RENEWABLE     ENERGY:SOLAR POWER   The Technology &     Agilent Solution
Agenda What is solar power? Solar market Solar system Solar panel produce process Solar panel test condition  - Cell ...
What is SOLAR(Photovoltaic) POWER?                        -                            + - + - + - + -                    ...
Outlook for 2011 PV capacity                                                                             Change vs. 22GW ...
Outlook of Korea PV market                                                          Solar cell sales                      ...
Solar system type Off-grid connected                              DC                                        AC            ...
Element of Solar System example                                  Power company                 DC              AC   Solar ...
Element of Solar System example                                  Power company                 DC              AC   Solar ...
Solar Cell Type                                       Solar Cell                                                          ...
Solar Panel production process            Ingot &  Poly Si    Wafer    PV Cell    PV Module         PV Array              ...
Solar Panel production process            Ingot &  Poly Si    Wafer    PV Cell       PV Module          PV Array          ...
Solar Panel production process              Ingot &  Poly Si      Wafer    PV Cell       PV Module          PV Array     E...
Solar Panel Test Condition STC(Standard Test Condition) – Incidence Irradiance : 1000Watts/m2 – Temperature of Solar cell...
Solar Panel Test Requirement                                         I-V test           Temperature measure               ...
Solar Panel Test Requirement                                 I-V test                               KS C IEC 60904-1
Solar Cell and Module Electrical TestBasics(illuminated) • Open-circuit voltage (Voc) • Short-circuit current (Isc) • Maxi...
Solar Cell and Module Electrical Test Basics(dark)  • Cell diode properties  • Cell shunt resistance            Diode     ...
Measure Cell/Module I-V curveHigh power(up to 600W)         Med power(up to 100W): N3300 Electric Load          : 661xC or...
Testing Solar Cells and Modules with ElectronicLoads                       N3300A                                  6060B/6...
Testing Solar Cells and Modules with ElectronicLoads Electronic loads typically have three modes of operation:  Constant ...
Testing Solar Cells and Modules with ElectronicLoads          Under 2Volt, Electronic Load can’t provide current          ...
Testing Solar Cells and Modules with ElectronicLoads                 N330xA’s ability to draw current is reduced at volta...
Testing Solar Cells with a Two-Quadrant PowerSupply  The Agilent 661xC and 663xB DC source families provide:   High measu...
Testing Solar Cells with a Two-Quadrant PowerSupply                                      Solar cell electrical            ...
Testing Solar Cells with Paired Two-Quadrant PowerSupply
Testing Solar Cells with SMU(U2723A)                                                                      20V             ...
Testing Solar Cells with SMU(U2723A)                      Channel Configuration   Graph Display                           ...
Testing Solar Cells with SMU(N6784A)                                                                                    +2...
Testing Solar Cells with SMU(B2900A)                                                            20V                       ...
Testing Solar Cells with SMU(B2900A)Single View: Set IV sweep pa rameters interactivelyGraph View: Characterize IV curves ...
Testing Solar Cells with SMU(B2900A)Agilent B2900A Quick IV measurement software is furnished for free!   You can easily ...
Testing Solar Cells with SMU(B1505A)                                                 HCSMU                                ...
Advanced Test Environment for Solar Cell EvaluationMeasurement solution example forparallel measurement andcontrol of othe...
EasyEXPERT Solar Cell Application Tests
Solar Cell Test ExampleC-AC Voltage Plot                    Drive-level Capacitance                    Profile (DLCP)     ...
Solar Panel Test Requirement           Temperature measure                                 Switching                      ...
Temperature Measurement and switching with34970A                            34970A                            data acquisi...
Temperature Measurement and switching with34980A            34980A multifunction switch/measurement unit                  ...
PS-X10-100Solar Cell I-V Test System TUV Taiwan used Quickly characterize a solar panel    • Capture an I-V curve 100 po...
Element of Solar System example                                       Power company                 DC                   A...
Inverter system Type       MPPT            Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking  Traditional system     Micro Inverter...
What need to test for inverter?      Photovoltaic I V Characteristics  I                Rsh                               ...
E4360A Solar Array Simulator                                        E4360A Solar Array Simulator                          ...
Summary               PV Cell                           PV Module                   Temperature           InverterUnlit I-...
