InstituteSmart Grid: A 360 View of Battery StorageAtlanta, GAAugust 30, 2011
  • Discussion Outline • Drivers for Electric Energy Storage Solutions • Landscape of Electric Energy Storage Options • Overview of US activities • Quantification of Application Value • Paving the way for Storage Solutions • Summary© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
  • Drivers for Electric Energy Storage Solutions• Managing Increased Wind and PV Penetration on the Grid• Ancillary Services – Support Renwables; Optimal use of Fossil Units• Grid Asset Management – Managing Grid Peaks,T&D Capital Deployment, Outage Mitigation• Increasing the value of Distributed Photovoltaic systems• Enhancing the value of a Smart Grid: Peak Energy Management© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
  • Industry Drivers for Energy Storage Solutions Operating Challenges: Variability & Uncertainty High Levels of Wind and Solar PV Will Present an Operating Challenge!© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 4
  • Operating Challenges Will Continue to Increase…. 2009 MW (000s) 2018 MW (000s) 350 450 Installed Capacity 1,044 GW Installed Capacity 1,453 MW Wind Capacity 28 GW Wind Capacity 256 GW 400 300 350 250 300 200 250 150 200 150 100 100 50 50 0 0 Coal Hydro Dual Wind Biomass Solar Coal Hydro Dual Wind Biomass Solar Fuel Fuel Gas Nuclear Oil Pumped Geothermal Gas Nuclear Oil Pumped Geothermal Storage Storage NERC 2018 Resource Projection© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 5
  • Industry Driver for Energy Storage Solutions Increased Penetration of Photovoltaics on the Grid Concerns: Customer Load Customer PV (-) • Voltage Fluctuations • System Protection • Power Quality • Increased Duty • Impact on Demand 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Hour ANSI Upper Limit After PV Voltage Substation ANSI Lower Limit Before PV Substation Distance End of Feeder PV© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 6
  • Industry Driver: Grid Infrastructure Investments for Delivery and Reliability • Cost of Power Disturbances to the US Economy $ 180 B/year • Cost of a massive blackout ~ $ 10 B / event • CapEx in Transmission Investments ~ $ 10 B / 2011 • CapEx in Distribution Investments ~ $ 20 B /yr 2010 growing to $ 35 B /yr by 2030 • By 2030, the electric utility industry will need to make a total infrastructure investment of $1.5trillion to $2.0 trillion. (+ $15.5 B with Renewable Penetration) What if we could Store and Deliver Electricity “when and where” it was needed?© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 7
  • Current Landscape Energy Storage Penetration is Very Small Worldwide installed storage capacity for electrical energy Compressed Air Energy Storage Pumped Hydro 440 MWs Sodium-Sulphur Battery 316 MWs Lead-Acid Battery ~35 MWs 127,000 MWel Nickel-Cadmium Battery 27 MWs Fly Wheels < 25 MWs Over 99% of Lithium Ion Battery total storage capacity ~20 MWs Redox-Flow Battery Source: Fraunhofer Institute, EPRI < 3 MWs© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 8
  • Electric Energy Storage Options – Not Complete UPS T&D Grid Support Bulk Power Mgt Power Quality Load Shifting Pumped Hydro Hours CAESDischarge Time at Rated Power Flow Batteries: Zn/Cl Zn-Air ZrBr VRB PSB New Chemistries NaS Battery Adv. Lead Acid Battery High Energy Super Caps NaNiCl2 Battery Li-Ion Battery Minutes Lead Acid Battery NiCd NiMH Seconds High Power Fly Wheels High Power Super Caps SMES 1 kW 10 kW 100 kW 1 MW 10 MW 100 MW 1 GW System Power Ratings, Module Size © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 2010 9
  • Overview of Energy Storage Solutions Bulk to Distributed Storage Solutions in the Smart Grid MWs to kWs: seconds, min, hours of energy duration© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 10
  • EPRI Testing Several Emerging Battery Storage Systems in Knoxville, Tn© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 11
  • EPRI - TVA SMART Charging Project Knoxville, TN •EV Charging site with 6 charge  stations that are assisted by PV and  battery storage. •GSB’s scope included providing:  • (3) 10kW battery charger/inverters  (Silent Power OnDemand)  • 3 sets of (48) SLC70‐4 batteries for  a total of 960Ah (46.08kWh) of  storage© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 12
