Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Resd technologies-epri

812 views

Published on

PQ Forum 2011 proceedings http://www.leonardo-energy.org/power-quality-forum-2011-tue-eindhoven

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Resd technologies-epri

  1. 1. EPRI’s Evaluation of RESD Technologies Bill Howe, P.E., CEM Manager, Power Quality EPRI Retrofit Energy Saving Devices (RESD) Common Claims • Improved power factor • Reduced harmonics • Improved voltage imbalance • Reduced electrical current levels • Cooler device operation • Prolonged motor and other device life • Improved voltage level (higher or lower) • Quick payback • Improved energy efficiency – 10%, 20%, or even 30% energy cost reductions are common in vendor literature© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 1
  2. 2. Case Study – Paper Plant Comparing Year 1 kWh to the same months in Year 2 (Before & After Installation of the technology) Year 1 kWh Year 2 6000 4,876 5000 4,479 4000 3000 Change Y1 to Y2: -8.2% 2000 1000 0 Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun MonthsProposed conclusion: The new technology saved this facility over 8% on its energy bill © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Further examination of Energy Use: Year 3 (No Further reported change in Technology) kWh Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 6000 4,876 5000 4,479 4000 4,032 3000 2000 Change Y2 to Y3: -10% 1000 0 Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Months • The further reduction of 447 kWh per month (nearly 10%) is unexplained, and apparently achieved with no installation of additional new technology. • Based on the techniques used in the original analysis, this plant improved efficiency more by doing nothing than by spending money on a new “energy saving” technology. © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 2
  3. 3. Case Study – Fabric Plant Measurements: Before / After Energy Use Energy Use per Batch (no technology) Energy Use per Batch (with technology) Production Production Batch number (kg) kWh Batch number (kg) kWh 1 907 181 9 901 173 2 911 185 10 791 174 3 914 190 11 933 174 4 907 184 12 764 176 5 911 180 13 912 176 6 796 188 14 911 178 7 769 181 15 908 179 8 770 180 16 912 180 Average of data 860 183 Average of data 879 176 Average kWh/kT 213 Average kWh/kT 201 Difference (before/after) -6%© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Another look at the Data: Baseline kWh 192 190 188 186 184 Average 182 (213.3 kWh/ton) 180 178 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 Kilos of Product© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 3
  4. 4. Another look at the Data: “After” kWhkWh 181 180 179 178 177 Average 176 175 (200.6 kWh/ton) 174 173 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 Kilos of Product© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Case Study – Packaging Facility Calculations that don’t add up – Savings Estimates for a packaging plant’s main transformers • KVA reduction for T1 = sqrt(3) * V * I = 1.732 * 480 * 206 = 171 kVA • KVA reduction for T2 = sqrt(3) * V * I = 1.732 * 480 * 401 = 333 kVA • Finding errors of this type is common© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 4
  5. 5. Case Study – Fox 10 News Story, Phoenix Arizona Sunday December 14th, 2008 Without Capacitor Based RESD Year Before With Capacitor Based RESD Current Year Source: Deal or Dud Story FOX10 News, Phoenix Arizona Sunday December 14th, 2008 www.myfoxpheonix.com http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZrTVxNxuHao© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 CDD Analysis of Phoenix 2007-2008• As shown with the representation of the CDD Data 2007-2008 Cooling Degree Days (CDD), 2007 2007 2008 required more cooling then 2008 did 1000 900 – From www.degreedays.net 800 700 – Airport: Phoenix, AZ, US 600 (112.01W,33.43N), Weather station 500 400 ID KPHX 300 – This is one reason for the difference 200 100 shown on the utility yearly 0 April May June July August Septemeber October November statement.• What other changes were possibly made in the home? Home Owner Energy Bill October 2008 – This is by no means a controlled experiment – More energy efficient appliances? – Cooking at home more a given month than eating out? – CFLs replacing incandescent? – Work schedules? – Changes in habits – Etc.© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 5