Talk IT_ Agilent_최석근_110818
Talk IT_ Agilent_최석근_110818
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Talk IT_ Agilent_최석근_110818

  1. 1. RENEWABLE ENERGY:SOLAR POWER The Technology & Agilent Solution
  2. 2. Agenda What is solar power? Solar market Solar system Solar panel produce process Solar panel test condition - Cell and module I-V test - Temperature test and Switching Inverter performance test Summary
  3. 3. What is SOLAR(Photovoltaic) POWER? - + - + - + - + - + Cross-Section of a PV cell When a photon is absorbed by a semiconducting material, it increases the energy of a valence band electron, thrusting it into the conduction band. The conducting band electron then produces a current that moves through the semiconducting material.
  4. 4. Outlook for 2011 PV capacity Change vs. 22GW will be added this year Country 2010 1 Germany -  Rapidly falling module price  Establishing incentives in new markets 2 Italy -  Planned cuts in existing markets by year’s end 3 USA +1 4 China +5 Europe : FLAT 5 Japan +1  Overall Europe will be down -1% 6 France -1  But still have 70% of global installation 7 Australia +3  Except 4 of top 10 country, Europe ranked 11 to 15 of top country 8 India +8 9 Spain -2 Asia : Roaring 10 Canada +2  China lead market with just-unveiled national FIT PV Installation Top 10 Country and Golden Sun Program Source : IMS Research
  5. 5. Outlook of Korea PV market Solar cell sales Solar cell portion of renewable energy Installation amount Compared with WW market 72 times increase Installation scale Solar plant power sales Source : Hanaif.re.kr 145.3% rapidly growth over 5 years  Due to RPS(Renewable Portfolio Standards), Korea Solar market will be increase  2012 RPS volume settled as 32.3MW  Korea Hydro and Nuclear power : 21MW  KOSEP: 4.3MW, KOIMPO: 4.0MW, KWP: 3.0MW
  6. 6. Solar system type Off-grid connected DC AC Solar Panel Battery Inverter Loads Grid connected Power company DC AC Solar Loads Panel Inverter
  7. 7. Element of Solar System example Power company DC AC Solar Panel Inverter Loads Grid-connected system
  8. 8. Element of Solar System example Power company DC AC Solar Panel Inverter Loads Grid-connected system Today focus area
  9. 9. Solar Cell Type Solar Cell Compound Silicon Semiconductor Ⅱ-Ⅵ: Ⅲ - Ⅴ: Tandem : Amorphous Crystalline Group GaAs/GE, CIS, CdTe GaAs, InP GaAlAs/GaAs Polycrystalline Organic, DyeSingle Crystal Poly Crystal Thin Film Solar Cell Thin Film Solar Cell
  10. 10. Solar Panel production process Ingot & Poly Si Wafer PV Cell PV Module PV Array Crystalline Silicon Solar Panel
  11. 11. Solar Panel production process Ingot & Poly Si Wafer PV Cell PV Module PV Array Energy Conversion Installation in Cell and Modules Crystalline Silicon Solar Panel
  12. 12. Solar Panel production process Ingot & Poly Si Wafer PV Cell PV Module PV Array Electrical Energy Conversion Installation test need in Cell and Modules Crystalline Silicon Solar Panel
  13. 13. Solar Panel Test Condition STC(Standard Test Condition) – Incidence Irradiance : 1000Watts/m2 – Temperature of Solar cell : 25℃ – AM(Air Mass) : 1.5 PTC(PVUSA Test Condition) – Incidence Irradiance : 1000Watts/m2 – Temperature of Ambient : 20℃ – AM(Air Mass) : 1.5 – Wind speed : 1m/s
  14. 14. Solar Panel Test Requirement I-V test Temperature measure Switching STC : KS C IEC 60904-1 KS C IEC 60891
  15. 15. Solar Panel Test Requirement I-V test KS C IEC 60904-1
  16. 16. Solar Cell and Module Electrical TestBasics(illuminated) • Open-circuit voltage (Voc) • Short-circuit current (Isc) • Maximum power output of the cell (Pmax) • Voltage at Pmax (Vmax, Vmp) • Current at Pmax (Imax, Imp) • Conversion efficiency of the device (η) Solar cell I-V curve • Fill factor (FF) = Pmax / (Voc * Isc) • Cell diode properties • Cell series resistance • Cell shunt resistance Solar cell DC circuit equivalent
  17. 17. Solar Cell and Module Electrical Test Basics(dark) • Cell diode properties • Cell shunt resistance Diode Solar cell Dark I-V curvePV module PCS LoadsPerformed to ensure cell quality meets Solar cell DC circuit equivalentrequirments and to ensure the cell is defect free
  18. 18. Measure Cell/Module I-V curveHigh power(up to 600W) Med power(up to 100W): N3300 Electric Load : 661xC or 663xB 2-quad source N6060B/6063B Electric Load -Low power (up to 20W) High performance +: N6784A 4-quad SMU semiconductor parameters U2723A 4-quad SMU : B1500A B1505A B2900A