  • U.S Energy Storage Grid Integration Activities SustainX 1 MW / 4 MWh Isothermal CAES MA / NH DTE 500 kW / 250 kWh Li-ion MI (A123) NYSEG 145 MW Adv. CAES Watkins Glen, NY (EPRI) PGE 5 MW / 1.25 MWh Li-ion Salem, OR (EnerDel) NGrid 500 kW / 3 MWh ZnBr NGrid 500 kW / 3 MWh ZnBr Everett, MA (Premium Power) Syracuse, NY (Premium Power) PJM 20 MW Flywheel Chicago, IL (Beacon) SMUD 500 kW / 3 MWh ZnBr Sacramento, CA (Premium Power) DTE 500 kW / 250 kWh Li Ion MA (A123) 25 kWh Li-ion SMUD 5 kW / 9 kWh Li-ionBerkeley, CA (Seeo) (Saft) KCP&L Li-ion Kansas City, MO (Dow Kokam, Siemens) 25 MW Zn-Air Flow Battery Carnegie Melon Na Ion Modesto, CA (Primus) Pittsburgh, PA (Aquila) Amber Kinetics Flywheel Fremont, CA (LLNL) AEP 2 MW Li-ion for CES OH (International Battery, S&C) PG&E 300 MW Adv. CAES Kern County, CA (EPRI) 250 kW / 1 MWh SCE 8 MW / 32 MWh Li-ion Iron / Chrome flow battery Tehachapi, CA (A123) Modesto, CA (Ktech Corp ) PNM Adv, Lead Acid Albuquerque, NM (East Penn) Duke 20 MW TBD Wind Support Notrees, TX DOE and Utility Funded Energy Storage Demonstrations in the U.S.
  • What Utilities Are Doing in Energy Storage Current / Planned U.S. Li-ion Demonstrations Auto Major Contract DTE: 500 kW No Auto ContractPGE: 5 MW / (A123) 1.25 MWh *Size of star indicates (EnerDel) AEP: 2 MW scale of demo (Int’l Battery) NYPA: 1 MW / 250 kWh (Ultralife Corp) AES: 1 MW / 250 kWh (Altairnano)SMUD: 5kW / Duke Energy: 25 kW & 250 kW 9kWh (Kokam) (Saft) KCPL: 1 MW (Dow Kokam)SCE: 8 MW / 32 MWh (A123) Southern Co: 60 kW / 240 kWh (GreenSmith TS) SCE: distributed Li-ion Battery OEMs systems, 10 kWh each UCSD: 15 kWh • A123Systems (LG Chem) (Sanyo) • AltairNano • EnerDel • Saft APS: 0.5 MW • Dow Kokam (Electrovaya, ABB) Progress Energy: 5 kW/ 20 kWh • International Battery HECO: 5 kW / 20 kWh • GreenSmith / Thundersky (GreenSmith TS) (GreenSmith) • Sanyo •Ultralife •Electrovaya © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 14
  • NaS Battery at Xcel – Luverne, MN • 1.25 MVA / 1.0 MW – Outdoor Installation • Wind smoothing • Dispatched wind • Peak shaving • Energy arbitrage© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 15
  • NaNiCl2 Battery Systems Application for PV Smoothing in Tuscany PLC, Display, 30kW Bidirectional Fan, Charger InverterZEBRAbattery Courtesy of Fiamm © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 16
  • NaNiMx ~ 1 MW / 2 MWh Courtesy of General Electric© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 17
  • Advanced Lead Acid Battery Xtreme Power 1.5 MW / 1 MWh© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 18
  • Flow Battery Systems Decouple Power &Energy / Positioned for >5 hrs storage Zn / Br Systems • 0.5 MW / 2.8 MWh Prototype Others include: – Vanadium Redox – Fe / Cr – Zn / Cl – Zn / Air© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 19
  • Li-ion Battery Systems Being Deployed in High Value Applications© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 20
  • Global Li-ion Production Capacity will be at a Scale to Enable Utility Grid Applications Confluence Industry Drivers Use of a Common Storage Platform© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 21
  • Energy Storage Key Asset in Smart Grid• Costs and Benefits of Smart Grid (EPRI 1022519) March 2011• Net Investment*: $ 338 – $ 476• Net Benefit*: 1,294 – 2,028• Benefit-to-Cost: 2.8 – 6.0* Billion $© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 22
  • EPRI identified 10 key applications along the entire electric value chain … the list is not comprehensiveWhole Sale Energy Services Stationary T&D Support C&I Energy Mgt Home Energy MgtRenewable Integration Transportable T&D Support C&I PQ and Rel. Home Back-up Distributed Storage ESCO Aggregated ISO System Level Utility Grid Support Customer Energy Mgt © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 23