  6. 6. EPRI RESD Research • EPRI is has an ongoing research project to evaluate retrofit energy savings devices (RESDs). – RESD Phase I - Completed – RESD Phase II - Ongoing • The research findings and analysis confirm the need for independent measurement and verification of retrofit energy savings devices. © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 EPRI Residential Test Stand Setup (240Vac Cap Hook Up) 200A Panel L1 N L2 Energy Saver Unit To Common Household 120Vac 35 MicroF 35 MicroF Loads: 240VAC 240VAC CFLs & Incandescent Lights Window Air Conditioners Flat Screen TV & DVD Player PC and Monitor Blower Fans Refrigerator To 240Vac Fan MotorTests show savings range from 1 to 20 watts. © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 6
  7. 7. 240V Fan Example • This test involved a loaded 240V fan • Data was recorded with the fan running as normal • The Capacitor based RESD unit was then added to the circuit • Data was recorded with the Capacitor based RESD unit in the circuit© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Power Summary-240 V Fan • For residential purposes, with No KVAR KVAR Unit % the unit in the system, there unit Unit Difference Difference was an energy savings of 0.09%. • KVA and VAR‟s more than Watts 735.02 734.37 0.65 0.09% doubled due to the added capacitance. – Leading PF VA 756.552 1547.512 790.96 51.11% • Average %Ithd without the Unit is 2.18% • Average %Ithd with the Unit KVAR 178.97 -1362.14 (1,541.11) 113.14% is 9.63% – Harmonic Sink© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 7
  8. 8. Nola’s Clever Motor Controller Popular Science, July 1979© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Applications for MVCs • These technologies work best on motors that are lightly loaded. • Three Phase: – Escalators, MG sets, conveyors, mixers, grinders, crushers, granulators, saws, metal scrappers, shredders, slicers, stamping presses, balers, and lathes • Single Phase: – Clothes washer, clothes dryer, fans, blenders, saws, sanders, slicers, conveyors, and compressors© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 8
  9. 9. EPRI Test Setup Eddy Current Brake 20 Hp 480V Motor Waveform MVC RESD Data Recorder Image Monitor Power Quality Meter Tri-Mode Brake Sag Generator Controller Mikron Infrared Camera© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Example Test E2 – 25% Load w/ MVC Enabled • Test Start: – Energy Saving mode enabled – Brake coupled and loaded to 25% • Typical Input Measurements • 480 VAC • 8.35 Amps / phase • 2.66 kVA / phase • 2.03 KVAR / phase • 3.45 kW Total • Pf 0.48 • 32.2 C (Max Temp) • Δ Temp = - 3.4 C • 20.1 Hp motor, 15 kW full load – Approx 3.45 kW load – 23% Loaded – Δ Power = - 280 W • PQ meter (top) and thermal camera (bottom) snapshots taken in the last 5 minutes before finish© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 9
  10. 10. Conclusion • In EPRI‟s tests we have found the following: – Capacitor-based RESDs appear to save little-to-no net energy, especially when connected away from loads – Motor Voltage Controllers can save energy on lightly loaded motors. • Tests show up to 25% savings in lab tests • Payback can be less than three years for long operation at very light load (< 25%) and high electricity rates – Lighting Voltage Controllers can save energy when applied to compatible ballasts • EPRI tests results range from 9% to 25% • Typical Paybacks likely from 3 to 6 years noted based on based on electricity rates • The RESD II project continues as we look forward to testing additional devices based on funding.© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Favorite Quotes from over the years • “The technology doesn‟t work in the lab … it only works in the field.” • “The technology works at very high frequencies, so normal instruments can‟t be used to measure it‟s benefits” • “The technology converts reactive power to real power AND power factor is improved.” • “The technology interacts with the whole system to make it more efficient.” • “The technology „settles in‟ over time, so efficiency just keeps getting better and better.” • “We don‟t really know how it works. Not even the inventor knows how it works.” • “I hate talking to engineers … they ask too many difficult questions.”© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 10
  11. 11. “Extraordinary claims, require extraordinary evidence” -- Carl Sagan© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 11

×