  19. 19. Testing Solar Cells and Modules with ElectronicLoads N3300A 6060B/6063B Features that make the N3300A Series electronic loads ideal for solar test: High power handling capability in a compact unit: the 1,800-W N3300A is a full-rack unit and the 600-W N3301A is a half-rack unit. The 6060B and 6063B provide power handling capabilities of 300 W and 250 W and share most of the features and specifications of the N330xA family. Simultaneous channel measurements and simultaneous current, voltage, and power measureme nts from a single channel for high-throughput testing Built-in digitizer can make measurements of current or voltage vs. time Temperature coefficient specifications make calculating accuracy for outdoor testing easy High input stability to prevent oscillations in test setup High-impedance external sense capability PV Cell PV Module
  20. 20. Testing Solar Cells and Modules with ElectronicLoads Electronic loads typically have three modes of operation: Constant Current (CC), Constant Voltage (CV), and Constant Resistance (CR) Electronic loads are a great solution for solar module testing because of their wi de power range and ability to sink large amounts of current CV mode for I-V curve tracing allows stepping through voltages incrementally and to measure the current output of the module under test N3302A N3303A N3304A N3305A N3306A N3307A 0-30A 0-10A 0-60A 0-60A 0-120A 0-30A Input 0-60V 0-240V 0-60V 0-150V 0-60V 0-150A rating 150W 250W 300W 500W 600W 250W Resolution 1mV 4mV 1mV 2.5mV 1mV 2.5mV (CV mode)
  21. 21. Testing Solar Cells and Modules with ElectronicLoads Under 2Volt, Electronic Load can’t provide current which should be consummated
  22. 22. Testing Solar Cells and Modules with ElectronicLoads  N330xA’s ability to draw current is reduced at voltag e levels below 2 V. At 0 V, no current can flow into th e load. Adding a simple power supply in series with the N330xA optimizes performance.
  23. 23. Testing Solar Cells with a Two-Quadrant PowerSupply The Agilent 661xC and 663xB DC source families provide:  High measurement accuracy  Fast response  Great output stability  Low price For solar cell tests that demand four-quadrant type measurements, Agilent DC sources can be easily configured with minor switching overhead to be used like four-quadrant devices. PV Cell PV Module
  24. 24. Testing Solar Cells with a Two-Quadrant PowerSupply Solar cell electrical characterization test setup configured to capture the I-V curve of a solar cell Solar Cell I-V Curve Solar cell electrical characterization test setup configured to capture the reverse bias electrical characterization of a solar cell Reverse bias region of solar cell
  25. 25. Testing Solar Cells with Paired Two-Quadrant PowerSupply
  26. 26. Testing Solar Cells with SMU(U2723A) 20V -120mA 120mA -20V Working Range  3-channel USB SMU with ±20V, ±120mA each (7.2W max)  4-quadrant operation  High current sensitivity of 100pA with 16 bit resolution  0.1% basic accuracy, good for static measurement  Comes with embedded test scripts – with 2 programmable list for each channel.  Higher throughput with parallel output and shorter rise and fall time. PV Cell
  27. 27. Testing Solar Cells with SMU(U2723A) Channel Configuration Graph Display Program Memory Editor Available Commands Command Settings Commands to be Executed Up to 100 commands IV Curve Interface
  28. 28. Testing Solar Cells with SMU(N6784A) +20V -1A +1A -6V +6V -3A +3A - 20V N6705B N6784A Working Range  Up to 4 channel SMU with ±20V in one mainframe(N6705B)  4-quadrant operation  High current sensitivity of 100pA with 16 bit resolution  Can measure from 100nA to 3A at up to 200k samples/s  High load capacitance up to 150uF PV Cell
  29. 29. Testing Solar Cells with SMU(B2900A) 20V -3A 3A -20V Working Range  Range of up to 210 V and 3 A (DC)/10.5 A (pulsed) provides wider coverage for testing a variety of devices  Measurement resolution of 10 fA and 100 nV offers better source and measurement performance  Quick bench-top testing, debug and characterization PV Cell
  30. 30. Testing Solar Cells with SMU(B2900A)Single View: Set IV sweep pa rameters interactivelyGraph View: Characterize IV curves on the fr ont panelRoll View: Display data Dual View: in time domain See all set and meas as a strip chart ure values with all di gits displayed
  31. 31. Testing Solar Cells with SMU(B2900A)Agilent B2900A Quick IV measurement software is furnished for free!  You can easily make measurements without writing a program Setting Graph Spread Sheet