  • Energy Storage Systems must be able to realize multiple operational uses across the energy value chain Benefit Utility Type Time End User Distribution Transmission System ISO Higher Value for Energy Storage Energy Energy T&D Energy ($/kWh) Management Investment Renewable Arbitrage ($/kWh) Deferral Integration System Reliability Capacity ($/kW) Minutes Reliability Discharge Capacity Renewable Higher Value for Power Smoothing Ancillary ($/kW) Services ($/kW) Power Seconds Operations T&D System Support Quality ($/kVAR & DESS $/kW) 10s kW 100s kW 10s MW 100s MW Size of Application© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 24
  • Summary of Application Value Analysis Total Resource Cost Test (TRC) Customer- Side Applications* Caveat: Energy storage systems to address each application will vary in cost, depending on DESS size, location, and system power-to-energy ratio. Substation Grid Support Best economics for near-term utility-scale storage Frequency Regulation*Values calculated from customer perspective. Value: $/kW-h of usable energy storageTOU rates and demand charge savings represent loss of utility revenue© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 25
  • Gap Analysis Benchmarking Value to Storage System Cost Trans T&D Support • Summary of Energy Storage $2,500 Cost Options from EPRI’s detailed Cost Data Base $2,000 Present Value $/kW-h (AC) $1,500 • Benefit / Cost Gap Analysis for each application $1,000 $500 • Analytic foundation for utility benefit & cost value analysis $0© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 26
  • Paving the Way for Storage Solutions • EPRI’s goal: Safe, reliable, cost- effective, grid-ready energy storage solutions – Identify where storage brings the most value – Define clearly what the storage system has to do – Test, evaluate, and validate the storage product – Determine the effects on the grid – Assess the true value of storage in real-life applications.© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 27
  • Paving the Way for Storage Solutions Storage must be a complete product... Power Conditioning System Balance of Plant • DC to AC conversion • Data acquisition and controls • Charging control • Thermal management • Reactive power • Physical structure management Storage Energy • Shipping and Installation • Integration point to the grid Storage Storage All components must be safe, reliable, low-cost, and seamlessly integrated© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 28
  • Paving the Way for Storage Solutions Storage must be integrated with the grid Grid Smart Grid Operations • Regulatory framework • Communications and control Energy protocols • Market framework Storage • Object models • Operational algorithms • Cybersecurity • Protection schemes • Understanding capacity Distribution implications Infrastructure • Islanding • Interface with public and local agencies© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 29
  • Paving the Way for Storage Solutions Storage must make economic sense For Photovoltaic Illustration Peak Shift Customer Side Only Demand Peak Applications Reduction Regulation Services Market Balance of Plant Voltage Support Applications Inertia Support Power Electronics Power Quality and Reliability Rate Based Battery Cost T&D Upgrade Deferral Applications Costs of Benefits of Storage Storage© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 30
  • Summary Key EPRI Energy Storage Resources • Key Reports: • Electric Energy Storage Technology Options: A White Paper Primer on Applications, Costs and Benefits (EPRI 1020676) • Executive summary (EPRI 1022261) • Functional Requirements for Electric Energy Storage Applications on the Power System Grid (EPRI 1022544)© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 31
  • Summary• Storage will be a key asset in the Smart Grid• Grid Energy Storage Deployment is in its Infancy• CAES – lowest cost (near-term) option for Bulk Storage > 10 hrs; Large Demos Planned.• Li-ion – potentially lowest cost (longer- term) for distributed storage < 4 hrs• Several new technologies in the pipeline that look promising for significant cost reduction - stay in tuned!• Work Together to Pave the Way for Energy Storage Solutions!© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 32