  32. 32. Testing Solar Cells with SMU(B1505A) HCSMU C-Vdc 40A (2xHCSMU) 20A  Four-quadrant  From 10fA/2uV 40V  Up to 40A/3,000V C-f  I-V, C-V  GPIB port  Prober control HVSMU 8mA 3000V PV Cell PV Module
  33. 33. Advanced Test Environment for Solar Cell EvaluationMeasurement solution example forparallel measurement andcontrol of other instruments/equipment
  34. 34. EasyEXPERT Solar Cell Application Tests
  35. 35. Solar Cell Test ExampleC-AC Voltage Plot Drive-level Capacitance Profile (DLCP) I-V forward
  36. 36. Solar Panel Test Requirement Temperature measure Switching KS C IEC 60891
  37. 37. Temperature Measurement and switching with34970A 34970A data acquisition switch unit  Three-slot mainframe with a built-in 6½ digit digital multimeter  Each channel can be configured independently to measure one of 11 diff erent functions without the added cost or hassles of signal-conditioning accessories  Eight optional plug-in modules to create a compact data logger, full-featu red data acquisition system or low-cost switching unit
  38. 38. Temperature Measurement and switching with34980A 34980A multifunction switch/measurement unit  Eight-slot mainframe  Includes an optional built-in 6½ digit DMM.  21 optional plug-in modules available • Various switch matrices • MUXs 34980A • General-purpose configured switching modules 34980A features that make it a good fit for solar cell test systems: Up to 560 2-wire multiplexer channels or 4096 matrix cross-points in one mainframe Switch current carrying capabilities up to 8 A Built-in Ethernet, USB 2.0, and GPIB connectivity, standard connectors, and software drivers for most common programming environments Lower cost than a comparably configured PXI-based switching solution Optional built-in 6½ digit DMM lets you make measurements at greater than 3000 rea dings/second Switch relay counters help predict end of switch life Temperature measurement capabilities with thermocouples, RTDs, or thermistors
  39. 39. PS-X10-100Solar Cell I-V Test System TUV Taiwan used Quickly characterize a solar panel • Capture an I-V curve 100 points in 10 ms • Up to 30 A • Monitor Reference junction 0.1 nA resolution • Monitor temperature
  40. 40. Element of Solar System example Power company DC AC Solar Panel Inverter Loads Grid-connected system Inverter test
  41. 41. Inverter system Type MPPT Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking Traditional system Micro Inverter Power Optimizer(DC to DC) Micro Inverter Power optimizer VDC VDC MPPT MPPT VDC VAC VDC VDC VDC MPPT VDC MPPT VAC VDC VDC VDC MPPT MPPT VDC VDC VAC Internet Internet Inverter Inverter MPPT House AC MPPT House AC House AC
  42. 42. What need to test for inverter? Photovoltaic I V Characteristics I Rsh Inverter MUST Track Maximum power point for maximizing power Decreasing Rsh Decreasing Increasing However Light Intensity Temperature Rs Panel condition should be changed by Increasing Rs - Irradiation level - Temperature V - Angle of Incidence No Shadow Module Current No bypass diodes Module Voltage
  43. 43. E4360A Solar Array Simulator E4360A Solar Array Simulator  2 outputs in 2U  510W or 600W per output E4360A  65V, 8.5A or 130V, 5A standard outputs  Series or Parallel operation for more V or IFeatures that make the E4360A Solar Array Simulator ideal for inverter test: Remote sensing – reproduce I-V curve right at the desired location 3 ways to define I-V curve – meet a variety of needs  Parameter - tests such as compliance standards at minimum, nominal, and maximum rated voltage  Table – simulate almost any I-V curve such as shadow on individual solar cells  Offset – easily simulate changes in temperature or illumination List mode – up to 512 parameter based curves (list steps) can be paced with dwell times Accurate I-V curve reproduction – test Maximum Peak Power Tracking circuitry and algorithms Data Logging – simultaneous V & I measurements allow for power calculation to confirm proper simulation
  44. 44. Summary PV Cell PV Module Temperature InverterUnlit I-V Characterization < 1A Unlit I-V Characterization < 1A Temperature Inverter Input test• U2722A/U2723A • U2722A/U2723A • 34970A • E4360A•B1500A Precision Characterization • B1500A Precision Characterization • 34980A Solar array simulatorLit I-V Characterization 3A – 6A Lit I-V Characterization >6A Mux Power component test• B1505A Precision Characterization • Loads and PS • 34970A • B1505A• 2–6631Bs anti-series connection • B1505A Precision Characterization • 34980A Precision Characterization• Load and PS

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